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Ailmemts & Remedies

Repetitive strain injury(RSI)

Alternative Names:Repetitive stress injury, Repetitive motion injuries, Repetitive motion disorder (RMD), Cumulative trauma disorder (CT), Occupational overuse syndrome, Overuse syndrome, Regional musculoskeletal disorder

Definition:

Repetitive strain injury (RSI)  is an injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces), or sustained or awkward positions.

The term “repetitive strain injury” is most commonly used to refer to patients in whom there is no discrete, objective, pathophysiology that corresponds with the pain complaints. It may also be used as an umbrella term incorporating other discrete diagnoses that have (intuitively but often without proof) been associated with activity-related arm pain such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, DeQuervain’s syndrome, stenosing tenosynovitis/trigger finger/thumb, intersection syndrome, golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylosis), tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis), and focal dystonia.

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Finally RSI is also used as an alternative or an umbrella term for other non-specific illnesses or general terms defined in part by unverifiable pathology such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), Blackberry thumb, disputed thoracic outlet syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, “gamer’s thumb” (a slight swelling of the thumb caused by excessive use of a gamepad), “Rubik’s wrist” or “cuber’s thumb” (tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or other ailments associated with repetitive use of a Rubik’s Cube for speedcubing), “stylus finger” (swelling of the hand caused by repetitive use of mobile devices and mobile device testing.), “raver’s wrist”, caused by repeated rotation of the hands for many hours (for example while holding glow sticks during a rave).

Although tendinitis and tenosynovitis are discrete pathophysiological processes, one must be careful because they are also terms that doctors often use to refer to non-specific or medically unexplained pain, which they theorize may be caused by the aforementioned processes.

Doctors have also begun making a distinction between tendinitis and tendinosis in RSI injuries. There are significant differences in treatment between the two, for instance in the use of anti-inflammatory medicines, but they often present similar symptoms at first glance and so can easily be confused.

Types of RSIs that affect computer users may include non-specific arm pain or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD). Conditions such as RSI tend to be associated with both physical and psychosocial stressors.

Symptoms:

The following complaints are typical in patients who might receive a diagnosis of RSI:

*Short bursts of excruciating pain in the arm, back, shoulders, wrists, hands, or thumbs (typically diffuse – i.e. spread over many areas).

*The pain is worse with activity.

*Weakness, lack of endurance.

In contrast to carpal tunnel syndrome, the symptoms tend to be diffuse and non-anatomical, crossing the distribution of nerves, tendons, etc. They tend not to be characteristic of any discrete pathological condition.

1.The users experience constant pain in the hands, elbows, shoulders, neck, and the back. Other symptoms of Repetitive Stain Injury are cramps, tingling, and numbness in the hands. The hand movements of the user may become clumsy and the person may find it difficult even to fasten buttons.

2.Another variant of Repetitive Strain Injury is that, it may produce painful symptoms in the upper limbs, but the site may be difficult to locate.

3.The common diagnoses seen in Repetitive Strain Injury are Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Tenosynovitis, Bursitis, White Limb, and Shoulder pain. A major cause is due to long unbroken periods of work. Ergonomics or the lack of it plays a very important role. Lack of information about the condition leads to neglect by the concerned individuals.

Frequency :A 2008 study showed that 68% of UK workers suffered from some sort of RSI, with the most common problem areas being the back, shoulders, wrists, and hands.

Physical examination and diagnostic testing; The physical examination discloses only tenderness and diminished performance on effort-based tests such as grip and pinch strength—no other objective abnormalities are present. Diagnostic tests (radiological, electrophysiological, etc.) are normal. In short, RSI is best understood as an apparently healthy arm that hurts. Whether there is currently undetectable damage remains to be established.

Causes:

RSI is believed by many to be caused due to lifestyle without ergonomic care,  E.g. While working in front of computers, driving, traveling etc. Simple reasons like ‘Using a blunt knife for everyday chopping of vegetables’, may cause RSI.

Repetitive Strain Injury occurs when the movable parts of the limbs are injured. Repetitive Strain Injury usually caused due to repetitive tasks, incorrect posture, stress and bad ergonomics. Repetitive Strain Injury generally causes numbness, tingling, weakness, stiffing, and swelling and even nerve damage. The chief complaint is the constant pain in the upper limbs, neck, shoulder and back.

The main cause of this main are the repetitive activities, forceful activities of arms and hand and awkward postures. The other causes of Repetitive Strain Injuries are sitting in a fixed posture and poor workplace ergonomics.

Other typical habits that some sources believe lead to RSI

*Reading or doing tasks for extended periods of time while looking down.

*Sleeping on an inadequate bed/mattress or sitting in a bad armchair and/or in an uncomfortable position.

*Carrying heavy items.

*Holding one’s phone between neck and shoulder.

*Watching TV in incorrect position e.g. Too much to the left/right.

*Sleeping with head forward, while traveling.

*Prolonged use of the hands, wrists, back, neck, etc.

*Sitting in the same position for a long period of time.

Diagnosis:

Repetitive task and stress affects the body parts causes RSI. An instance of this is using a screwdriver, if you keep using the screwdriver without a break, you feel your wrist become restricted and you feel pain and you may also experience the loss of movement. This is the initial stage of RSI.

RSI, or should we say the group of syndromes that make up repetitive strain injury only affects the back, neck and arms. A lot of people without even realizing may suffer with RSI.

You may have had pains in your wrists or arms that you explained as being tired if you are working on an assembly line or you’re an avid musician who can’t put their guitar down. These pains are more than likely the initial RSI symptoms.

Judging the Symptom:

The problem in diagnosing repetitive strain injury is the fact that is can be hard to judge the symptoms, after all RSI is just a name given to a group of different conditions that are all related in some way to the affects we attribute to RSI.

Not only do we have this issue, we also have the problem that some of the symptoms related with repetitive strain injury are found in other, more dangerous conditions such as angina.

Even though RSI only affects the upper torso and limbs, the symptoms can in fact appear in the lower half of the body; this is due to the vertebral nerves that can be affected in some cases so the pains appear in the legs.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common out of all the syndromes that make up the condition called RSI.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that affects the median nerve situated in the carpal canal in the wrist, when the same movement is carried out frequently it can cause the tendons also situated in the carpal canal to become inflamed and compress the nerve causing pain and tightness causing loss of movement.

The most famous out of all the syndromes that make up repetitive stress injury is carpal tunnel syndrome because it affects a lot of people who spend long periods on the computer without supporting their wrists appropriately.

Other Conditions:

There are some conditions that the every day layman may be aware of golfers elbow, which is called medial epicondylitis, or like tennis elbow, which is officially called lateral epicondylitis.

You should visit your doctor if you suffer with pains, aches, stiffness, numbness or tingling sensations in your back, arms, wrists or hands. While RSI is not life threatening it can affect you more than you think.

Eventually without visiting a medical professional the symptoms can become ever worse, or you may even find the RSI could be something more risky. Learn more about ergonomics at safecomputingtips.com.

Treatment :
Most common and simple measure of treatment, which is more common sense than anything is painkillers and anti inflammatory pills, these are available over the counter at any good pharmacy.When taking painkillers and anti inflammatory pills it is important that you rest the affected area, just because the pain is not there it doesn’t mean the condition has instantly been resolved.Another simple measure is speaking to your employer, you may find they have guidelines to work towards that may mean you can get some support in alleviating your condition. This means your work place may be assessed and improvements implemented.You can get a simple support bandage from your local pharmacy to help add strength to the affected area, if it is your wrist or arm. You may need to purchase a special keyboard and/or mouse or get speech recognition software in order to prevent further irritation to your injury.Speech recognition software is a great alternative for those who suffer due to computer work, speech recognition software works by the software writing what you say for you.Your medical professional might possibly prescribe that you wear an orthopedic hand brace. You don’t want to wear one of these if your doctor doesn’t. it because it could lead to further injury.Therapy:Your doctor may prescribe physical therapy, a physical therapists role is to develop and maximize the movement of the body, and this can also include the provision of aids to alleviate symptoms.

Another prescribed therapy your doctor may request is occupational therapy, it may sound like occupational therapy and physical therapy are very similar but there are differences.

Occupational therapy helps develop and maintain the skills required to carry out all the general functions needed to live a comfortable life.

Occupational therapy includes assessing what a persons requirements are and supporting them with offering recommendations on adapting to their living or working space and offering simple exercises to regain movement.

Alternative Treatment:

Deep body massages have been reported to work wonders for those suffering with repetitive strain injury as it works deep into the body’s soft tissues like the muscles and tendons where the pain comes from.

Soft tissue therapy is a type of therapy that works by decompressing the area surrounding the RSI. This will increase your circulation and aid in healing. They may also try biofeedback. This is generally used to reduce tension in the muscles in your shoulders and neck.

Some people have reported that slow martial arts like Tai Chi can have a dramatic affect on their condition because they work on specific movements and improve strength and flexibility.

Surjury:

As a last resort, the medical professional might recommend to have surgery. one should keep in mind that it doesn’t always work and he or she  will be left without the use of one’s hand and arm for a long time. The above treatment methods have been proven to help heal even the worst types of RSI disorders when they are done correctly.

You may click to see the using of modern ergonomics in home office

Exercise:

Exercise decreases the risk of developing RSI.

*Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve posture.

*In light of the fact that a lifestyle that involves sitting at a computer for extended periods of time increases the probability that an individual will develop excessive kyphosis, theoretically the same exercises that are prescribed for thoracic outlet syndrome or kyphotic postural correction would benefit an RSI sufferer.

*Some sources[who?] recommend motoric exercises and ergo-aerobics to decrease chances of strain injury. Ergo-aerobics target touch typists and people who often use computer keyboard.

Resuming normal activities despite the pain:

Psychologists Tobias Lundgren and Joanne Dahl have asserted that, for the most difficult chronic RSI cases, the pain itself becomes less of a problem than the disruption to the patient’s life caused by

*avoidance of pain-causing activities

*the amount of time spent on treatment

They claim greater success from teaching patients psychological strategies for accepting the pain as an ongoing fact of life, enabling them to cautiously resume many day-to-day activities and focus on aspects of life other than RSI

Psychosocial factors:

Studies have related RSI and other upper extremity complaints with psychological and social factors. A large amount of psychological distress showed doubled risk of the reported pain, while job demands, poor support from colleagues, and work dissatisfaction also showed an increase in pain, even after short term exposure.

For example, the association of Carpal tunnel syndrome with arm use is commonly assumed but not well-established. Typing has long been thought to be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, but recent evidence suggests that, if anything, typing may be protective. Another study claimed that the primary risk factors for Carpal tunnel syndrome were “being a woman of menopausal age, obesity or lack of fitness, diabetes or having a family history of diabetes, osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, smoking, and lifetime alcohol intake.
Prevention:
Risk of RSI can be reduced a lot by warming up and cooling down the muscles used, taking regular breaks throughout the day, having an appropriate workstation and seating position, and practising relaxation. If the job puts one  at risk of RSI he or she should seek out expert advice on prevention from your employer or professional body.

Repetitive Stress Injury symptoms when found, people should seek medical attention as early as possible. Measures that can be adopted to avoid Repetitive Stress Injury at an individual level include:
Position: The recommended position to sit in front of a computer is semi-reclined with the forearms resting in a cradle or on an extension of the keyboard support to prevent Repetitive Stress Injury.

There should be ample support for the back. The hands should be free and point in the direction of the forearms. The feet should rest on the ground or feet support. The distance of the monitor should be 18 inches or more and at a slightly lower level than the eye level. Using these measures Repetitive Stress Injury caused out of position can be avoided.

Hydration: The Repetitive Stress Injury can be prevented by drinking adequate fluids to keep the tendons and soft- tissues soft.

Shortcuts: Using keyboard shortcuts and less of mouse is the most effective preventive method to avoid Repetitive Stress Injury. Touch the ergonomic keyboard softly and do not pound at it. The wrist should rest on the table or wrist rest.

Telephone use: Don’t cradle the telephone between the face and shoulder while working, as this can lead to neck strain.

Messages: Don’t use the computer while conveying messages in person or through the intercom.

No games:One of the main Causes of Repetitive Stress Injury is Games. Games or surfing at work may increase stress on your hands. So games should be avoided.

Preventive Measures at the Organizational Level for Repetitive Stress injury :
Organizations that use computers in a big way can also adopt certain preventive measures for avoiding Repetitive Strain Injury to their employees. These include:

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1.You need to educate your employees on the importance of adopting a proper posture which is one of the main cause of Repetitive Stress Injury.
2.Ensure that all your employees are using quality ergonomic furniture that will save loss of working hours by guaranteeing full comfort of the employees.
3.Give periodic reminders through lectures and audio-visual presentations by medical professionals on the importance of taking good care of health while using computers and Repetitive Stress Injury.
4.Try to avoid computer as much as possible: use voicemail instead of sending e-mail. Go for a walk or watch a movie instead of playing video games. Its better go for a book instead of searching the Web. You are in the danger zone for Repetitve Stress Injury if you are using a computer for as little as two hours a day.
5.Adjust your workstation properly. Make sure your monitor is directly in front of you, with the top of the screen at eye level. Be sure your keyboard (Ergonomic Keyboard) and mouse (Ergonomic Mouse) are low enough to allow you to relax your shoulders.
6.Sit up straight. Make sure your chair supports your spine in an erect position as it is the one of the main causes of Repetitive Stress Injury.
7.Practice proper technique: never rest your wrists on the desk, wrist pad or armrests while you are typing or using a mouse or trackball.
8.Pace yourself. Take a 5-to-10 minute break every 20 minutes and limit your overall time at the computer.
9.Get regular cardiovascular exercise.
10.Do appropriate upper-body strengthening and stretching exercises.
11.Stretch frequently while at the computer.
12.Do not work at the computer or other hand-intensive activities if you are experiencing pain, fatigue or soreness.
13.Avoid using the mouse and trackball whenever possible. Use keystrokes instead for preventing Repetitive Stress Injury.
14.When symptoms of Repetitive Stress Injury are set in, consult an orthopedic surgeon. If you find of the symptoms of Repetitive Stress Injury mentioned above, do not make the diagnosis yourself. The diagnosis will be made from the history and clinical findings as there will be no changes in X-rays, since the soft tissues are involved.

Nerve conduction studies can confirm the diagnosis. In cases detected earlier, attention to ergonomics will restore normalcy.
In cases of Repetitive Stress Injury when diagnosed late, orthopedic treatment like injections and even minor surgery may be necessary.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Related articles

Resources:

English: Untreated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Image via Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repetitive_strain_injury
http://www.safecomputingtips.com/rsi-diagnosis.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/repetitivestrain1.shtml
http://www.rsiwarrior.com/ergonomics.html
http://www.hoverstop.com/eng/rsi.php

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Vinegar Is Superb

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With 175 different uses, this super item deserves a reserved space in your home.Around the House

Clear dirt off PCs and peripherals Your computer, printer, fax machine, and other home office gear will work better if you keep them clean and dust-free. Before you start cleaning, make sure that all your equipment is shut off. Now mix equal parts white vinegar and water in a bucket. Dampen a clean cloth in the solution — never use a spray bottle; you don’t want to get liquid on the circuits inside — then squeeze it out as hard as you can, and start wiping. Keep a few cotton swabs on hand for getting to the buildups in tight spaces (like around the keys of your PC keyboard).

Clean your computer mouse:
If you have a mouse with a removable tracking ball, use a 50/50 vinegar-water solution to clean it. First, remove the ball from underneath the mouse by twisting off the cover over it. Use a cloth, dampened with the solution and wrung out, to wipe the ball clean and to remove fingerprints and dirt from the mouse itself. Then use a moistened cotton swab to clean out the gunk and debris from inside the ball chamber (let it dry a couple of hours before reinserting the ball).


Clean your window blinds:

You can make the job of cleaning mini-blinds or venetians considerably less torturous by giving them “the white glove treatment.” Just put on a white cotton glove — the kind sold for gardening is perfect — and moisten the fingers in a solution made of equal parts white vinegar and hot tap water. Now simply slide your fingers across both sides of each slat and prepare to be amazed. Use a container of clean water to periodically wash off the glove.

Unclog and deodorize drains:
The combination of vinegar and baking soda is one of the most effective ways to unclog and deodorize drains. It’s also far gentler on your pipes (and your wallet) than commercial drain cleaners.

  • To clear clogs in sink and tub drains, use a funnel to pour in 1/2 cup baking soda followed by 1 cup vinegar. When the foaming subsides, flush with hot tap water. Wait five minutes, and then flush again with cold water. Besides clearing blockages, this technique also washes away odor-causing bacteria.
  • To speed up a slow drain, pour in 1/2 cup salt followed by 2 cups boiling vinegar, then flush with hot and cold tap water.


Get rid of smoke odor:

If you’ve recently burned a steak — or if your chain-smoking aunt recently paid you a surprise visit — remove the lingering smoky odor by placing a shallow bowl about three-quarters full of white or cider vinegar in the room where the scent is strongest. Use several bowls if the smell permeates your entire home. The odor should be gone in less than a day. You can also quickly dispense of the smell of fresh cigarette smoke inside a room by moistening a cloth with vinegar and waving it around a bit.

Wipe away mildew:
When you want to remove mildew stains, reach for white vinegar first. It can be safely used without additional ventilation and can be applied to almost any surface –bathroom fixtures and tile, clothing, furniture, painted surfaces, plastic curtains, and more. To eliminate heavy mildew accumulations, use it full strength. For light stains, dilute it with an equal amount of water. You can also prevent mildew from forming on the bottoms of rugs and carpeting by misting the backs with full-strength white vinegar from a spray bottle.

Clean chrome and stainless steel:
To clean chrome and stainless steel fixtures around your home, apply a light misting of undiluted white vinegar from a recycled spray bottle. Buff with a soft cloth to bring out the brightness.

Shine your silver:
Make your silverware — as well as your pure silver bracelets, rings, and other jewelry — shine like new by soaking them in a mixture of 1/2 cup white vinegar and 2 tablespoons baking soda for two to three hours. Rinse them under cold water and dry thoroughly with a soft cloth.

Polish brass and copper items:
Put the shimmer back in your brass, bronze, and copper objects by making a paste of equal parts white vinegar and salt, or vinegar and baking soda (wait for the fizzing to stop before using). Use a clean, soft cloth or paper towel to rub the paste into the item until the tarnish is gone. Then rinse with cool water and polish with a soft towel until dry

Erase ballpoint-pen marks:
Has the budding young artist in your home just decorated a painted wall in your home with a ballpoint original? Don’t lose your cool. Rather, dab some full-strength white vinegar on the “masterpiece” using a cloth or a sponge. Repeat until the marks are gone. Then go out and buy your child a nice big sketch pad.


Unglue stickers, decals, and price tags:

To remove a sticker or decal affixed to painted furniture or a painted wall, simply saturate the corners and sides of the sticker with full-strength white vinegar and carefully scrape it off (using an expired credit card or a plastic phone card). Remove any sticky remains by pouring on a bit more vinegar. Let it sit for a minute or two, and then wipe with a clean cloth. This approach is equally effective for removing price tags and other stickers from glass, plastic, and other glossy surfaces.

Burnish your scissors:
When your scissor blades get sticky or grimy, don’t use water to wash them off; you’re far more likely to rust the fastener that holds the blades together — or the blades themselves — than get them clean. Instead, wipe down the blades with a cloth dipped in full-strength white vinegar, and then dry it off with a rag or dish towel.


Get the salt off your shoes:

As if a winter’s worth of ice, slush, and snow wasn’t rough enough on your shoes and boots, the worst thing, by far, is all the rock salt that’s used to melt it. In addition to leaving unsightly white stains, salt can actually cause your footwear to crack and even disintegrate if it’s left on indefinitely. To remove it and prevent long-term damage, wipe fresh stains with a cloth dipped in undiluted white vinegar.

Clean your piano keys:
Here’s an easy and efficient way to get those grimy fingerprints and stains off your piano keys. Dip a soft cloth into a solution of 1/2 cup white vinegar mixed in 2 cups water, squeeze it out until there are no drips, then gently wipe off each key. Use a second cloth to dry off the keys as you move along, then leave the keyboard uncovered for 24 hours.

Deodorize lunch boxes, footlockers, and car trunks:
Does your old footlocker smell like, well, an old footlocker? Or perhaps your child’s lunch box has taken on the bouquet of week-old tuna? What about that musty old car trunk? Quit holding your breath every time you open it. Instead, soak a slice of white bread in white vinegar and leave it in the malodorous space overnight. The smell should be gone by morning.


Freshen a musty closet:

Got a closet that doesn’t smell as fresh as you’d like? First, remove the contents, then wash down the walls, ceiling, and floor with a cloth dampened in a solution of 1 cup each of vinegar and ammonia and 1/4 cup baking soda in 1 gallon (3.7 liters) water. Keep the closet door open and let the interior dry before replacing your clothes and other stuff. If the smell persists, place a small pan of cat litter inside. Replenish every few days until the odor is gone.

Brighten up brickwork:
How’s this for an effortless way to clean your brick floors without breaking out the polish? Just go over them with a damp mop dipped in 1 cup white vinegar mixed with 1 gallon (3.7 liters) warm water. Your floors will look so good you’ll never think about cleaning them with anything else. You can also use this same solution to brighten up the bricks around your fireplace.

Revitalize wood paneling:
Does the wood paneling in your den look dull and dreary? Liven it up with this simple homemade remedy: Mix 1 pint warm water, 4 tablespoons white or apple cider vinegar, and 2 tablespoons olive oil in a container, give it a couple of shakes, and apply with a clean cloth. Let the mixture soak into the wood for several minutes, then polish with a dry cloth.

Restore your rugs:
If your rugs or carpets are looking worn and dingy from too much foot traffic or an excess of kids’ building blocks, toy trucks, and such, bring them back to life by brushing them with a clean push broom dipped in a solution of 1 cup white vinegar in 1 gallon (3.7 liters) water. Your faded threads will perk up, and you don’t even need to rinse off the solution.

Remove carpet stains:
You can lift out many stains from your carpet with vinegar:

  • Rub light carpet stains with a mixture of 2 tablespoons salt dissolved in 1/2 cup white vinegar. Let the solution dry, then vacuum.
  • For larger or darker stains, add 2 tablespoons borax to the mixture and use in the same way.
  • For tough, ground-in dirt and other stains, make a paste of 1 tablespoon vinegar with 1 tablespoon cornstarch, and rub it into the stain using a dry cloth. Let it set for two days, then vacuum.
  • To make spray-on spot and stain remover, fill a spray bottle with 5 parts water and 1 part vinegar. Fill a second spray bottle with 1 part nonsudsy ammonia and 5 parts water. Saturate a stain with the vinegar solution. Let it settle for a few minutes, then blot thoroughly with a clean, dry cloth. Then spray and blot using the ammonia solution. Repeat until the stain is gone.

Remove candle wax:
Candles are great for creating a romantic mood, but the mood can quickly sour if you wind up getting melted candle wax on your fine wood furniture. To remove it, first soften the wax using a blow-dryer on its hottest setting and blot up as much as you can with paper towels. Then remove what’s left by rubbing with a cloth soaked in a solution made of equal parts white vinegar and water. Wipe clean with a soft, absorbent cloth.Give grease stains the slip

Eliminate grease stains from your kitchen table or counter by wiping them down with a cloth dampened in a solution of equal parts white vinegar and water. In addition to removing the grease, the vinegar will neutralize any odors on the surface (once its own aroma evaporates, that is).

Conceal scratches in wood furniture:
Got a scratch on a wooden tabletop that grabs your attention every time you look at it? To make it much less noticeable, mix some distilled or cider vinegar and iodine in a small jar and paint over the scratch with a small artist’s brush. Use more iodine for darker woods; more vinegar for lighter shades.


Get rid of water rings on furniture:

To remove white rings left by wet glasses on wood furniture, mix equal parts vinegar and olive oil and apply it with a soft cloth while moving with the wood grain. Use another clean, soft cloth to shine it up. To get white water rings off leather furniture, dab them with a sponge soaked in full-strength white vinegar.

Wipe off wax or polish buildup:
When furniture polish or wax builds up on wood furniture or leather tabletops, get rid of it with diluted white vinegar. To get built-up polish off a piece of wood furniture, dip a cloth in equal parts vinegar and water and squeeze it out well. Then, moving with the grain, clean away the polish. Wipe dry with a soft towel or cloth. Most leather tabletops will come clean simply by wiping them down with a soft cloth dipped in 1/4 cup vinegar and 1/2 cup water. Use a clean towel to dry off any remaining liquid.

Revitalize leather furniture:
Has your leather sofa or easy chair lost its luster? To restore it to its former glory, mix equal parts white vinegar and boiled linseed oil in a recycled spray bottle, shake it up well, and spray it on. Spread it evenly over your furniture using a soft cloth, give it a couple of minutes to settle in, then rub it off with a clean cloth.

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