Habitat : Anemone nemorosa is native to Europe. It occurs throughout the northern temperate zone of C. Europe, including Britain, and W. Asia. It grows in woodland and shady hillsides in all but the most base deficient or water-logged soils.
Anemone nemorosa is a perennial herbaceous plant growing 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) tall.It is an early-spring flowering plant.The plants start blooming soon after the foliage emerges from the ground. The leaves are divided into three segments and the flowers, produced on short stems, are held above the foliage with one flower per stem. They grow from underground root-like stems called rhizomes and the foliage dies back down by mid summer (summer dormant). The rhizomes spread just below th e soil surface, forming long spreading clumps that grow quickly, contributing to its rapid spread in woodland conditions, where they often carpet large areas.
The flower is 2 centimetres (0.79 in) diameter, with six or seven (and on rare occasions eight to ten) tepals (petal-like segments) with many stamens. In the wild the flowers are usually white but may be pinkish, lilac or blue, and often have a darker tint on the backs of the tepals. The flowers are pollinated by insects, especially hoverflies.
The yellow wood anemone (Anemone ranunculoides) is a similar plant with slightly smaller, yellow flowers.
It has a long, tough, creeping root-stock, running just below the surface; it is the quick growth of this root-stock that causes the plant to spread so rapidly, forming large colonies in the moist soil of wood and thicket. The deeply-cut leaves and star-like flowers rise directly from it on separate unbranched stems. Some distance below the flower are the three leaflets, often so deeply divided as to appear more than three in number and very similar to the true leaves. They wrap round and protect the flower-bud before it unfolds, but as it opens, its stalk lengthens and it is carried far above them.
Prefers a moist soil but tolerates dry conditions during its summer dormancy. Plants tolerate dry conditions and drought so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil. Prefers a well-drained humus-rich soil. Dislikes very acid soils. Prefers a shady position, growing well on woodland edges, but plants can also be naturalized in thin turf. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. The plant has a running rootstock and can spread rapidly when well-sited. A very ornamental plant, there are several named varieties.
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the summer. Surface sow or only just cover the seed and keep the soil moist. Sow stored seed as soon as possible in late winter or early spring. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 6 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first year. When the plants are large enough, plant them out in the spring. Division in late summer after the plant dies down.
The leaves are antirheumatic, rubefacient and tonic. The plant is sometimes used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism. The herb is gathered in spring before the plant comes into flower. Various parts of this herb used to be recommended for a variety of complaints such as headaches and gout, though the plant is virtually not used nowadays. A homeopathic remedy has been made from the leaves.
Though this species of Anemone has practically fallen out of use, the older herbalists recommended application of various parts of the plant for headaches, tertian agues and rheumatic gout.’The body being bathed with the decoction of the leaves cures the leprosy: the leaves being stamped and the juice snuffed up the nose purgeth the head mightily; so doth the root, being chewed in the mouth, for it procureth much spitting and bringeth away many watery and phlegmatic humours, and is therefore excellent for the lethargy…. Being made into an ointment and the eyelids annointed with it, it helps inflammation of the eyes. The same ointment is excellent good to cleanse malignant and corroding ulcers.’
Known Hazards:The plant contains poisonous chemicals that are toxic to animals including humans. The plant contains poisonous chemicals that are toxic to animals including humans, but it has also been used as a medicine. All parts of the plant contain protoanemonin, which can cause severe skin and gastrointestinal irritation, bitter taste and burning in the mouth and throat, mouth ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hematemesi All parts of the plant contain protoanemonin, which can cause severe skin and gastrointestinal irritation, bitter taste and burning in the mouth and throat, mouth ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hematemesis.
Anemone nemorosa is grown as an ornamental plant for use in gardens and parks.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
The healing properties of propolis – a mixture of resin and wax made by honey bees to seal and sterilise their hives – have been known for many years. But its use in medicine and food supplements has been limited because the sticky substance is not water soluble and has a strong, off-putting smell.
Now researchers at the University of Bradford’s Centre for Pharmaceutical Engineering Science have developed a way of purifying propolis that retains its medicinal properties, but makes it dissolve in water and eliminates its pungent smell. The technique has already led to the development of a new mouth ulcer gel and opens the door to a huge range of other pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications for the substance.
“Propolis is a complex chemical mix and a very useful natural product,” explains Centre Director, Professor Anant Paradkar, who led the research. “Propolis has been shown to be anti-microbial, anti-fungal, a strong anti-oxidant, non-allergenic and can boost the immune system. It also promotes wound healing and has anaesthetic properties.
“There is a substantial market for propolis-based products – particularly in China, the USA and South Asia. The main stumbling block in developing products has been the solubility and odour issues, which our formulation overcomes.”
Professor Paradkar’s team has been developing the new technique to purify propolis in collaboration with natural medicine manufacturer, Nature’s Laboratory. The researchers have helped the company develop a new propolis-based mouth ulcer gel, which has better anaesthetic, anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties than gels already on the market and is safe for use in children.
“A problem for mouth gels is that adhesion to the skin membrane inside the mouth is difficult – because of the nature of the surface, the gel can simply slide off,” says Professor Paradkar. “As propolis retains some of its stickiness even in a water soluble formulation, when it is applied to specific areas in the mouth, it adheres more effectively.”
The Centre has gained funding for a Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Nature’s Laboratory, to further develop the purification system for use at a larger scale and support the creation of new propolis-based products. The aim is, through the KTP, that the company will be able to set up a purification process to increase its own manufacturing capacity.
A Lip Sores & Cold Sores is a fluid-filled, painful blister that is usually on or around the lips. Other names for a cold sore are fever blister, oral herpes, labial herpes, herpes labialis, and herpes febrilis. Cold sores most often occur on the lips which distinguishes them from the common canker sore which is usually inside the mouth. Cold sores do not usually occur inside the mouth except during the initial episode. Canker sores usually form either on the tongue or inside the cheeks.
Cold sores are caused by a herpes virus. There are eight different kinds of human herpes viruses. Only two of these, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, can cause cold sores. It is commonly believed that herpes simplex virus type 1 infects above the waist and herpes simplex virus type 2 infects below the waist. This is not completely true. Both herpes virus type 1 and type 2 can cause herpes lesions on the lips or genitals, but recurrent cold sores are almost always type 1.
Oral herpes is very common. More than 60% of Americans have had a cold sore, and almost 25% of those infected experience recurrent outbreaks. Most of these persons became infected before age 10. Anyone can become infected by herpes virus and, once infected, the virus remains latent for life. Herpes viruses are spread from person to person by direct skin-to-skin contact. The highest risk for spreading the virus is the time period beginning with the appearance of blisters and ending with scab formation. However, infected persons need not have visible blisters to spread the infection to others since the virus may be present in the saliva without obvious oral lesions.
Viruses are different from bacteria. While bacteria are independent and can reproduce on their own, viruses enter human cells and force them to make more virus. The infected human cell is usually killed and releases thousands of new viruses. The cell death and resulting tissue damage causes the actual cold sores. In addition, the herpes virus can infect a cell and, instead of making the cell produce new viruses, it hides inside the cell and waits. The herpes virus hides in the nervous system. This is called “latency.” A latent virus can wait inside the nervous system for days, months, or even years. At some future time, the virus “awakens” and causes the cell to produce thou sands of new viruses that cause an active infection.
This process of latency and active infection is best understood by considering the cold sore cycle. An active infection is obvious because cold sores are pre sent. The first infection is called the “primary” infection. This active infection is then controlled by the body’s immune system and the sores heal. In between active infections, the virus is latent. At some point in the future, latent viruses become activated and once again cause sores. These are called “recurrent” infections. Although it is unknown what triggers latent virus to activate, several conditions seem to bring on infections. These include stress, illness, tiredness, exposure to sunlight, menstruation, fever, and diet.
Causes of Lip sore: The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Lip sore. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.
1) People are often allergic to products containing petroleum and even some products labeled â€œhypoallergenicâ€. Occasionally people are allergic to their toothpaste and more often to their lipstick/lip balm. Many people are allergic to Neosporin and Chap Stick. I recommend Mentholatum Lip Balm often. It comes in tube, like Chap Stick. There are also homeopathic remedies to detox the body of what it is allergically responding to.
2) Sores on the outside corners of the mouth are usually vitamin deficienciesâ€”especially vitamin B6.
3) Sores on the top and bottom lip edge are often allergies to something being put on the lips and often this can be aggravated by sunshine.
4) Canker sores, herpes sores and cold sores are often related to what it is in the person’s life that they are biting their tongue about or not saying out loud and is also accentuated by stress, poor diet, not enough raw foods, and sleep issues (in combination of course).
5) Sores inside the lip and under the tongue can sometimes be viral in origin or an allergy to something. I know a few people who are allergic to nutmeg which causes a little vesicle to form under the tongue on the frenulum.
6) White sores on the mouth are usually caused from yeast (Candida). Try getting a lip product that contains Myrrh essential oil. You will also have incorporate lifestyle changes to overcome the yeast inside your system.
Because oral herpes is so common, it is diagnosed primarily by symptoms. It can be diagnosed and treated by the family doctor, dermatologists (doctors who specialize in skin diseases) and infectious disease specialists. Laboratory tests may be performed to look for the virus. Because healing sores do not shed much virus, a sample from an open sore would be taken for viral culture. A sterile cotton swab would be wiped over open sores and the sample used to infect human cells in culture. Cells that are killed by the herpes virus have a certain appearance under microscopic examination. The results of this test are available within two to 10 days.
Oral herpes may resemble a bacterial infection called impetigo. This skin infection is most commonly seen in children and causes herpes-like blisters around the mouth and nose. Also, because oral herpes can occur inside the mouth, the blisters could be mistaken for common canker sores. Therefore, the doctor would need to determine whether the blisters are oral herpes, canker sores, or impetigo. The diagnosis and treatment of herpes infections should be covered by most insurance providers.
There is no cure for herpes virus infections. There are antiviral drugs available that have some effect on lessening the symptoms and decreasing the length of herpes outbreaks. There is evidence that some may also prevent future outbreaks. These antiviral drugs work by interfering with the replication of the viruses, and are most effective when taken as early in the infection process as possible. For the best results, drug treatment should begin during the prodrome stage before blisters are visible. Depending on the length of the outbreak, drug treatment could continue for up to 10 days.
Acyclovir (Zovirax) is the drug of choice for herpes infection and can be given intravenously or taken by mouth. It can be applied directly to sores as an ointment, but is not very useful in this form. A liquid form for children is also available. Acyclovir is effective in treating both the primary infection and recurrent outbreaks. When taken by mouth to prevent an outbreak, acyclovir reduces the frequency of herpes outbreaks.
During an outbreak of cold sores, salty foods, citrus foods (oranges etc.), and other foods that irritate the sores should be avoided. Wash the sores once or twice a day with warm, soapy water and pat gently to dry. Over-the-counter lip products that contain the chemical phenol (such as Blistex Medicated Lip Ointment) and numbing ointments (Anbesol) help to relieve cold sores. A bandage may be placed over the sores to protect them and prevent spreading the virus to other sites on the lips or face. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) may be taken if necessary to reduce pain and fever.
Vitamin and mineral supplements and diet may have an effect on the recurrence and duration of cold sores. In general, cold sore sufferers should eat a healthy diet of unprocessed foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Alcohol, caffeine, and sugar should be avoided.
An imbalance in the amino acids lysine and arginine is thought to be one contributing factor in herpes virus outbreaks. A diet that is rich in the amino acid lysine may help prevent recurrences of cold sores. Foods which contain high levels of lysine include most vegetables, legumes, fish, turkey, and chicken. In one study, patients taking lysine supplements had milder symptoms during an outbreak, a shorter healing time, and had fewer outbreaks than patients who did not take lysine. Patients should take 1,000 mg of lysine three times a day during a cold sore outbreak and 500 mg daily on an ongoing basis to prevent recurrences. Intake of the amino acid arginine should be reduced. Foods rich in arginine that should be avoided are chocolate, peanuts, almonds, and other nuts and seeds.
Vitamin C and bioflavonoids (a substance in fruits that helps the body to absorb and use vitamin C) have been shown to reduce the duration of a cold sore outbreak and reduce the number of sores. The vitamin B complex includes important vitamins that support the nervous system where viruses can hide out. B complex vitamins can also help manage stress, an important contributing factor to the outbreak of herpes viruses. Applying the oil in vitamin E capsules directly to cold sores may provide relief. Zinc lozenges appear to affect the reproduction of viruses and also enhance the immune system. Ointments containing lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) or licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been shown to help cold sores heal.
Oral herpes can be painful and embarrassing but, it is not a serious infection. There is no cure for oral herpes, but outbreaks usually occur less frequently after age 35. The spread of the herpes virus to the eyes is very serious. The herpes virus can infect the cells in the cornea and cause scarring that may impair vision. Home Care :
Mouth sores generally last 10 to 14 days, even if you don’t do anything. They sometimes last up to 6 weeks. The following steps can make you feel better:
Gargle with cool water or eat popsicles. This is particularly helpful if you have a mouth burn.
Avoid hot beverages and foods, spicy and salty foods, and citrus.
Take pain relievers like acetaminophen.
For canker sores:
Rinse with salt water.
Apply a thin paste of baking soda and water.
Mix 1 part hydrogen peroxide with 1 part water and apply this mixture to the lesions using a cotton swab.
Nonprescription preparations, like Orabase, can protect a sore inside the lip and on the gums. Blistex or Campho-Phenique may provide some relief of canker sores and fever blisters, especially if applied when the sore initially appears.
Additional steps that may help cold sores or fever blisters:
Anti-viral medications for herpes lesions of the mouth may be recommended by your doctor. Some experts feel that they shorten the time that the blisters are present, while others claim that these drugs make no difference.
When to Contact a Medical Professional :
Call your doctor if:
The sore begins soon after you start a new medication
You have large white patches on the roof of your mouth or your tongue (this may be thrush or another type of lesion)
You are immunocompromised (for example, from HIV or cancer)
You have other symptoms like fever, skin rash, drooling, or difficulty swallowing
What to Expect at Your Office Visit:
Your doctor will perform a physical examination, focusing on your mouth and tongue. Medical history questions may include the following:
Are the sores on your lips, gums, tongue, lining of your cheeks, or elsewhere?
Are the sores open ulcers?
Are there large, white patches on the roof of the mouth or on your tongue?
How long have you had the mouth sores? More than 2 weeks?
Have you ever had sores of this type before?
What medications do you take?
Do you have other symptoms like fever, sore throat, or breath odor?
Treatment may depend on the underlying cause of the mouth sore.
A topical anesthetic (applied to a localized area of the skin) such as lidocaine or xylocaine may be used to relieve pain (but should be avoided in children).
An antifungal medication may be prescribed for oral thrush (a yeast infection).
An antiviral medication may be prescribed for herpes lesions (although, some feel that this does not shorten the length of time that the lesions are present)
Antibiotics may be prescribed for severe or persistent canker sores.
The only way to prevent oral herpes is to avoid contact with infected persons. This is not an easy solution because many people are not aware that they are infected and can easily infect others. Currently there are no herpes vaccines available, although herpes vaccines are being tested.
Several practices can reduce the occurrence of cold sores and the spread of virus to other body locations or people. These practices are:
*Avoidance of sun exposure to the face. Before getting prolonged exposure to the sun, apply sunscreen to the face and especially to the lips. Wearing a hat with a large brim is also helpful.
*Avoid touching cold sores. Squeezing, picking, or pinching blisters can allow the virus to spread to other parts of the lips or face and infect those sites.
*Wash hands frequently. Persons with oral herpes should wash their hands carefully before touching others. An infected person can spread the virus to others even when he or she has no obvious blisters.
*Avoid contact with others during active infection. Infected persons should avoid kissing or sexual contact with others until after the cold sores have healed.
*Wear gloves when applying ointment to a child’s sore.
*Be especially careful with infants. Never kiss the eyes or lips of a baby who is under six months old.
*Be watchful of infected children. Do not allow infected children to share toys that may be put into the mouth. Toys that have been mouthed should be disinfected before other children play with them.
*Maintain good general health. A healthy diet, plenty of sleep, and exercise help to minimize the chance of getting a cold or the flu, which are known to bring on cold sores. Also, good general health keeps the immune system strong; this helps to keep the virus in check and prevents outbreaks.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
A year-long clinical study on 148 patients with oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy found the mouthwash effective in reducing pain, besides minimising oral bacterial infections and cutting down on consumption of painkillers.
The two Council of Industrial and Scientific Research institutes have now filed for a global patent for the mouthwash, which is expected to be ready by January 2007. Speaking to TOI, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology director M Radhakrishna Pillai said,”We can’t reveal names of the medicinal herbs as we are yet to receive the patent. But the plants are common and used in many of our traditional medicines.”
The commonly used drug to control mucositis is called Amifostine (Ethyol) that costs Rs 9,000 per dose. It has to be injected half-an-hour before radiation. On the other hand, the mouthwash comes in the form of a powder that will have to be kept dissolved overnight before the patient rinses his mouth with it.
The approximate production cost in an experimental set up has been estimated to be just 65 paise(1.3 pence) per dose, excluding packaging and marketing costs. Pillai said the patient will have to use the mouthwash four times a day.”Patients who are under radiation suffer from inflammation of gums and mouth tissue. It is painful and often interrupts their treatment. During this time, the tumor can recur. That’s why it is important that patients with oral cancer have a solution whereby they can have relief from pain and their treatment continues till the cancer is totally controlled,” Pillai added.