Tag Archives: Movement disorder

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Definition:
Progressive supranuclear palsy, also called Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome,(after the Canadian physicians who described it in 1963)  is a brain disorder that causes serious problems with walking, balance and eye movements. Progressive supranuclear palsy results from deterioration of cells in areas of your brain that control movement.
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Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare disorder that slowly worsens over time. Although it’s not life-threatening itself, progressive supranuclear palsy can lead to life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia and swallowing problems.

Because there’s no cure for progressive supranuclear palsy, treatment focuses on managing and improving the related signs and symptoms.

Males and females are affected approximately equally and there is no racial, geographical or occupational predilection. Approximately 6 people per 100,000 population have PSP.

It has been described as a tauopathy

Symptoms:
The initial symptoms in two-thirds of cases are loss of balance, lunging forward when mobilizing, fast walking, bumping into objects or people, and falls.

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Other common early symptoms are changes in personality, general slowing of movement, and visual symptoms.

Later symptoms and signs are dementia (typically including loss of inhibition and ability to organize information), slurring of speech, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty moving the eyes, particularly in the vertical direction. The latter accounts for some of the falls experienced by these patients as they are unable to look up or down.

Some of the other signs are poor eyelid function, contracture of the facial muscles, a backward tilt of the head with stiffening of the neck muscles, sleep disruption, urinary incontinence and constipation.

The visual symptoms are of particular importance in the diagnosis of this disorder. Notably, the ophthalmoparesis experienced by these patients mainly concerns voluntary eye movement. Patients tend to have difficulty looking down (a downgaze palsy) followed by the addition of an upgaze palsy. Involuntary eye movement, as elicited by Bell’s phenomenon, for instance, may be closer to normal. On close inspection, eye movements called “square-wave jerks” may be visible when the patient fixes at distance. These are fine movements, similar to nystagmus, except that they are not rhythmic in nature. Difficulties with convergence (convergence insufficiency), where the eyes come closer together while focusing on something near, like the pages of a book, is typical. Because the eyes have trouble coming together to focus at short distances, the patient may complain of diplopia (double vision) when reading.

Cardinal manifestations:

*Supranuclear ophthalmoplegia

*Neck dystonia

*Parkinsonism

*Pseudobulbar palsy

*Behavioral and Cognitive impairment

*Imbalance and Difficulties walking

*Frequent Falls

*Stiffness

*Awkward movements

*Falling

*Problems with speech and swallowing

*Dizziness

*Loss of interest in pleasurable activities (apathy)

*Depression and anxiety

*Laughing or crying for no reason

*Forgetfulness

True to its name, the signs and symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy tend to become progressively worse as the disease advances.

Causes:
We know that the symptoms of PSP are caused by a gradual deterioration of brain cells in a few tiny but important places at the base of the brain, in the region called the brainstem. One of these areas, the substantia nigra, is also affected in Parkinson’s disease, and damage to this region of the brain accounts for the motor symptoms that PSP and Parkinson’s have in common.

Scientists do not know what causes these brain cells to degenerate. There is no evidence that PSP is contagious, and genetic factors have not been implicated. No ethnic or racial groups have been affected more often than any others, and PSP is no more likely to occur in some geographic areas than in others.

There are, however, several theories about PSP’s cause. One possibility is that an unconventional virus-like agent infects the body and takes years or decades to start producing visible effects. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is one disease known to be caused by such an agent. Another possibility is that random genetic mutations, of the kind that occur in all of us all the time, happen to occur in particular cells or certain genes, in just the right combination to injure these cells. A third possibility is that there is exposure to some unknown chemical in the food, air, or water which slowly damages certain vulnerable areas of the brain. This theory stems from a clue found on the Pacific island of Guam, where a common neurological disease occurring only there and on a few neighboring islands shares some of the characteristics of PSP, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease). Its cause is thought to be a dietary factor or toxic substance found only in that area.

Another possible cause of PSP is cellular damage caused by free radicals, unstable molecules produced continuously by all cells during normal metabolism. Although the body has built-in mechanisms for clearing free radicals from the system, scientists suspect that, under certain circumstances, free radicals can react with and damage other molecules. A great deal of research is directed at understanding the role of free radical damage in human diseases.

Genetics and Causal Factors:
Fewer than 1% of those with PSP have a family member with the same disorder. A variant in the gene for tau protein called the H1 haplotype, located on chromosome 17, has been linked to PSP. Nearly all people with PSP received a copy of that variant from each parent, but this is true of about two-thirds of the general population. Therefore, the H1 haplotype appears to be necessary but not sufficient to cause PSP. Other genes, as well as environmental toxins are being investigated as other possible contributors to the cause of PSP.

Risk Factors:
Risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy include:

*Age. Progressive supranuclear palsy typically affects people around the age of 60.
*Sex. Men are affected somewhat more often.

Complications :
Complications of progressive supranuclear palsy result primarily from hindered muscle movements. These complications may include:

*Frequent falling, which can lead to head injuries, fractures and other injuries.

*Difficulty focusing your eyes, which also can lead to injuries.

*Problems with reading, driving a car, or other tasks requiring hand-eye coordination.

*Difficulty sleeping.

*Difficulty looking at bright lights.

*Problems swallowing, which can lead to choking or inhaling food or liquid into your airway (aspiration). Aspiration can develop into pneumonia — the most common cause of death in people with progressive supranuclear palsy.

*Impulsive behaviors — for example, standing up without waiting for assistance — which can lead to falls.

Complications from progressive supranuclear palsy may eventually necessitate the use of a feeding tube due to choking hazards. To avoid injuries due to falling, a walker or a wheelchair may also be necessary.

Diagnosis:
Initial complaints in PSP are typically vague and an early diagnosis is always difficult. The primary complaints fall into these categories:

*Symptoms of dysequilibrium, such as unsteady walking or abrupt and unexplained falls without loss of consciousness.

*Visual complaints, including blurred vision, difficulties in looking up or down, double vision, light sensitivity, burning eyes, or other eye trouble.

*Slurred speech.

*Various mental complaints such as slowness of thought, impaired memory, personality changes, and changes in mood.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy is often misdiagnosed because some of its symptoms are very much like those of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and more rare neurodegenerative disorders, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In fact, PSP is most often misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease early in the course of the illness. Memory problems and personality changes may also lead a physician to mistake PSP for depression, or even attribute symptoms to some form of dementia. The key to establishing the diagnosis of PSP is the identification of early gait instability and difficulty moving the eyes, the hallmark of the disease, as well as ruling out other similar disorders, some of which are treatable.

PSP is frequently misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease because of the slowed movements and gait difficulty, or as Alzheimer’s disease because of the behavioral changes. It is one of a number of diseases collectively referred to as Parkinson plus syndromes. A poor response to levodopa along with symmetrial onset can help differentiate this disease from PD.

Difference between PSP &  Parkinson’s Disease:
Both PSP and Parkinson’s disease cause stiffness, movement difficulties, and clumsiness. However, patients with PSP usually stand straight or occasionally even tilt their heads backward (and tend to fall backward), while those with Parkinson’s disease usually bend forward. Problems with speech and swallowing are much more common and severe in PSP than in Parkinson’s disease, and tend to show up earlier in the course of the disease. Both diseases share other features: onset in late middle age, bradykinesia (slow movement), and rigidity of muscles. Tremor, almost universal in Parkinson’s patients, is rare in PSP. Although Parkinson’s patients markedly benefit from the drug levodopa, patients with PSP respond poorly and only transiently to this drug.

Treatment :
There is currently no effective treatment for PSP, although scientists are searching for better ways to manage the disease. In some patients the slowness, stiffness, and balance problems of PSP may respond to antiparkinsonian agents such as levodopa, but the effect is usually temporary. The speech, vision, and swallowing difficulties usually do not respond to any drug treatment.

Another group of drugs that has been of some modest success in PSP are antidepressant medications. The most commonly used of these drugs are fluoxetine (Prozac), amitriptyline (Elavil), and imipramine (Tofranil). The anti-PSP benefit of these drugs seems not to be related to their ability to relieve depression.

Non-drug treatment for PSP can take many forms. Patients frequently use weighted walking aids because of their tendency to fall backward. Bifocals or special glasses called prisms are sometimes prescribed for PSP patients to remedy the difficulty of looking down. Formal physical therapy is of no proven benefit in PSP, but certain exercises can be done to keep the joints limber.

A surgical procedure that may be necessary when there are swallowing disturbances is a gastrostomy. A gastrostomy (or a jejunostomy) is a minimally invasive procedure which is performed when the patient has difficulty swallowing or when severe choking is a definite risk. This surgery involves the placement of a tube through the skin of the abdomen into the stomach (intestine) for feeding purposes. Surgical procedures such as fetal brain cell implantation and pallidotomy, which are being tested as treatments for Parkinson’s disease, are not effective in PSP.

Life Style & Home Remedies:
To minimize the effects of progressive supranuclear palsy, you can take certain steps at home. They may include:

*Eyedrops. Eyedrops may help ease dry eyes that can occur as a result of problems blinking. They can also be helpful for persistent tearing.

*Fall-avoidance aids. Installing grab bars in hallways and bathrooms or using a walker that’s weighted can help you avoid falls. Making home modifications, such as removing scatter rugs or other items that are hard to see without looking downward, also can help with balance and vision problems. When possible, avoid climbing stairs.

Prognosis:
As there is currently no effective treatment or cure for PSP, although some of the symptoms can respond to nonspecific measures. The average age at symptoms onset is 63 and survival from onset averages 7 years with a wide variance

Researches:
Studies to improve the diagnosis of PSP have recently been conducted at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Experiments to find the cause or causes of PSP are currently under way. Therapeutic trials with free radical scavengers (agents that can get rid of potentially harmful free radicals) are being planned for the future.

In addition, there is a great deal of ongoing research on Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases at the National Institutes of Health and at university medical centers throughout the country. Better understanding of those common related disorders will go a long way toward solving the problem of PSP, just as studying PSP may help shed light on Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.healthtouch.com/bin/EContent_HT/showAllLfts.asp?lftname=NINDS156&cid=HT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_supranuclear_palsy
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/progressive-supranuclear-palsy/DS00909
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/progressivesupranuclearpalsy.html

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Parkinson’s Disease

Alternative Names : Parkinson disease, Parkinson’s, idiopathic parkinsonism, primary parkinsonism, PD, or paralysis agitans

Definition:
Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle control, which leads to trembling of the limbs and head while at rest, stiffness, slowness, and impaired balance. As symptoms worsen, it may become difficult to walk, talk, and complete simple tasks.
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Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, often starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson’s disease, the disorder also commonly causes a slowing or freezing of movement. Many people with Parkinson’s disease live long productive lives, whereas others become disabled much more quickly. Premature death is usually due to complications such as falling-related injuries or pneumonia.

Friends and family may notice that your face shows little or no expression and your arms don’t swing when you walk. Speech often becomes soft and mumbling. Parkinson’s symptoms tend to worsen as the disease progresses.

While there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, many different types of medicines can treat its symptoms. In some cases,  doctor may suggest surgery.

In the United States, about 1 million people are affected by Parkinson’s disease and worldwide about 5 million. Most individuals who develop Parkinson’s disease are 60 years of age or older. Parkinson’s disease occurs in approximately 1% of individuals aged 60 years and in about 4% of those aged 80 years. Since overall life expectancy is rising, the number of individuals with Parkinson’s disease will increase in the future. Adult-onset Parkinson’s disease is most common, but early-onset Parkinson’s disease (onset between 21-40 years), and juvenile-onset Parkinson’s disease (onset before age 21) also exist.

Descriptions of Parkinson’s disease date back as far as 5000 BC. Around that time, an ancient Indian civilization called the disorder Kampavata and treated it with the seeds of a plant containing therapeutic levels of what is today known as levodopa. Parkinson’s disease was named after the British doctor James Parkinson, who in 1817 first described the disorder in great detail as “shaking palsy.”

Symptoms:
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can vary from person to person. Early signs may be subtle and can go unnoticed. Symptoms typically begin on one side of the body and usually remain worse on that side even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.

Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:

*Tremor. The characteristic shaking associated with Parkinson’s disease often begins in a hand. A back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger, known as pill-rolling, is common, and may occur when your hand is at rest. However, not everyone experiences tremors.

*Slowed motion (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may reduce your ability to initiate voluntary movement. This may make even the simplest tasks difficult and time-consuming. When you walk, your steps may become short and shuffling. Or your feet may freeze to the floor, making it hard to take the first step.

*Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness can occur in any part of your body. Sometimes the stiffness can be so severe that it limits the range of your movements and causes pain. People may first notice this sign when you no longer swing your arms when you’re walking.

*Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped as a result of Parkinson’s disease. Balance problems also may occur, although this is usually in the later stages of the disease.

*Loss of automatic movements. Blinking, smiling and swinging your arms when you walk are all unconscious acts that are a normal part of being human. In Parkinson’s disease, these acts tend to be diminished and even lost. Some people may develop a fixed staring expression and unblinking eyes. Others may no longer gesture or seem animated when they speak.

*Speech changes. Many people with Parkinson’s disease have problems with speech. You may speak more softly, rapidly or in a monotone, sometimes slurring or repeating words, or hesitating before speaking.

*Dementia. In the later stages of Parkinson’s disease, some people develop problems with memory and mental clarity. Alzheimer’s drugs appear to alleviate some of these symptoms to a mild degree.

Causes:
The exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role, including:

*Genes. Researchers have found specific genetic mutations that likely play a role in Parkinson’s disease. In addition, scientists suspect that many more changes in genes — whether inherited or caused by an environmental exposure — may be responsible for Parkinson’s disease.

*Environmental triggers. Exposure to toxins or certain viruses may trigger Parkinson’s signs and symptoms.In addition, numerous changes are found in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease. The role of these factors in the development of the disease, if any, isn’t clear, however. These changes include:

*A lack of dopamine. A substance called dopamine acts as a messenger between two brain areas – the substantia nigra and the corpus striatum – to produce smooth, controlled movements. Most of the movement-related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by a lack of dopamine due to the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra. When the amount of dopamine is too low, communication between the substantia nigra and corpus striatum becomes ineffective, and movement becomes impaired; the greater the loss of dopamine, the worse the movement-related symptoms. Other cells in the brain also degenerate to some degree and may contribute to non-movement related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Although it is well known that lack of dopamine causes the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, it is not clear why the dopamine-producing brain cells deteriorate. Genetic and pathological studies have revealed that various dysfunctional cellular processes, inflammation, and stress can all contribute to cell damage. In addition, abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which contain the protein alpha-synuclein, are found in many brain cells of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The function of these clumps in regards to Parkinson’s disease is not understood. In general, scientists suspect that dopamine loss is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

*Low norepinephrine levels. People with Parkinson’s disease also have damage to the nerve endings that make another important chemical messenger called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine plays a role in regulating the autonomic nervous system, which controls automatic functions, such as blood pressure regulation.

*The presence of Lewy bodies. Unusual protein clumps called Lewy bodies are found in the brains of many people with Parkinson’s disease. How they got there and what type of damage, if any, Lewy bodies might cause is still unknown.

Risk Factors:
Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease are:

*Age : Age is the largest risk factor for the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease. Most people who develop Parkinson’s disease are older than 60 years years of age.Young adults rarely experience Parkinson’s disease. It ordinarily begins in middle or late life, and the risk continues to increase with age.

*Heredity : Having a close relative with Parkinson’s increases the chances that you’ll also develop the disease, A small number of individuals are at increased risk because of a family history of the disorder. Although your risk is still no more than about 4 to 6 percent.

*Sex: Men are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than women are.Men are affected about 1.5 to 2 times more often than women.

*Exposure to toxins: Ongoing exposure to herbicides and pesticides puts you at slightly increased risk of Parkinson’s.Head trauma, illness, or exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticides and herbicides may be a risk factor.
Complications:
Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by these additional problems:

*Depression:  Depression is common in people with Parkinson’s disease. Receiving treatment for depression can make it easier to handle the other challenges of Parkinson’s disease.

*Sleep problems:  People with Parkinson’s disease often have trouble falling asleep and may wake up frequently throughout the night. They may also experience sudden sleep onset, called sleep attacks, during the day.

*Difficulty chewing and swallowing:  The muscles you use to swallow may be affected in the later stages of the disease, making eating more difficult.

*Urinary problems:  Parkinson’s disease may cause either urinary incontinence or urine retention. Certain medications used to treat Parkinson’s also can make it difficult to urinate.

*Constipation: Many people with Parkinson’s disease develop constipation because the digestive tract works more slowly. Constipation may also be a side effect of medications used to treat the disease.

*Sexual dysfunction:  Some people with Parkinson’s disease may notice a decrease in sexual desire. This may stem from a combination of psychological and physical factors, or it may be the result of physical factors alone.Medications for Parkinson’s disease also may cause a number of complications, including involuntary twitching or jerking movements of the arms or legs, hallucinations, sleepiness, and a drop in blood pressure when standing up.

Diagnosis:
A physician will diagnose Parkinson’s disease from the medical history and a neurological examination.  There is no lab test that will clearly identify the disease, but brain scans are sometimes used to rule out disorders that could give rise to similar symptoms. Patients may be given levodopa and resulting relief of motor impairment tends to confirm diagnosis. The finding of Lewy bodies in the midbrain on autopsy is usually considered proof that the patient suffered from Parkinson’s disease. The progress of the illness over time may reveal it is not Parkinson’s disease, and some authorities recommend that the diagnosis be periodically reviewed.

Other causes that can secondarily produce a parkinsonian syndrome are Alzheimer’s disease, multiple cerebral infarction and drug-induced parkinsonism.  Parkinson plus syndromes such as progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy must be ruled out.  Anti-Parkinson’s medications are typically less effective at controlling symptoms in Parkinson plus syndromes. Faster progression rates, early cognitive dysfunction or postural instability, minimal tremor or symmetry at onset may indicate a Parkinson plus disease rather than PD itself.  Genetic forms are usually classified as PD, although the terms familial Parkinson’s disease and familial parkinsonism are used for disease entities with an autosomal dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance.

Medical organizations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardize the diagnostic process, especially in the early stages of the disease. The most widely known criteria come from the UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The PD Society Brain Bank criteria require slowness of movement (bradykinesia) plus either rigidity, resting tremor, or postural instability. Other possible causes for these symptoms need to be ruled out. Finally, three or more of the following features are required during onset or evolution: unilateral onset, tremor at rest, progression in time, asymmetry of motor symptoms, response to levodopa for at least five years, clinical course of at least ten years and appearance of dyskinesias induced by the intake of excessive levodopa. Accuracy of diagnostic criteria evaluated at autopsy is 75–90%, with specialists such as neurologists having the highest rates.

Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans of people with PD usually appear normal.  These techniques are nevertheless useful to rule out other diseases that can be secondary causes of parkinsonism, such as basal ganglia tumors, vascular pathology and hydrocephalus.  A specific technique of MRI, diffusion MRI, has been reported to be useful at discriminating between typical and atypical parkinsonism, although its exact diagnostic value is still under investigation. Dopaminergic function in the basal ganglia can be measured with different PET and SPECT radiotracers. Examples are ioflupane (123I) (trade name DaTSCAN) and iometopane (Dopascan) for SPECT or fludeoxyglucose (18F) for PET. A pattern of reduced dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia can aid in diagnosing PD

Treatment :
There’s no cure for Parkinson’s disease although new research is just starting to suggest that some drugs already used for the condition do have some effect in holding back progression of the disease.

A lot can be done to relieve symptoms, especially in the early stages, by replacing the missing dopamine in the brain. This can be done very effectively with a drug called levodopa – a synthetic chemical that’s converted into dopamine in the brain. However, there can be severe side-effects with prolonged usage.

Because of these problems, doctors usually try to delay using levodopa, especially in younger people. Instead, they use other drugs that boost dopamine activity or mimic its effects, known as dopamine agonists. These drugs also have side-effects and doses have to be carefully tailored to each patient’s needs.

Another option for people with more advanced Parkinson’s is injections of a drug called apomorphine which can ‘rescue’ people from sudden ‘off’ periods (episodes of greatly reduced mobility).

This drug can also be given as a continuous infusion for those with severe movement fluctuations and reduces the dose of levodopa that a person requires.

Occupational therapists and physiotherapists help people manage their condition by assisting with movement and providing advice on how to maintain independence in everyday life. Speech and language therapists help with communication or swallowing difficulties.

Deep brain stimulation is a form of surgery that can be used to treat some of the symptoms of Parkinson’s. A wire with four electrodes at its tip is implanted in one of four target sites in the brain. Then a small unit, which generates electrical signals for the stimulation, is implanted into the person’s chest. When the stimulation is switched on, electrical signals are sent to the brain to stop or reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s. It’s not suitable for everyone with Parkinson’s, but can provide significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life.

In the future, gene therapy and stem cell therapy may hold some possibility of more effective treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

YOU MAY CLICK & SEE  : Parkinson’s disease ‘may start in gut’

Lifestyle and home remedies:
If you’ve received a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, you’ll need to work closely with your doctor to find a treatment plan that offers you the greatest relief from symptoms with the fewest side effects. Certain lifestyle changes also may help make living with Parkinson’s disease easier.

Healthy eating
Eat a nutritionally balanced diet that contains plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. These foods are high in fiber, which is important for helping prevent the constipation that is common in Parkinson’s disease. A balanced diet also provides nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, that may be beneficial for people with Parkinson’s disease.

If you take a fiber supplement, such as psyllium powder, Metamucil or Citrucel, be sure to introduce it gradually and drink plenty of fluids daily. Otherwise, your constipation may become worse. If you find that fiber helps your symptoms, use it on a regular basis for the best results.

Walking with care
Parkinson’s disease can disturb your sense of balance, making it difficult to walk with a normal gait.

These suggestions may help:

*Try not to move too quickly.
*Aim for your heel to strike the floor first when you’re walking.
*If you notice yourself shuffling, stop and check your posture. It’s best to stand up straight.

Avoiding falls
In the later stages of the disease, you may fall more easily. In fact, you may be thrown off balance by just a small push or bump.

The following suggestions may help:

*Don’t pivot your body over your feet while turning. Instead, make a U-turn.
*Don’t lean or reach. Keep your center of gravity over your feet.
*Don’t carry things while walking.
*Avoid walking backward.

Dressing
Dressing can be the most frustrating of all activities for someone with Parkinson’s disease. The loss of fine motor control makes it hard to button and zip clothes, and even to step into a pair of pants. An occupational therapist can point out techniques that make daily activities easier.

These suggestions also may help:

*Allow plenty of time so that you don’t feel rushed.
*Lay clothes nearby.
*Choose clothes that you can slip on easily, such as sweat pants, simple dresses or pants with elastic waistbands.
*Use fabric fasteners, such as Velcro, instead of buttons.

Alternative Medications:
Forms of alternative medicine that may help people with Parkinson’s include:

*Coenzyme Q10. People with Parkinson’s disease tend to have low levels of coenzyme Q10, and some research has suggested it may be beneficial. However, subsequent research hasn’t confirmed this benefit. You can buy coenzyme Q10 without a prescription in drugstores and natural food stores. Talk with your doctor before taking this supplement to ensure that it won’t interfere with any medication you may be taking.

*Massage. Massage therapy can reduce muscle tension and promote relaxation, which may be especially helpful to people experiencing muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson’s disease. These services, however, are rarely covered by health insurance.

*Tai chi. An ancient form of Chinese exercise, tai chi employs slow, flowing motions that help improve flexibility and balance. Several forms of tai chi are tailored for people of any age or physical condition.

*Yoga. Yoga is another type of exercise that increases flexibility and balance. Most poses can be modified, depending on your physical abilities.

Prognosis:
PD invariably progresses with time. Motor symptoms, if not treated, advance aggressively in the early stages of the disease and more slowly later. Untreated, individuals are expected to lose independent ambulation after an average of eight years and be bedridden after ten years.  However, it is uncommon to find untreated people nowadays. Medication has improved the prognosis of motor symptoms, while at the same time it is a new source of disability because of the undesired effects of levodopa after years of use.   In people taking levodopa, the progression time of symptoms to a stage of high dependency from caregivers may be over 15 years.  However, it is hard to predict what course the disease will take for a given individual. Age is the best predictor of disease progression. The rate of motor decline is greater in those with less impairment at the time of diagnosis, while cognitive impairment is more frequent in those who are over 70 years of age at symptom onset.

Since current therapies improve motor symptoms, disability at present is mainly related to non-motor features of the disease.Nevertheless, the relationship between disease progression and disability is not linear. Disability is initially related to motor symptoms. As the disease advances, disability is more related to motor symptoms that do not respond adequately to medication, such as swallowing/speech difficulties, and gait/balance problems; and also to motor complications, which appear in up to 50% of individuals after 5 years of levodopa usage. Finally, after ten years most people with the disease have autonomic disturbances, sleep problems, mood alterations and cognitive decline. All of these symptoms, especially cognitive decline, greatly increase disability.

The life expectancy of people with PD is reduced. Mortality ratios are around twice those of unaffected people. Cognitive decline and dementia, old age at onset, a more advanced disease state and presence of swallowing problems are all mortality risk factors. On the other hand a disease pattern mainly characterized by tremor as opposed to rigidity predicts an improved survival. Death from aspiration pneumonia is twice as common in individuals with PD as in the healthy population

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/parkinsons1.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson’s_disease
http://www.medicinenet.com/parkinsons_disease/article.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson’s_disease
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/parkinsons-disease/DS00295

Essential Tremor

Alternative Names:  Tremor – essential; Familial tremor; Tremor – familial

Definition:
Essential tremor is a disorder of the nervous system that causes a rhythmic shaking. Essential tremor (ET) goes by many names (benign essential tremor and familial tremor being two others), but regardless of the name it is characterized by a shaking in primarily the hands and arms, but it can be found in the jaw and throat and even more rarely the legs. ET is a widely varying disease that can affect many body parts and can vary in its intensity. Some people have a minor tremor in their hands, while others will have a highly noticeable tremor that affects the afflicted’s quality of life and can be mistaken for Parkinson’s Disease by the lay person. Many diseases have a tremor associated with them, but what sets ET apart from other diseases is its lack of any symptom outside of the tremor. Most people will never be diagnosed as having ET, and even when diagnosed there are few treatments available. Essential tremor is inherited by more people on a year by year basis than any other movement disease, this being because it is a simple dominant autosomal trait……...click & see

click to see the picture

Although usually not a dangerous condition, essential tremor worsens over time and can be severe in some people.Essential tremor can occur at any age but is most common in older adults……....you may click  to read more

Symptoms:
The tremor is usually most obvious in the hands, but may affect the arms, head, eyelids, or other muscles. The tremor rarely affects the legs or feet. People with essential tremor may have trouble holding or using small objects such as silverware or a pen.

The shaking usually involves small, rapid movements — more than 5 times a second.

Specific symptoms may include:

*Begin gradually

*Worsen with movement

*Usually occur in the hands first, affecting one hand or both hands

*Are aggravated by emotional stress, fatigue, caffeine or extremes of temperature

*Head nodding (Can include a “yes-yes” or “no-no” motion of the head)

*Shaking or quivering sound to the voice if the tremor affects the voice box

*Difficulty writing, drawing, drinking from a cup, or using tools if the tremor affects the hands

The tremors may:

*Occur when you move (action-related tremor), and may be less noticeable with rest

*Come and go, but generally get worse as you age

*Get worse with stress, caffeine, and certain medications

*Not affect both sides of the body the same way

Essential tremor vs. Parkinson’s disease

Many people associate tremors with Parkinson’s disease, but the two conditions differ in key ways:

*When tremors occur. Essential tremor of the hands typically occurs when you use your hands. Tremors from Parkinson’s are most prominent when your hands are at your sides or resting in your lap.

*Associated conditions. Essential tremor doesn’t cause other health problems, whereas Parkinson’s is associated with a stooped posture, slow movement and a shuffling gait. However, people with essential tremor may sometimes develop other neurological signs and symptoms — such as an unsteady gait (ataxia).

*Parts of body affected. Essential tremor can involve your hands, head, voice and legs. Tremors from Parkinson’s typically affect your hands but not your head or voice.

Causes:
Essential tremor is the most common type of tremor. In general, tremors occur when there is a problem with the nerves supplying certain muscles. However, everyone has some essential tremor but the movements are usually so small that they can’t be seen.

About half of essential tremor cases appear to occur because of a genetic mutation. This is referred to as familial tremor. What causes essential tremor in people without a known genetic mutation isn’t clear.

Some research suggests that the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls muscles movements, does not work correctly in patients with essential tremor.

Noticeable essential tremors can be seen at any age but are most common in people older than 65.

Essential tremor can also occur with other neurological conditions, including dystonia, parkinsonism, and certain inherited nerve conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

If an essential tremor occurs in more than one member of a family, it is called a familial tremor. This type of essential tremor is passed down through families (inherited), which suggests that genes play a role in its cause.

Familial tremor is usually a dominant trait, which means that you only need to get the gene from one parent to develop the disorder. It usually starts in early middle age, but may be seen in people who are older or younger.

Risk Factors:
There are two known risk factors for essential tremor:

*Genetic mutation. The inherited variety of essential tremor is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a defective gene from just one parent is needed to pass on the condition. If you have a parent with a genetic mutation for essential tremor, you have a 50 percent chance of developing the disorder yourself.

*Age. Essential tremor is more common in middle age and older.

Complications:
Essential tremor is not life-threatening, but symptoms often worsen over time. If the tremors become severe, you may find it difficult to:

*Hold a cup or glass without spilling

*Eat normally

*Put on makeup or shave

*Talk, if your voice box or tongue is affected

*Write — handwriting may become increasingly large, shaky and illegible

Diagnosis:

Your doctor can make the diagnosis by performing a physical exam and asking questions about your medical and personal history.

A physical exam will show shaking with movement, usually small movements that are faster than 5 times per second. There are usually no problems with coordination or mental function.

Further tests may be needed to rule out other reasons for the tremors. Other causes of tremors may include:

•Alcohol withdrawal
•Cigarette smoking
•Hyperthyroidism
•Pheochromocytoma
•Too much caffeine
•Use of certain medications
•Wilson’s disease
Blood tests and imaging studies (such as a CT scan of the head, brain MRI, and x-rays) are usually normal.
The most common way to diagnose ET is by having a patient draw the Archimedes Spiral, which is shown immediately below.

If there is a shakiness detected while drawing the spiral, ET can be diagnosed assuming there are no neurological or biological reasons to be found. Below is a picture of what the Archimedes Spiral looks like when drawn by a person with a relatively severe tremor:

Treatment:
Treatment may not be necessary unless the tremors interfere with your daily activities or cause embarrassment.

When diagnosed with ET there are several courses of action depending on the severity of the tremor.
Medicines may help relieve symptoms. How well medicines work depend on the individual patient.

Two medications used to treat tremors include:

•Propranolol, a drug that blocks the action of stimulating substances called neurotransmitters, particularly those related to adrenaline
•Primidone, an antiseizure drug that also controls the function of some neurotransmitters
The drugs can have significant side effects.

Side effects of propranolol include:

•Fatigue
•Nose stuffiness
•Shortness of breath (people with asthma should not use this drug)
•Slow heart beat
Side effects of primidone include:

•Drowsiness
•Difficulty concentrating
•Nausea
•Problems with walking, balance, and coordination
Other medications that may reduce tremors include:

•Antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin and topiramate
•Mild tranquilizers such as alprazolam or clonazepam
•Blood pressure drugs called calcium-channel blockers such as flunarizine and nimodipine
Botox injections, given in the hand, have been used to reduce tremors by weakening local muscles.

In severe cases, surgery to implant a stimulating device in the brain may be an option.

Prognosis:

An essential tremor is not a dangerous condition, but some patients find the tremors annoying and embarrassing. In some cases, it may be dramatic enough to interfere with work, eating, or drinking.

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Prevention:
Stress and caffeine can make tremors worse. Avoid caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea, and soda, and other stimulants. Exercise and counseling to reduce emotional stress may also help.

Alcoholic beverages in small quantities may decrease tremors but can lead to alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse, especially if you have a family history of such problems. How alcohol helps relieve tremors is unknown.


Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://wiki.ggc.usg.edu/mediawiki/index.php/Essential_Tremor
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/essential-tremor/DS00367
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000762.htm

Movement Disorders

Introduction:
Movement disorders are a group of nervous system (neurological) conditions that cause you to have abnormal voluntary or involuntary movements, or slow, reduced movements.
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Even a simple action such as picking up a pencil engages several different parts of the brain. The conscious thought areas of the brain trigger the motor area to send signals to the muscles of the arm.

As the movement begins, sensors in the arm are activated, sending signals back into different areas of the brain that interpret them and then send further messages to the motor area to fine tune power, speed, coordination and balance.

Given such complexity, problems with the control of movement are understandably widespread. Essential tremor – the most common movement disorder – affects one in 20 people under the age of 40 and one in five people over 65. Up to one in ten people has restless legs syndrome.

Other conditions such as Parkinson’s disease (which affects one in 500 people) are less common, but can severely impair quality of life because they reduce the independence of those affected.

Types:
There are various types of  Movement disorders and that include :

*Ataxia. Ataxia is a neurological condition that affects the part of your brain that controls coordinated movement (cerebellum). Ataxia may cause uncoordinated movements, imbalance and other symptoms.

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*Dystonia. Dystonia is a neurological condition in which your muscles contract involuntarily and may cause twisting and repetitive movements. Dystonia may involve the entire body (generalized dystonia) or one part of the body (focal dystonia).

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*Essential tremor. Essential tremor is a neurological condition that causes involuntary shaking (tremors). Your hands often are affected, but other parts of your body also may be affected.

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*Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is an inherited progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that causes certain nerve cells in your brain to deteriorate. This condition may cause uncontrolled movements, decreased thinking abilities (cognitive abilities), and emotional and mental health disturbances (psychiatric conditions).

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*Multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy is an uncommon, progressive neurological disorder that affects many areas of your brain and nervous system. Multiple system atrophy may cause ataxia or parkinsonism. This condition frequently impairs body systems that modulate your blood pressure, heart rate and bladder function (autonomic function).

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*Myoclonus.:  Myoclonus is a condition in which you have sudden, jerky movements, twitching, or intermittent spasms of a muscle or group of muscles.

click to see the picture
*Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects your movement and may cause shaking (tremor), muscle stiffness (rigidity), slowing of movement, impaired balance or other symptoms. Parkinsonism describes a group of conditions that has symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease.

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*Progressive supranuclear palsy. Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare neurological disorder that causes you to have problems with walking, balance and eye movements. It resembles Parkinson’s disease but is a distinct condition.

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*Restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome causes unpleasant, abnormal feelings in your legs while you’re relaxing or lying down. Your symptoms often are relieved by movement.
Tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological condition caused by long-term use of certain drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions (neuroleptic drugs). Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive and involuntary movements such as grimacing, eye blinking and other movements.

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*Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome is a neurological condition which starts between childhood and teenage years and is associated with repetitive movements (motor tics) and vocal sounds (vocal tics).

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*Wilson’s disease. Wilson’s disease is an inherited (genetic) disorder that causes excessive amounts of copper to build up in your body, causing neurological problems.

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Treatment :Treatment depends upon the underlying disorder

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_disorder
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/movementdisorders1.shtml
http://www.ganeurosurg.org/specialties/movementdisorders.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/movement-disorders/

Dystonia


http://wiki.ggc.usg.edu/mediawiki/index.php/Essential_Tremor
http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/academic-discussions/huntingtons-disease-991
http://www.chelationtherapyonline.com/anatomy/p3.htm

http://fisioterapiananeurologia.blogspot.com/2011/05/ataxia-de-friedreich.html

http://www.movementdisorders.org/james_parkinson/early_atypical.html

Restless Legs Syndrome

Tourette’s Syndrome Pictures

http://www.eurowilson.org/en/living/guide/what/index.phtml

Dystonia

Definition:
Dystonia is a syndrome of spasms and sustained contractions of the muscles. These muscle movements are not under voluntary control and they result in repetitive abnormal movements of parts of the body or persistently abnormal postures.

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Dystonia is a movement disorder which causes involuntary contractions of your muscles. These contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements. Sometimes they are painful.

Dystonia can affect just one muscle, a group of muscles or all of your muscles. Symptoms can include tremors, voice problems or a dragging foot. Symptoms often start in childhood. They can also start in the late teens or early adulthood. Some cases worsen over time. Others are mild.

Some people inherit dystonia. Others have it because of another disease. Either way, researchers think that a problem in the part of the brain that handles messages about muscle contractions might cause dystonia. There is no cure. Instead, doctors use medicines, surgery, physical therapy and other treatments to reduce or eliminate muscle spasms and pain.

Dystonia is incurable  thought to affect at least 40,000 people in the UK.

The different types of dystonia include:

•Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) affects the neck muscles, causing the head to twist, pull in one direction or shake
Blepharospasm – dystonia of the muscles around the eyes
Oromandibular dystonia – affecting the muscles of the jaw, tongue and mouth
•Laryngeal dystonia – affecting the speech muscles
Writer’s cramp – affecting the ability to write and sometimes other hand-based tasks
There are several types of dystonia that affect more than one area of the body including generalised dystonia, which affects most of the body, frequently involving the legs and back (trunk).

If dystonia develops in childhood, particularly if it starts in the legs, it may spread to other parts of the body and can become generalised. However, when it develops in adults, it usually confines itself to one part of the body (focal dystonia).

Although dystonia is a neurological disorder, it does not lead to problems with other functions of the brain, such as intellect.

It occurs in all parts of the world and affects people of all ages.

Dystonia can affect virtually any single part of the body or several different areas at once.

Classification:

Types of dystonia
*Generalized
*Focal
*Segmental
*Sexual
*Intermediate
*Acute Dystonic Reaction

Generalized dystonias:
*Normal birth history and milestones
*Autosomal dominant
*Childhood onset
*Starts in lower limbs and spreads upwards
*Also known as “idiopathic torsion dystonia” (old terminology “dystonia musculrum deformans”)

Focal dystonias:
These are the most common dystonias and tend to be classified as follows:
*Anismus…. muscles of the rectum……… Causes painful defecation, constipation; may be complicated by encopresis.

*Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis)…. muscles of the neck…. Causes the head to rotate to one side, to pull down towards the chest, or back, or a combination of these postures.

*Blepharospasm…. muscles around the eyes The sufferer experiences rapid blinking of the eyes or even their forced closure causing effective blindness.

*Oculogyric crisis.. muscles of eye and head….An extreme and sustained (usually) upward deviation of the eyes often with convergence causing diplopia. It is frequently associated with backwards and lateral flexion of the neck and either widely opened mouth or jaw clenching. Frequently a result of antiemetics such as the neuroleptics (e.g., prochlorperazine) or metoclopramide. Also can be caused by Chlorpromazine.

*Oromandibular dystonia….muscles of the jaw and muscles of tongue……Causes distortions of the mouth and tongue.

*Spasmodic dysphonia/Laryngeal dystonia…muscles of larynx…..Causes the voice to sound broken or reducing it to a whisper.

*Focal hand dystonia (also known as musician’s or writer’s cramp)…..single muscle or small group of muscles in the hand…..It interferes with activities such as writing or playing a musical instrument by causing involuntary muscular contractions. The condition is sometimes “task-specific,” meaning that it is generally only apparent during certain activities. Focal hand dystonia is neurological in origin, and is not due to normal fatigue. The loss of precise muscle control and continuous unintentional movement results in painful cramping and abnormal positioning that makes continued use of the affected body parts impossible.
Symptoms:
The progress of dystonia is unpredictable.

The severity of symptoms can vary from day to day, and while there often is an element of overall progression, it is difficult to estimate how long this will last.

Typically, a focal dystonia will progress gradually over a five-year period, and then progress no further.

Symptoms in all dystonic conditions can vary.

For some people, their dystonia may sometimes improve or disappear altogether for no apparent reason.

As with the onset of any long-term medical condition, some people who develop dystonia may go through an initial period of depression, embarrassment and outrage – or relief that there is an explanation for their symptoms.

Causes:
Dystonia is a movement disorder. Although the causes of dystonia are not fully known it is currently thought that the condition results from a malfunction in a part of the brain called the basal ganglia.

The basal ganglia are structures situated deep in the brain. They help to regulate voluntary and involuntary movement by controlling muscle contractions in the body.

The problem may mainly lie in an area of the basal ganglia called the globus pallidus. If this area of the brain is not functioning correctly then the control of another structure in the brain called the thalamus is affected.

The thalamus controls the planning and execution of movement and sends nerves to muscles via the spinal cord. The end result is that muscle co-ordination is not regulated properly. The wrong muscles will contract on movement or all muscles will contract unnecessarily causing abnormal movement and posture.

Muscles positioned around joints usually work in pairs opposite each other, eg the biceps and triceps muscles of the upper arm bend or straighten the elbow respectively. Usually if one muscle of a pair is contracted the other is relaxed. However, in dystonia both muscles in the pair contract at the same time leading to the abnormal movement or posture.

It is thought that in some cases there may be a chemical imbalance or ‘wiring fault’ in the basal ganglia. Chemical transmitters, such as dopamine, convey messages from one nerve cell to another within the basal ganglia. If this balance is upset then incorrect signals will be sent out resulting in loss of regulation of co-ordinated movements.

Supporting this theory is the fact that people with dystonia do not show structural abnormalities of the brain. The ‘wiring fault’ theory is therefore more likely because it works at a much smaller scale.

The fault in the basal ganglia may be caused by an inherited factor or be secondary to another problem such as drugs or toxins, or a separate neurological disease. Recently scanning studies using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with cervical (neck muscle) dystonia have revealed reduced basal ganglia density of an important dopamine receptor (the D2 receptor).

Genetic risk factors:
Dystonia that develops in childhood is often inherited through one or more affected genes.

Most primary segmental or generalised dystonia is inherited in a dominant manner, which means if a parent has this type of dystonia, there’s a 50% chance of passing the dystonia gene to each child.

However, not everyone who inherits the gene develops dystonia, a phenomenon known as reduced penetrance.

Dystonia which develops in adults may also be inherited.

Diagnosis:
There is no definitive test for dystonia. Diagnosis depends on the presence of characteristic clinical symptoms and signs. The neurologist will perform a full neurological examination and may also perform blood tests or a brain scan to rule out an illness or injury that may be causing the dystonia. If no cause can be found the dystonia is termed ‘idiopathic’.

Treatment:
There is no cure for most forms of dystonia. However, many dystonic conditions can be successfully managed.

Most people manage to develop effective strategies for coping with the challenges their condition brings.

Successful treatments to lessen their symptoms, effective pain control and the acquisition of sensory ‘tricks’ all help to ameliorate social situations.

Various treatments are available for dystonia. These will be determined depending upon the type and severity of the particular condition.

The main options are:
•Botulinum toxin – injections are generally the most effective treatment for dystonia where it affects the muscles of the neck or around the eyes. However, resistance to botulinum toxin can develop in a minority of patients over time.
•Drugs – some work by interfering with neurotransmitters, the chemical substances that carry messages within the brain, while others are designed to relax the muscles, reducing shaking and control muscle spasms. To be effective, they have to be taken continuously.
•Surgery – may be an option where patients have never been or are no longer receptive to other treatments. Treatments include selective denervation and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the case of the latter, electrodes are planted in the basal ganglia to help rebalance movement and control posture. Recent research has led to a refinement in the placing of electrodes for optimum effect.

Other treatment:
Physical therapies such as physiotherapy with ice, heat or ultrasound, speech therapy for spasmodic dysphonia, acupuncture, osteopathy or chiropractic techniques help some patients. However, treatments involving manipulation of the neck are not recommended for spasmodic torticollis. Relaxation therapies such as hypnosis, behaviour therapy, biofeedback and meditation may also help.

Good advice:
A positive attitude is vital. Dystonia is not life-threatening but can be disabling. Dystonia can have a profound effect both emotionally and functionally. Sufferers should try to continue to lead as normal a life as possible. Counselling and family and social support is helpful.

Many patients with focal dystonias such as torticollis can control the abnormal posture for a short time by using sensory tricks or ‘gestes antagonistiques’. The most common geste is to place a finger or hand against the lower face on the same or opposite side to the direction of movement. Other gestes include sucking a pen or necklace or pulling on the end of the nose or an earlobe. Ambient sound has also been found to relieve dystonia.

Prognosis:
Focal dystonias such as torticollis and blepharospasm may worsen over several years before stabilising. They may improve or disappear for no apparent reason. The likelihood of this has been estimated from anything from 1 in 10 to 1 in 20, but there is no way to predict whether it will happen. In some cases the dystonia will return after a period of remission, but other patients can remain symptom free for the rest of their lives.

Focal dystonias are unlikely to spread to become generalised dystonia. However, some focal dystonias may be associated with each other.

If the dystonia develops in childhood then it usually spreads to other parts of the body and becomes generalised. This type of dystonia is much more disabling than the adult focal type.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dystonia.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dystonia
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dystonia.html#cat5
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/dystonia.htm

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