Tag Archives: Myroxylon

Myrospermum Toluiferum

Botanical Name :Myrospermum Toluiferum
Family:Fabaceae /Leguminosae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Amburaneae
Genus:Myrospermum
Species:    M. frutescens
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:  Fabales

Synonyms: Balsamum Tolutanum. Tolutanischer Balsam. Balsamum Americanum.

Common Name: Balsam of Tolu

Habitat :Myrospermum Toluiferum is a tree which grows throughout the forests of South America, especially on the elevated parts near Carthagena, Tolu, and in the Magdalena provinces of Columbia.

Description:
Myrospermum Toluiferum  is presumed to be similar to the Balsam of Peru tree,   differing only in the leaflets, which in this tree are thin, membranouss, obovate, taper-pointed; the terminal ones larger than the others.

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The balsam is obtained by making incisions into the tree, and which flows into wax vessels. It is exported from Carthagena in tin, earthen, and other vessels. It has a pale, yellowish-red or brown color, solid and brittle, an agreeable vanilla-like odor, and a sweetish aromatic taste. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and essential oils.

Medicinal Uses:
Constituents:  About 80 per cent amorphous resin, with cinnamic acid, a volatile oil, and a little vanillin, benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate. It is freely soluble in chloroform, glacial acetic acid, acetone, ether, alcohol and liquor potassa, scarcely soluble in petroleum-benzine and benzol.

To distinguish it from Balsam of Peru it can be tested with sulphuric acid and water, yielding a grey mass instead of the lovely violet colour of the genuine Peruvian Balsam.

Like Balsam of Peru, it is a stimulant, tonic, and expectorant, and cannot be equalled for its curative effects in cases sof consumption, catarrh, bronchitis, asthma, and all inflammatory, ulcerated, spasmodic, or other morbid conditions of the respiratory organs and their adjuncts. The balsam dissolved in ether, and the vapor therefrom inhaled, is reported beneficial in coughs and bronchial affections of long standing, and I have no doubt it is so, as its virtues in such complaints are very wonderful.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://chestofbooks.com/health/herbs/O-Phelps-Brown/The-Complete-Herbalist/Tolu-Myrospermum-Toluiferum.html
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/baloft07.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrospermum

Myroxylon Pereiræ

Botanical Name :Myroxylon Pereiræ
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Amburaneae
Genus: Myroxylon
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Toluifera Pereira. Myrosperum Pereira.

Common Names :Balsam of Peru, Quina or Balsamo.

Other names:  Tolu in Colombia, Quina quina in Argentina; in lumber trade, sometimes named Santos Mahogany.

Habitat:Myroxylon Pereiræ is native to Central America in the forests of San Salvado.

Description:
Myroxylon Pereiræ is a large tree growing to 40 metres (130 ft) tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long with 5-13 leaflets.
It is a beautiful tree with a valuable wood like mahogany, and a straight smooth trunk; the last is coarse grey, compact, heavy granulated and a pale straw colour, containing a resin which changes from citron to dark brown; smell and taste balsamic and aromatic. Leaves alternately, abruptly pinnate, leaflets two pairs mostly opposite, ovate, lanceolate with the end blunt emarginate; every part of the tree including the leaves abounds in a resinous juice. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7–11 centimetres (2.8–4.3 in) long, containing a single seed.The mesocarp of the fruit is fibrous, and the balsamic juice which is abundant is contained in two distinct receptacles, one on each side. The beans contain Coumarin, the husks an extremely acrid bitter resin, and a volatile oil; a gum resin, quite distinct from the proper balsam, exudes from the trunk of the tree and contains gum resin and a volatile oil; the tree commences to be productive after five or six years, and continues to yield for thirty years; the flower has a fragrance which can be smelt a hundred yards away.
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The wood is dark brown with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment. Its specific gravity is 0.74 to 0.81.

As regards woodworking, this tree is regarded as moderately difficult to work but can be finished with a high natural polish; it tends to cause some tool dulling.

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Oleoresinous liquid.

Constituents: A colourless, aromatic, oily liquid, termed cinnamein, dark resin peruviol, small quantity of vanillin and cinnamic acid.

Uses: Stimulant, expectorant, parasiticide. Used in scabies and skin diseases; it destroys the itch acarus and its eggs, and is much to be preferred to sulphur ointment, also of value in prurigo, pruritis and in later stages of acute eczema. It is a good antiseptic expectorant and a stimulant to the heart, increasing blood pressure; its action resembles benzoic acid. It is applied externally to sore nipples and discharges from the ear. Given internally, it lessens mucous secretions, and is of value in bronchorrhoea gleet, leucorrhoea and chronic bronchitis, and asthma. It is also used in soap manufacturing, for its fragrance, and because it makes a soft creamy lather, useful for chapped hands. Balsam of Peru can be applied alone or as an ointment made by melting it with an equal weight of tallow.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myroxylon
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/balofp06.html

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Myroxylon pereirae

Botanical Name : Myroxylon pereirae
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Sophoreae
Genus: Myroxylon
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Name :Peru Balsam, Balsam of Peru , Tolu Balsam

Habitat ; Myroxylon pereirae is native to tropical America

Description:
Myroxylon pereirae is a large tree growing to 40 m tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 cm long with 5-13 leaflets. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7–11 cm long, containing a single seed.
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Myroxylon balsamum seedlings in Udawattakele F...

Myroxylon balsamum seedlings in Udawattakele Forest, Kandy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The wood is dark brown with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment. Its specific gravity is 0.74 to 0.81.

As regards woodworking, this tree is regarded as moderately difficult to work but can be finished with a high natural polish; it tends to cause some tool dulling.

click to see the picture

Its sweetish scent, reminiscent of vanilla and green olives, has caused it to be used in the manufacture of perfumes as a source for Balsam. Balsam of Peru is used as a flavoring and fragrance in many products and can cause allergic reactions.

Peru Balsam aromatic resin is extracted from the variant Myroxylon balsamum pereirae, native from Central America farther north. The name is a misinterpretation of its origin, since it was originally assembled and shipped to Europe from the ports of Callao and Lima, in Peru, even though the species is not indigenous to Peru. The indigenous use of Peru Balsam led to its export to Europe in the seventeenth century, where it was first documented in the German Pharmacopedia. Today El Salvador is the main exporter of Peru Balsam where it is extracted under a plainly handicraft process.

Peru balsam has uses in medicine, pharmaceutical, in the food industry and in perfumery. It has been used as a cough suppressant, in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry, in suppositories for hemorrhoids, the plants have been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria, H. pylori in test-tube studies, so it is used topically as a treatment of wounds and ulcers, as an antiseptic and used as an anal muscle relaxant. Peru Balsam can be found in diaper rash ointments, hair tonics, antidandruff preparations, and feminine hygiene sprays and as a natural fragrance in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes

Medicinal Uses;
Peru Balsam has been in the US Pharmacopeia since 1820 used for bronchitis, laryngitis, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery and leucorrhea and has also been used as a food flavoring and fragrance material for its aromatic vanilla like-odor. Today it is used extensively in topical preparations for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, and scabies, and can be found in hair tonics, anti-dandruff preparations, feminine hygiene sprays and as a natural fragrance in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions and perfumes.
Peruvian balsam is strongly antiseptic and stimulates repair of damaged tissue.  It is usually taken internally as an expectorant and decongestant to treat emphysema, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma.  It may also be taken to treat sore throats and diarrhea.  Externally, the balsam is applied to skin afflictions.  It also stimulates the heart, increases blood pressure and lessens mucus secretions.  Traditionally used for rheumatic pain and skin problems including scabies, diaper rash, bedsores, prurigo, eczema, sore nipples and wounds.  It also destroys the itch acarus and its eggs.

Other Uses: Myroxylon pereirae is a  beautiful, tall jungle trees are also known for their different valuable , mahogany-like wood. The process of extraction produces three grades of a balsamic and aromatic resin.

Known Hazards:   Allergic reactions are possible, and it also may increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Whether taken internally or externally, large quantities of balsam of Tolu can damage the kidneys.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myroxylon
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

http://www.erbesalute.it/web/scheda.asp?id=2440

http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail47.php#Cautions

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Palutan

 

Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Violales

Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe

Common Names :  Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)

Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.

Description:
The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.

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Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.

Properties:
*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.

Folkloric
*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.

*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.

*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.

*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.

*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.

*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.

*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.

*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.

*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.

*In India, used as an antiviral.

*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.

*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.

Studies :-
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Palutan.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flacourtia_indica
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/palutan.pdf

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