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Herbs & Plants

Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)

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Botanical Name : Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Genus: Symphoricarpos

Kingdom: Plantae

Order: Dipsacales

Common Names:Snowberry, Waxberry or Ghostberry

Habitat:  Symphoricarpos has 15 species of deciduous shrubs in the honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae. All species are natives of North and Central America, except one native to western China. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words (symphorein), meaning “to bear together,” and  (karpos), meaning “fruit.” It refers to the closely packed berries the species produce.

Description:

Symphoricarpos is a deciduous shrub. Its leaves are 1.5–5 cm long, rounded, entire or with one or two lobes at the base. The flowers are small, greenish-white to pink, in small clusters of 5–15 together in most species, solitary or in pairs in some (e.g. S. microphyllus). The fruit are conspicuous, 1–2 cm in diameter, soft, varying from white (e.g. S. albus) to pink (S. microphyllus) to red (S. orbiculatus) and in one species (S. sinensis), blackish purple. When the white berries are broken open, the fruit inside looks like fine, sparkling granular snow.

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Medicinal Uses:

Snowberry was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for the saponins it contains. These saponins can be toxic, but when applied externally they have a gentle cleansing and healing effect upon the skin, killing body parasites and helping in the healing of wounds. The Native Americans used it to treat a variety of complaints but especially as an external wash on the skin. Any internal use of this plant should be carried out with care, and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. An infusion of the stems has been drunk to treat stomach problems and menstrual disorders. A decoction of the leaves has been used in the treatment of colds. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been applied, or an infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash, in the treatment of external injuries. A weak solution of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for children whilst a stronger solution is applied to sores. The fruit has been eaten, or used as an infusion, in the treatment of diarrhea. An infusion of the fruit has been used as an eye wash for sore eyes. The berries have been rubbed on the skin as a treatment for burns, rashes, itches and sores. The berries have also been rubbed on warts in order to get rid of them. A poultice of the crushed leaves, fruit and bark has been used in the treatment of burns, sores, cuts, chapped and injured skin.  An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of fevers (including childhood fevers), stomach aches and colds. A decoction of the root bark has been used in the treatment of venereal disease and to restore the flow of urine. An infusion of the root has been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. An infusion of the whole plant has been drunk and also applied externally in the treatment of skin rashes. A decoction of the roots and stems has been used in the treatment of the inability to urinate, venereal disease, tuberculosis and the fevers associated with teething sickness

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphoricarpos

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Black Haw

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Botanical Name :Viburnum prunifolium
Family: Caprifoliaceae
Synonyms: black haw bark, sweet viburnum, stag bush, American sloe
Common Name: blackhaw viburnum
Order: : Caprifoliaceae
Parts used: Bark, root bark.

Habitat: Native to eastern and central North America

Description:
Black haw is usually grown as a large, upright, multi-stemmed, deciduous shrub with an irregular crown, but it also may be grown as a small, single trunk tree. As a shrub, it typically grows 12-15′ tall with a spread of 6-12′, but as a tree may reach a height of 30′. A Missouri native plant which commonly occurs in moist woods, thickets and on streambanks throughout the State. Non-fragrant white flowers in flat-topped cymes (to 4.5″ diameter) appear in spring.

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Flowers give way in autumn to blue-black, berry-like drupes which often persist into winter and are quite attractive to birds and wildlife. Ovate, finely toothed, glossy dark green leaves (to 4″ long) turn attractive shades of red and purple in fall. Fruits are edible and may be eaten off the bush when ripe or used in jams and preserves. Common name refers to the purported similarity of this plant to hawthorns (sometimes commonly called red haws), though hawthorns are in a different family.

Constituents : Black haw contains triterpenoids, coumarins, bitter principle, valerianic acid, salicosides, tannin.

Medicinal Uses:
The black haw has been traditionally used in a number of ways by the Native Americans, the stem of the plant were used to make baskets, while the berries were turned into a kind of jam. Fertility was believed to be boosted by the plant, and to increase a slave woman’s ability to bear more children, many Southern slave owners used to coerce their female slaves to eat the black haw berries – the idea being to make her bear more children. The supposed ability of the herb to boost fertility in women is even mentioned in the old clinical text called the Kings American Dispensatory, this 19th-century medical text was extensively used by medical doctors of that era, in this text, a group of doctors called the Eclectic movement state various uses of the herb to boost fertility and to preclude abortion in women, it is written:” It was customary for planters to compel female slaves to drink an infusion of black haw daily whilst pregnant to prevent abortion”- thus the plant was believed to control fertility and the reproductive functions of women.

It is also known that long before the colonization of North America by Europeans, in many indigenous Native American cultures, the women traditionally made use of the black haw plant for medicinal purposes – using a wide variety of herbal remedies made from different parts of the plant. In many North American cultures, the physical symptoms associated with menopause and the symptoms of menstrual cramps in women were treated by drinks of a decoction prepared from the bark of the black haw plant, the bark decoction was also used in the prevention of miscarriages and to ease the intense pains following labor during the birth of a child. Disorders of the blood and problems such as migraines were also traditionally treated using species of plants related to the black haw. As Europeans came to the continent, they learnt the value of the black haw from natives, and used it in many remedial applications; the black haw was very highly regarded as a remedy by the Eclectics, mentioned before. For example, internal irritation in the womb is alleviated by the remedies made from black haw bark, in women with a history of difficult pregnancies; the herbal remedy made from this plant is therefore a useful and very potent ally in dealing with various symptoms. The presence of a particular helpful chemical known to be a uterine relaxing agent called scopoletin confirms the validity of its traditional use in this role to some extent. Many modern herbalists still swear by the remedial properties of the black haw bark.

As an herbal remedy, the strong astringent and anti-spasmodic effects of the black haw are used specifically in the treatment of pain associated with the menstrual cycle in affected women. Many other gynecological disorders and conditions are also treated using the remedies derived from the black haw bark, thus the practices of the 19th-century are still followed by many herbalist. Some of the conditions treated using the bark include excessive bleeding during menopause in women, the prolapse of the uterus, the presence of morning sickness during pregnancy, and the threat or signs of miscarriage in pregnant women. The presence of colic or the presence of cramping pain along the bile ducts, pain along the digestive tract and the urinary tract are also typically treated using the black haw herb, the strong anti-spasmodic action of the plant comes into play and helps alleviate such physical conditions.

Collection & Harvesting:
Autumn is the usual period for harvesting of black haw root and trunk bark, this is preceded by the collection of bark from stems in the spring or summer. The normal way of collection of bark, is by uprooting the entire shrub and then carefully stripping off the bark from the roots and the trunk of the plant. During the summer or the spring the bark of the branches is collected and stored after drying – the difference in collecting time ensures optimal utilization of the plant as individual plants are dead when uprooted during autumn. Drying of the bark is carried out in shaded areas in all cases and these are then stored and processed to be used in herbal medications at a later time.

Click to see:What is the most important information one should know about black haw?

Click to see:- Black Haw Bark for Menstrual Cramp Cure

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/PlantFinder/plant.asp?code=G240#lbl_culture
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_black_haw.htm
http://www.purplesage.org.uk/profiles/blackhaw.htm

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Blue Flag

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Botanical Name:Iris versicolor
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Species: I. versicolor
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Common Names:Orris Root, Blue Lily, Iris, Florentine Orris, White Flag Root, Flag Lily, Liver Lily, Poison Flag, Poison Lily, Snake Lily, Water Flag, Wild Iris, Yellow Flag, Yellow Iris, Dragon Flower, Myrtle Flower, Fliggers, Flaggon, Sheggs, Segg, Daggers, Jacob’s Sword, Gladyne, Fleur-de-lis
Parts Used: Rhizome & Root
Habitat:Native to North America, blue flag also grows throughout the British Isles. It prefers damp and marshy areas in the wild, but it is often cultivated as a garden plant.

Description:
A perennial herb, it grows to about three feet with erect stems, sword-shaped leaves, and two to three resplendent blue to violet, iris-like flowers per stem. The flower petals are long with a pleasant aroma. The fruit is a large capsule with a number of sections in which the brown seeds are lined up like a roll of coins. The rhizome is thick and short and unearthed in autumn.

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Stems grow in clusters from the base, usually single or double-branched, and can be from less than a foot tall to over 3 feet. Leaves are sword-like or blade-like. Flowers are on an elongated stem that usually rises above the leaves. Six-petaled iris-like flowers (actually 3 petals and 3 sepals) can be bluish-purple to violet in blue flag to white, yellow, or copper-colored in other iris species. Flowers are fragrant. Irises have shallow roots and can spread from the roots.

Submerged portions of all aquatic plants provide habitats for many micro and macro invertebrates. These invertebrates in turn are used as food by fish and other wildlife species.

History:-
Blue flag was a popular medicinal plant with Native Americans, who used it as an emetic, cathartic, and diuretic, to treat wounds and sores, and for colds, earaches, and cholera. The plant was considered helpful in treating liver problems and used for this purpose by the Hudson Bay Cree and the Delaware.

The plant was listed in the US Pharmacopoeia from 1820 to 1895.

In the Anglo-American Physiomedicalist tradition, it was used as a glandular and liver remedy.

In times past, the chemicals found in the root were inhaled in liquid form to clear the brain of “phlegmatic humours”.

Constituents: Blue flag contains triterpenoids, salicylic and isophthalic acids, a very small amount of volatile oil, starch, resin, an oleo-resin, and tannins.

Medicinal Uses:It is  bile stimulant, diuretic, detoxifies, mild laxative,mild expectorant, relieves nausea and vomiting.
The alkaloids in the rhizome can stimulate heart activity and seem to have a purifying action in the blood, but the rhizome should not be used by the inexperienced.

Blue flag has also been known as the liver lily, because its dried and powdered rhizomes were traditionally believed to be an excellent remedy for impurities of the blood and diseases of the liver. Its many other uses in folk medicine included the treatment of skin diseases, rheumatism, and even syphilis. No one, however, prized blue flag more than American Indians, some of whom regarded it as a virtual panacea. One of their uses for it, not adopted by the white man, was as a poultice for treating sores and bruises. Certain tribes are said to have planted blue flag near their villages to ensure a convenient supply.

Blue flag is currently used mainly to detoxify the body. Blue flag increases urination and bile production, and has a mild laxative effect. This combination of cleansing action makes it a useful herb for chronic skin diseases such as acne and eczema, especially where gallbladder problems or constipation contribute to the condition. Blue flag is also given for biliousness and indigestion. In small doses, blue flag relieves nausea and vomiting. However, in large doses blue flag will itself cause vomiting. The traditional use of blue flag for gland problems persists. Blue flag is also believed by some to aid weight loss.

Doses:Decoction: put 1/2 – 1 teaspoonful of the dried herb into a cup of water and bring to the boil. Let it simmer for 10 – 15 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day.
Tincture: take 2 – 4ml of the tincture three times a day.

Other medical uses:
Homeopathy.

Traditional Uses:
The herb is used mainly for disorders of the respiratory system, but homeopathic uses include the thyroid gland and for digestion and headaches.
It increases urination and bile production, as well as being a mild laxative. This combination makes a good cleansing agent, in combination with other herbs, for such chronic skin diseases as acne or eczema, especially where gallbladder problems or constipation contribute to the condition.

In small doses, it relieves nausea and vomiting but in large doses, blue flag will cause vomiting.

It is believed by some to aid in weight loss.

Topically, an infusion of blue flag leaves can be used to treat skin sores and burns.

Cautions:The rhizomes of blue flag can be dangerously toxic, as is indicated by one of its other names, poison flag.
*Excessive doses can cause vomiting.
*Do not take during pregnancy.
*It may cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/blueflag.htm
http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/database/emergent_plants/blue_flag.htm
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_blue_flag.htm#blue_flag_parts

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_versicolor

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Herbs & Plants

Baptisia australis,(Blue False Indigo)

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Botanical Name:Baptisia australis
Family: Papilionaceae (pa-pil-ee-uh-NAY-see-ee) (Info)/Fabaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Genus: Baptisia
Species: australis
Common Name: Blue false indigo, Blue Wild Indigo
Habitat:  Baptisia australis is native to much of the central and eastern North America and is particularly common in the Midwest, but it has also been introduced well beyond its natural range. It grows in rich woods, thickets.

Description: Herbaceous Perennials. The plant may attain a height of 1.5 meteres (5 ft) and a width of 1 metre (3.2 ft), but most often it is encountered at about 1 metre tall (3.2 ft) with a 0.6 metre spread (2 ft). It is well known in gardens due to its attractive pea-like, deep blue flowers that emerge on spikes in the late spring and early summer. It requires little maintenance and is quite hardy. The seed pods are popular in flower arrangements, which also contribute to its popularity in cultivation. Several American Indians tribes made use of the plant for a variety of purposes. The Cherokees used it as a source of blue dye, a practice later copied by European settlers. They also would use the roots in teas as a purgative or to treat tooth aches and nausea, while the Osage made an eyewash with the plant.
click to see the pictures>…..(01).....(1)...(2)..…..(3)..(4)…….……………
The name of the genus is derived from the Ancient Greek word bapto, meaning “to dip” or “immerse”, while the specific name australis is Latin for “southern”. Additional common names of this plant exist, such as Indigo Weed, Rattleweed, Rattlebush and Horse Fly Weed. The common name “blue false indigo” is derived from it being used as a substitute for the superior dye producing plant, namely Indigofera tinctoria. B. australis grows best in lime free, well-drained stony soil in full sun to part shade. Naturally it can be found growing wild at the borders of woods, along streams or in open meadows. It often has difficulting seeding itself in its native areas due to parasitic weevils that enter the seed pods, making the number of viable seeds very low.
…..click to see the picture
B. australis is an herbaceous perennial that reproduces both sexually and asexually by means of its spreading rhizomes. The plants are erect and emerge from the rhizomatic network. The roots themselves are branched and deep, which helps the plant withstand periods of drought. When dug up they are woody and black in colour and show tubercles, wart-like projections found on the roots. The plants branch extensively about halfway up. The stems are stour and glabrous, or hairless. If they are broken, a sap will be secreted that turns a dark blue upon contact to the air.

The trifoliate leaves are a grey-green in colour and are arranged alternately. The leaves are further divided into clover-like leaflets that are obovate in shape, or wider towards the apex. Flower spikes appear in June. Emerging at the pinnacle ar short, upright terminal racemes that have pea-like flowers that vary in colour from light blue to deep violet. The flowers, which bloom from April through August depending on the region, are bisexual and are roughly 2.5 cm long (1 inch). The fruit is a bluish black inflated and hardenend pod that ranges from 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length (1 to 3 inches) by 1.25 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 inch). They are oblong in shape and are sharply tipped at the apex. At maturity they will contain many loose seeds within. The seeds are yellowish brown, kidney shaped and about 2 mm (0.08 inches) in size.The leaves emerge about one month before flowering and are shed approximately one month after the pods form. Once the seeds are fully mature, the stems turn a silverish grey and break off from the roots. The pods stay attached and are blown with the stems to another location.

Similar Species: There are many Baptisia species in North America but this is the only one with blue flowers.

Cultivation
B. australis is the most commonly cultivated species in its genus in North America, and it is also cultivated beyond its native continent in other areas such as Great Britain. It is considered a desirable plant in the garden due to its deep blue to violet spring flowers, the attractive light green compound leaves, and also for the somewhat unusual oblong fruits that emerge in the late summer. They grow to about 90 to 120 cm tall (3 to 4 feet) in height with a similar spread. Like other members of the genus, they have very deep taproots, which makes them quite difficult to move once planted.The plants thrive in full sun and require water only in times of low rainfall. One slightly negative feature it that the leaves tend to drop early in the fall, but this is often avoiding by cutting the dead stems as they die back. It is hardy in USDA zones 3 through 8. It is commonly employed as a border plant in gardens. While there are no commonly available cultivars, several hybrids involving B. australis have been created, such as Baptisia ‘Purple Smoke’, which is a cross with Baptisia alba. The variety Baptisia australis var. minor in also used occasionally in gardens. It is much shorter at only 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 feet) in height, but the flowers are equal in size.

Medical Uses: Native Americans used this plant to treat toothache. The Cherokee woul hold hot tea, root tea or beaten root on the painfull tooth. They used a poultice to treat inflammation. It seems contridictory but a hot tea was used as a purgative and a cold tea to prevent vomiting. Baptisia species are being investigated as an immune system stimulant.

American Indians used root tea as an emetic (to produce vomiting) and as a laxative. Root poultices were used to reduce inflammation, and held in the mouth against an aching tooth.

Baptisia has been used as an antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, febrifuge,and stimulant purgative. This plant is said to stimulate immune responses to infection, and is used for ear, nose and throat problems, laryngitis, tonsillitis, as a wash for mouth ulcers, and a douche for leucorrhea. Baptisia is considered toxic. Do not use this plant unless under the supervision of a trained qualified practitioner. It is not for long term use and not to be used if pregnant. The bark of the root is harvested in autumn. The leaves may be harvested anytime.

Native Americans used root tea of False blue indigo as an emetic and purgative. A cold tea was given to stop vomiting, a root poultice used as an anti-inflammatory, and bits of the root were held in the mouth to treat toothaches. Baptisia species are being investigated for use as a potential stimulant of the immune system. A decoction of stems has been used for pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza, tips of stems combined with twigs of the Utah juniper, Juniperus osteosperma, have been used as a kidney medicine. Baptisia has also been used as a tea (tisane) for smallpox and externally as a cleansing wash. Trials using the extract of Baptisia to treat typhoid fever were made in the early 19th century. Current uses for this plant include: infection of upper respiratory tract, common cold, tonsillitis, stomatitis, inflammation of mucous membrane, fever, ointment for painless ulcers, inflamed nipples. Over-medicating will produce vomiting, diarrhea, gastrointestinal complaints, and spasms due toquinolizidine alkaloid content.

The pods are utilised in dried arrangements. Wild blue indigo is said to repel flies when kept near farm animals. Hang a bunch of Baptisia off the tack of a working animal. The plant is also used in Witchcraft in spells or rituals of protection. Keep a leaf in your pocket or add to an amulet for protection

WARNING: some sources consider this species toxic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/18/
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=B660
http://www.highcountrygardens.com/catalog/product/24570/
http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H352.htm
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/baptisiaaust.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptisia_australis

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Pinkroot, Indian Pink

Botanical Name: Spigelia merilandica

Family: Loganiaceae

Other Names: Indian Pink, Maryland Pink, Pinkroot, Wormgrass, American Wormgrass, American Wormroot, Starbloom

Parts Used : Root

Caution : Toxic! Useful only to experienced herbalists familiar with its use.

Habitat
Southeastern N. American native perennial herb, found in rich woods from New Jersey to Florida and west to Texas and Wisconsin, primarily in the Southern States.

Long ago, the pinkroot herb grew in Maryland (in the northern parts of the United States), but it now grows only in the wild in the Deep South of North America. However, owing to the noted adverse side affects of the herb it is no longer in use and is hardly collected by anyone.

Description:The pinkroot is a perpetually growing herb that is distinct for its ornamental flowers. The plant usually grows up to a height of one to two feet and has a number of four-sided smooth and purple colored stems each of which end with a single sided barb containing four to twelve decorative flowers.

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Indian Pink is fast disappearing, due to over harvesting. The leaves are pointed, stemless, alternate and opposite growing from 2 to 4 inches long, and up to 3 inches wide. The showy flowers are tube-shaped, bright scarlet red outside, opening into a bright yellow 5 pointed star, flowers bloom from May to July atop a smooth simple erect stem from 6 inches to 2 feet high. The roots are rhizome, knotty and dark-brown externally, with many thin, long, wiry rootlets attached to it, marked with scars of the stems of former years, internally the rhizome is whitish, with a darkbrown pith. Collect rootstock, after the flowers fade. The root is best used when fresh but can be harvested in the autumn then dried for herb use.

Cultivation: A very ornamental plant, Indian Pink succeeds in most fertile soils in semi-shade, transplant root cuttings in rich well drained soil. It’s best sited to well-drained, organic soil that receives good light but not direct sun. The north or east side of a house makes a good location. Once established, the plant will form a clump that will gradually get a foot or so across. Plants should be watered during dry weather.

Spigelia is available from the nursery trade, but you have to hunt to find it. It can be propagated by cuttings with the slips taken in the spring as they emerge. Care must be exercised to prevent them from rotting during the rooting stage. Seed does not seem to be readily available in the trade.

Constituents:The pinkroot herb encloses alkaloids (primarily spigeline), a volatile oil, tannin (a plant chemical used in tanning) and resin. It may be noted here that spigeline not only causes irritation, but also induces a vomiting tendency in the stomach.

The pinkroot also holds a bitter and pungent substance that is soluble in water as well as alcohol, but not soluble in ether (an organic amalgam related to the hydrocarbon group). The herb also encloses little quantity of wax, fat, mucilage (a thick water-based blend), albumen, myricin, a viscid (a thick and sticky substance), saccharine material, lignin (a composite polymer found in plant cell walls), sodium salts, potassium and calcium. It may be mentioned here that the effects of the venomous alkaloid spigeline present in pinkroot is similar to those of nicotine, coniine and lobeline.

Medicinal Properties and Uses:
Pink Root, was being used medicinally by the Native Americans long before America was even discovered. Long used as an alternative medicine its proven medicinal constituents are Spigeline, Lignin, tannin, albumen, and myricin. Some of these are showing promise as antiHIV, anticancer and anticoronary. Other medicinal properties include antibacterial, antidiarrheic, antioxidant, antiviral, anthelmintic, and laxative. It is most popular as an anthelmintic and is most potent for tapeworm and for the round worm. It is a safe and efficient drug, if administered in proper doses and always followed by a saline aperient, such as magnesium sulphate. Otherwise unpleasant and serious side effects may occur. Said to be narcotic in large doses, causing increased heart action, dizziness, vertigo, disturbed vision, muscular spasms, convulsions and possibly death.

Although the pinkroot is reported to have several remedial uses, presently herbal practitioners use the herb primarily to throw out worms, especially tapeworms and roundworms, from the intestines. In fact, herbalists also recommend the use of pinkroot along with other herbs like senna and fennel with a view to make certain the removal of both the worms and the root too. It may be mentioned here that the root of the pinkroot herb is said to be potentially noxious if it is absorbed by the stomach.

It may be mentioned here that the natives of America have been using the pinkroot to cure several ailments much before Columbus discovered America. Chemical analysis of the pinkroot has shown that it comprises proved medical elements like spigeline, lignin, tannin, albumin and myricin. Latest researches conducted on pinkroot have shown that some of these ingredients have properties that may be used to treat HIV, cancer and coronary ailments. The other remedial properties of pinkroot consist of anti-bacterial, anti-diarrheic, antioxidant, anthelmintic and laxative. The herb is accepted most for its anthelmintic properties and is considered to be a very powerful medication for tapeworm and roundworm. Normally, the pinkroot is considered to be a protected and effective medicine provided it is administered in the right dosage and always pursued by a saline aperient like magnesium sulphate.

However, if the administration of the drug is not followed by any saline aperient, it may often lead to horrid and grave side effects. If taken in large doses, the pinkroot is said to produce narcotic effects that may cause enhanced heart action, giddiness, lightheadedness or vertigo, unclear or diffused vision, muscular spasms, convulsions and even prove to be fatal.

It is interesting to note that the Cherokee and other native North Indian tribes used the pinkroot as a sacrament or ceremonial herb to help induce visions as well as predict the future. At the same time, the herb was also used as venom during some suicidal rituals.

Pinkroot Dosage Information
Pinkroot comes in various forms and can be an ingredient in some products. Due to its strong actions, it is best to consult with your physician for the treatment of your condition.

Suriname’s traditional medicine:
The plant is used against headache, throbbing pain, neuralgia, stabbing violent pain, vermifuge, congestion and as an expeller of intestinal worms.

Other medical uses:
Homeopathy.

Folklore
Used by the Cherokee and other American Indians tribes as a ritual and ceremonial herb to induce visions and foretell the future. Also used as poison in some suicidal ceremonies.

Pinkroot Safety & Interaction Information:
Pinkroot is emetic and can irritate the stomach. Due to its toxicity, caution should be used. It is possible to have side effects such as dizziness, rapid heartbeat, blurred or dimmed vision, and convulsion while taking Pinkroot. If you experience any of these symptoms, discontinue use. Not for use by small children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease.
Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.arhomeandgarden.org/plantoftheweek/articles/Indian_Pink.htm
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_pinkroot.htm
http://www.tropilab.com/wormbush.html
http://www.insensual.com/pinkroot.html

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