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Feline Dangers

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The human population can be divided into two categories: cat lovers and others. People generally regard cats as “safe” pets. This is because they know of “mad dogs” and the dreaded fatal diseaserabies — that they may transmit. Cats and dogs belong to the same mammalian species but come from different branches of the same family tree. And, as a matter of fact, cats spread the same diseases as dogs do.

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While dogs are leashed, confined and controlled, cats are never chained. They are, therefore, more likely to be infected by diseases. Public awareness about dog bites is high and this ensures that affected people immediately seek treatment. Cat bites or scratches, on the other hand, are not taken very seriously.

Domesticated cats can revert to their “wild” or “tom cat” ways on certain days. They disappear for varying lengths of time. During these periods, cats — even well fed ones — can attack, kill and eat other animals. They are also territorial and ferociously defend their area. These battles can leave them injured. Cats can acquire rabies during these forays because of contact with other infected cats or dogs. After getting infected, they may harbour the dreaded rabies virus, remaining asymptomatic all the while.

Unlike dogs, cats with rabies rarely become furious biters. Instead, they tend to develop the passive form of the disease. They remain silent and withdrawn but infective, until they eventually die.

Cats forage for food. If they come across the carcass or placenta of cows or buffaloes, they eat it. Domesticated cattle often harbour cysts of an organism called Toxoplasma gondii.CLICK & SEE The cats then acquire the infection but remain asymptomatic. As they groom themselves, they shed the infective oocytes (eggs) of the organism, and the floors of houses and other surfaces become contaminated. These oocytes can remain dormant for years unless they are accidentally swallowed.

Children are particularly susceptible to Toxoplasma infection because of their propensity to touch contaminated surfaces and then their mouths. Almost 40 per cent of the adult population has had asymptomatic infection with demonstrable antibody levels.

Toxoplasma infection is dangerous if it is acquired during pregnancy as the infection can be transmitted via the placenta to the foetus. It can affect the baby’s brain and result in a small head, developmental retardation, blindness and deafness.

Cats were worshiped in ancient Egypt and reared by the royal families (of the pharaohs). Killing a cat was a serious offence punishable by death. The royal families eventually perished, with many members dying young or born deformed with small (microcephalic) heads and having seizures and developmental retardation. These are classical symptoms of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

Almost 75 per cent of cats carry pasteurella bacteria in their mouths and can transfer the infection upon biting. Hence, wounds inflicted by cats need to be cleaned thoroughly with hydrogen peroxide solution. An antibiotic ointment (Neosporin or Bacitracin) should then be applied.

Cats often have fleas and ticks living on them unless these are manually removed by the owner. The insects can jump onto other warm-blooded hosts such as human beings. They cause red, itchy lesions. The patches can be mistaken for frustratingly recurrent eczema that remains unresponsive to treatment. The fleas also harbour the bartonella species of bacteria which can cause “cat scratch disease” with fever, body ache and enlarged lymph nodes.

Cats suffer from diarrhoea caused by the same viruses and bacteria that infect humans. Their excreta may dry unnoticed in a corner of the house, contaminating the environment and transmitting infection.

Similar groups of streptococcal bacteria cause tonsillitis in both humans and cats. The disease is mild in cats but can be severe, persistent, recurrent and unresponsive to treatment in children and immuno-compromised adults.

H. pylori, a bacterium implicated in stomach ulcers and cancer, is found in cats and can spread from them to humans. Many cat owners panicked when they read that H. pylori is a familial infection commoner in families that have cats as pets.

Mycobacteria (belonging to the TB group) species, typical and atypical, can cause diseases in cats. These can then be transmitted to humans too. This is likely to occur in immuno-deficient (HIV) individuals and young children.

Small pox has been eradicated, but cowpox infection still occurs and is transmitted by cats. The latter can cause fever and rash with a similar confounding appearance in humans, particularly children.

Diseases caused by cats are greater threats to children, pregnant women and immuno-compromised adults (HIV or cancer patients). The diagnosis may be missed as patients, unaware of the serious implications, fail to mention feline contacts to the attending physician.

ATTENTION CAT LOVERS :

Immunise your cat, yourself and your family against rabies

Treat all illnesses (diarrhoea, sore throat and cough) in your cat promptly

Do not allow cats in areas where food is prepared

Do not feed cats from your plate

Wash hands after contact with cats

Swab the house with a disinfectant solution daily

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Stye (Hordeolum)

Definition:
A stye (sty) or hordeolum is an infection of a follicle or gland at the base of an eyelash. A small boil may appear at the margin of the eyelid but, in some cases, the infection can be so deep that only swelling and redness can be seen. A stye usually goes away by itself.

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A stye develops when a gland at the edge of the eyelid becomes infected. Resembling a pimple on the eyelid, a stye can grow on the inside or outside of the lid. Styes are not harmful to vision, and they can occur at any age.


Symptoms :-

  • Redness accompanied by slight pain and tenderness
  • Swelling of a certain area which usually appears as a bump
  • Tearing of the eye
  • Discomfort when blinking
  • Sensitivity to light

Slight swelling at the margin of an eyelid. It may fill with pus and become a small boil, which either gradually disappears or ruptures by itself.

A stye initially brings pain, redness, tenderness and swelling in the area, then a small pimple appears. Sometimes just the immediate area is swollen; other times the entire eyelid swells. You may notice frequent watering in the affected eye, a feeling like something is in the eye or increased light sensitivity.

Causes:-
Styes are generally caused by a Staphylococcus aureus bacteria infection and are particularly common in infants, though people of any age may experience them.This staphylococcal bacteria is often found in the nose, and it’s easily transferred to the eye by rubbing first your nose, then your eye.A stye can be secondary, caused by blepharitis. A blocked oil gland near the eye, a chalazion, is often mistaken for a stye.

They can be triggered by stress or poor nutrition. Also, using the same razor to shave hair near the eyes and a mustache on a regular basis can also spread staphylococcus bacteria and eventually lead to styes or other eye infections.

Treatment:

A stye normally heals by itself within 2 weeks.
Apply a hot compress using a hot towel for about 5 minutes, 3 or 4 times a day, and gently massage the area. This will unclog the follicle or gland and hasten the boils to rupture.
Consult a doctor if the inflammation persists for more than 2 weeks, styes recur, or the stye rubs against the eye and irritates it.

Your doctor may prescribe antibiotic eyedrops or ointment.Surgical drainage of the stye may also be necessary if the stye is not responding to treatment

You can encourage this process of healing by applying hot compresses for 10 to 15 minutes, three or four times a day over the course of several days. This will relieve the pain and bring the stye to a head, much like a pimple. The stye ruptures and drains, then heals.

Most styes will drain on their own though this may be accelerated with a hot or warm compress, or by pulling out the eyelash. Styes typically resolve within 1 week with treatment. While a stye is technically a pimple and can be popped, doing so is not recommended without technical expertise due to their proximity to the eye. Styes may also cause a bruising feeling around the eye which can be treated with a warm cloth.

Medical professionals will sometimes lance a particularly persistent or irritating stye with a needle, to accelerate its draining. A stye’s spread or expansion can also be fought with the use of antibiotic ointment akin to Neosporin (e.g. Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment), a special version being available for styes, which can be applied in a ribbon along the lid, on either inside or out. Medical professionals may also prescribe Amoxicillin for over a period of a week.

If a stye bursts care must be taken to cleanse the wound to prevent reinfection.

Contact lenses should never be worn during treatment for a stye. Eye makeup is not recommended, and refrain from touching the stye is also very important.

Never “pop” a stye like a pimple; allow it to rupture on its own. If you have frequent styes, your eye doctor may prescribe an antibiotic ointment to prevent a recurrence.

Styes formed inside the eyelid either disappear completely or (rarely) rupture on their own, and they can be more serious. These styes may need to be opened and drained by your eyecare practitioner.

Alternative remedies:-
There are various folk remedies for curing a stye, such as rubbing a gold ring, or rubbing the hair of a cats tail on the affected area. though they are not recommended by professionals.

According to Ayurveda, applying saliva immediately after waking up in the morning to the infected areas will cure the infection.

Other folk remedies include applying the first urine of the day on the stye, applying lipstick to the stye, and rubbing the index finger on the palm until warm then applying to affected area.Applying a black tea bag to the affected area is another folk remedie.

It is important to note that none of these techniques have been empirically proven, and that they are not part of an expert’s recommended treatment.

Natural & Home Remedies For Eye Stye

Chalazion: Another Typ of Eyelid Bump
Often mistaken for a stye, a chalazion is an enlarged, blocked oil gland in the eyelid. A chalazion mimics a stye for the first few days, then turns into a painless hard, round bump later on. Most chalazia develop further from the eyelid edge than styes.

Although the same treatment speeds the healing of a chalazion, the bump may linger for one to several months. If the chalazion remains after several months, your eye doctor may drain it or inject a steroid to facilitate healing.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hordeolum
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/styes.htm
http://www.mydr.com.au/default.asp?article=2428
http://www.eyecaresource.com/conditions/styes/

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Lip Sores & Cold Sores

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Description
A Lip Sores & Cold Sores is a fluid-filled, painful blister that is usually on or around the lips. Other names for a cold sore are fever blister, oral herpes, labial herpes, herpes labialis, and herpes febrilis. Cold sores most often occur on the lips which distinguishes them from the common canker sore which is usually inside the mouth. Cold sores do not usually occur inside the mouth except during the initial episode. Canker sores usually form either on the tongue or inside the cheeks.

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Cold sores are caused by a herpes virus. There are eight different kinds of human herpes viruses. Only two of these, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, can cause cold sores. It is commonly believed that herpes simplex virus type 1 infects above the waist and herpes simplex virus type 2 infects below the waist. This is not completely true. Both herpes virus type 1 and type 2 can cause herpes lesions on the lips or genitals, but recurrent cold sores are almost always type 1.

Oral herpes is very common. More than 60% of Americans have had a cold sore, and almost 25% of those infected experience recurrent outbreaks. Most of these persons became infected before age 10. Anyone can become infected by herpes virus and, once infected, the virus remains latent for life. Herpes viruses are spread from person to person by direct skin-to-skin contact. The highest risk for spreading the virus is the time period beginning with the appearance of blisters and ending with scab formation. However, infected persons need not have visible blisters to spread the infection to others since the virus may be present in the saliva without obvious oral lesions.

Viruses are different from bacteria. While bacteria are independent and can reproduce on their own, viruses enter human cells and force them to make more virus. The infected human cell is usually killed and releases thousands of new viruses. The cell death and resulting tissue damage causes the actual cold sores. In addition, the herpes virus can infect a cell and, instead of making the cell produce new viruses, it hides inside the cell and waits. The herpes virus hides in the nervous system. This is called “latency.” A latent virus can wait inside the nervous system for days, months, or even years. At some future time, the virus “awakens” and causes the cell to produce thou sands of new viruses that cause an active infection.

This process of latency and active infection is best understood by considering the cold sore cycle. An active infection is obvious because cold sores are pre sent. The first infection is called the “primary” infection. This active infection is then controlled by the body’s immune system and the sores heal. In between active infections, the virus is latent. At some point in the future, latent viruses become activated and once again cause sores. These are called “recurrent” infections. Although it is unknown what triggers latent virus to activate, several conditions seem to bring on infections. These include stress, illness, tiredness, exposure to sunlight, menstruation, fever, and diet.

Causes of Lip sore:
The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Lip sore. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.
1.Aphthous ulcer

2.Herpes simplex

3.Cold sores

4.Canker sores

5.Impetigo

6.Dermatitis

7.Contact dermatitis

8.Candidiasis

9.Leukoplakia

10.Mucocele cyst

11.Lip burn

12.Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

13.Zinc deficiency

14.Lichen planus

15.Behcet’s syndrome

16.Erythema multiforme

17.Chancre

18.Lip cancer

19.Certain drugs

But in In general the following most common:

1) People are often allergic to products containing petroleum and even some products labeled “hypoallergenic”. Occasionally people are allergic to their toothpaste and more often to their lipstick/lip balm. Many people are allergic to Neosporin and Chap Stick. I recommend Mentholatum Lip Balm often. It comes in tube, like Chap Stick. There are also homeopathic remedies to detox the body of what it is allergically responding to.

2) Sores on the outside corners of the mouth are usually vitamin deficiencies—especially vitamin B6.

3) Sores on the top and bottom lip edge are often allergies to something being put on the lips and often this can be aggravated by sunshine.

4) Canker sores, herpes sores and cold sores are often related to what it is in the person’s life that they are   biting their tongue  about or not saying out loud and is also accentuated by stress, poor diet, not enough raw foods, and sleep issues (in combination of course).

5) Sores inside the lip and under the tongue can sometimes be viral in origin or an allergy to something. I know a few people who are allergic to nutmeg which causes a little vesicle to form under the tongue on the frenulum.

6) White sores on the mouth are usually caused from yeast (Candida). Try getting a lip product that contains Myrrh essential oil. You will also have incorporate lifestyle changes to overcome the yeast inside your system.

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Click to learn more about treatment of Cold Sores, fever etc. http://www.animated-teeth.com/cold_sores/t4_cold_sores_treatments.htm

Diagnosis
Because oral herpes is so common, it is diagnosed primarily by symptoms. It can be diagnosed and treated by the family doctor, dermatologists (doctors who specialize in skin diseases) and infectious disease specialists. Laboratory tests may be performed to look for the virus. Because healing sores do not shed much virus, a sample from an open sore would be taken for viral culture. A sterile cotton swab would be wiped over open sores and the sample used to infect human cells in culture. Cells that are killed by the herpes virus have a certain appearance under microscopic examination. The results of this test are available within two to 10 days.

Oral herpes may resemble a bacterial infection called impetigo. This skin infection is most commonly seen in children and causes herpes-like blisters around the mouth and nose. Also, because oral herpes can occur inside the mouth, the blisters could be mistaken for common canker sores. Therefore, the doctor would need to determine whether the blisters are oral herpes, canker sores, or impetigo. The diagnosis and treatment of herpes infections should be covered by most insurance providers.

Treatment:
There is no cure for herpes virus infections. There are antiviral drugs available that have some effect on lessening the symptoms and decreasing the length of herpes outbreaks. There is evidence that some may also prevent future outbreaks. These antiviral drugs work by interfering with the replication of the viruses, and are most effective when taken as early in the infection process as possible. For the best results, drug treatment should begin during the prodrome stage before blisters are visible. Depending on the length of the outbreak, drug treatment could continue for up to 10 days.

Acyclovir (Zovirax) is the drug of choice for herpes infection and can be given intravenously or taken by mouth. It can be applied directly to sores as an ointment, but is not very useful in this form. A liquid form for children is also available. Acyclovir is effective in treating both the primary infection and recurrent outbreaks. When taken by mouth to prevent an outbreak, acyclovir reduces the frequency of herpes outbreaks.

During an outbreak of cold sores, salty foods, citrus foods (oranges etc.), and other foods that irritate the sores should be avoided. Wash the sores once or twice a day with warm, soapy water and pat gently to dry. Over-the-counter lip products that contain the chemical phenol (such as Blistex Medicated Lip Ointment) and numbing ointments (Anbesol) help to relieve cold sores. A bandage may be placed over the sores to protect them and prevent spreading the virus to other sites on the lips or face. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) may be taken if necessary to reduce pain and fever.

Alternative treatment:
Vitamin and mineral supplements and diet may have an effect on the recurrence and duration of cold sores. In general, cold sore sufferers should eat a healthy diet of unprocessed foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Alcohol, caffeine, and sugar should be avoided.
An imbalance in the amino acids lysine and arginine is thought to be one contributing factor in herpes virus outbreaks. A diet that is rich in the amino acid lysine may help prevent recurrences of cold sores. Foods which contain high levels of lysine include most vegetables, legumes, fish, turkey, and chicken. In one study, patients taking lysine supplements had milder symptoms during an outbreak, a shorter healing time, and had fewer outbreaks than patients who did not take lysine. Patients should take 1,000 mg of lysine three times a day during a cold sore outbreak and 500 mg daily on an ongoing basis to prevent recurrences. Intake of the amino acid arginine should be reduced. Foods rich in arginine that should be avoided are chocolate, peanuts, almonds, and other nuts and seeds.

Vitamin C and bioflavonoids (a substance in fruits that helps the body to absorb and use vitamin C) have been shown to reduce the duration of a cold sore outbreak and reduce the number of sores. The vitamin B complex includes important vitamins that support the nervous system where viruses can hide out. B complex vitamins can also help manage stress, an important contributing factor to the outbreak of herpes viruses. Applying the oil in vitamin E capsules directly to cold sores may provide relief. Zinc lozenges appear to affect the reproduction of viruses and also enhance the immune system. Ointments containing lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) or licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been shown to help cold sores heal.

Prognosis
Oral herpes can be painful and embarrassing but, it is not a serious infection. There is no cure for oral herpes, but outbreaks usually occur less frequently after age 35. The spread of the herpes virus to the eyes is very serious. The herpes virus can infect the cells in the cornea and cause scarring that may impair vision.
Home Care :

Mouth sores generally last 10 to 14 days, even if you don’t do anything. They sometimes last up to 6 weeks. The following steps can make you feel better:

  • Gargle with cool water or eat popsicles. This is particularly helpful if you have a mouth burn.
  • Avoid hot beverages and foods, spicy and salty foods, and citrus.
  • Take pain relievers like acetaminophen.

For canker sores:

  • Rinse with salt water.
  • Apply a thin paste of baking soda and water.
  • Mix 1 part hydrogen peroxide with 1 part water and apply this mixture to the lesions using a cotton swab.

Nonprescription preparations, like Orabase, can protect a sore inside the lip and on the gums. Blistex or Campho-Phenique may provide some relief of canker sores and fever blisters, especially if applied when the sore initially appears.

Additional steps that may help cold sores or fever blisters:

  • Apply ice to the lesion.
  • Take L-lysine tablets.

Anti-viral medications for herpes lesions of the mouth may be recommended by your doctor. Some experts feel that they shorten the time that the blisters are present, while others claim that these drugs make no difference.

When to Contact a Medical Professional :

Call your doctor if:

  • The sore begins soon after you start a new medication
  • You have large white patches on the roof of your mouth or your tongue (this may be thrush or another type of lesion)
  • Your mouth sore lasts longer than 2 weeks
  • You are immunocompromised (for example, from HIV or cancer)
  • You have other symptoms like fever, skin rash, drooling, or difficulty swallowing

What to Expect at Your Office Visit:

Your doctor will perform a physical examination, focusing on your mouth and tongue. Medical history questions may include the following:

  • Are the sores on your lips, gums, tongue, lining of your cheeks, or elsewhere?
  • Are the sores open ulcers?
  • Are there large, white patches on the roof of the mouth or on your tongue?
  • How long have you had the mouth sores? More than 2 weeks?
  • Have you ever had sores of this type before?
  • What medications do you take?
  • Do you have other symptoms like fever, sore throat, or breath odor?

Treatment may depend on the underlying cause of the mouth sore.

A topical anesthetic (applied to a localized area of the skin) such as lidocaine or xylocaine may be used to relieve pain (but should be avoided in children).

An antifungal medication may be prescribed for oral thrush (a yeast infection).

An antiviral medication may be prescribed for herpes lesions (although, some feel that this does not shorten the length of time that the lesions are present)

Antibiotics may be prescribed for severe or persistent canker sores.

Prevention:
The only way to prevent oral herpes is to avoid contact with infected persons. This is not an easy solution because many people are not aware that they are infected and can easily infect others. Currently there are no herpes vaccines available, although herpes vaccines are being tested.

Several practices can reduce the occurrence of cold sores and the spread of virus to other body locations or people. These practices are:
*Avoidance of sun exposure to the face. Before getting prolonged exposure to the sun, apply sunscreen to the face and especially to the lips. Wearing a hat with a large brim is also helpful.
*Avoid touching cold sores. Squeezing, picking, or pinching blisters can allow the virus to spread to other parts of the lips or face and infect those sites.
*Wash hands frequently. Persons with oral herpes should wash their hands carefully before touching others. An infected person can spread the virus to others even when he or she has no obvious blisters.
*Avoid contact with others during active infection. Infected persons should avoid kissing or sexual contact with others until after the cold sores have healed.
*Wear gloves when applying ointment to a child’s sore.
*Be especially careful with infants. Never kiss the eyes or lips of a baby who is under six months old.
*Be watchful of infected children. Do not allow infected children to share toys that may be put into the mouth. Toys that have been mouthed should be disinfected before other children play with them.
*Maintain good general health. A healthy diet, plenty of sleep, and exercise help to minimize the chance of getting a cold or the flu, which are known to bring on cold sores. Also, good general health keeps the immune system strong; this helps to keep the virus in check and prevents outbreaks.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003059.htm
http://ezinearticles.com/?Six-Common-Causes-of-Lip-Sores&id=421609
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/symptoms/lip_sores/causes.htm

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cold+Sore

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