Tag Archives: New Guinea

Matico

Botanical Name : Piper angustifolium
Family: Piperaceae
Genus:     Piper
Species: P. aduncum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Piperales

Synonyms: Artanthe elongata. Stephensia elongata. Piper granulosum. Piper elongatum. Yerba soldado. Soldier’s Herb. Thoho-thoho. Moho-moho.

Common Names : Matico  or Soldier’s herb, gusanillo, herbe du soldat, higuillo,wer-ui-qui-yik higuillo de hoja, hoja santa, jaborandi falso, jawawa, jointwood, kakoro, malembe toto,tupa burraco, man-anihs, matico pepper, matico, maticoblätter, matika, matiko, menuda, moco-moco, moho-moho, mucumucu, pimenta de fruto ganxoso, pimenta-de-fruto-ganchoso, upnpoingpoing, pimenta-de-macaco, pimenta-matico, Santa Maria negro, shiatani, soldaten kraut, soldier’s herb, spiked pepper, tapa-curaco, tokondé,

Habitat:Matico is native to Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, and much of tropical South America. It is grown in tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Melanesia and can even be found in Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

Description:
Matico is a tropical, evergreen, shrubby tree that grows to the height of 6 to 7 meter (20 to 23 ft) with lance-shaped leaves that are 12 to 20 centimeter (5 to 8 in) long.The tree produces cord-like, white to pale yellow, inflorescence spikes that contain many minute flowers that are wind-pollinated and that soon develop into numerous tiny drupes with black seeds. The seeds are then scattered easily by bats and birds. From these many seeds, it can form large stands of quickly-growing shrubby trees that can choke out other native vegetation. Established plants also thicken into clumps or stands by suckers arising from the root crown. In some countries Matico is considered as an invasive weed.
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In parts of New Guinea, although Matico is notorious for drying out the soil in the areas where it is invasive, the wood of this plant is nonetheless used by local residents for a myriad of uses such as for fuel and fence posts.

Edible Uses: The fruits are used as a condiment and for flavoring cocoa.It is sometimes used as a substitute for long pepper.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used:  The dried leaves.

Constituents: A volatile oil, slightly dextrogyrate, containing in some specimens Matico camphor. Some of the later specimens of oil are said to contain not camphor but asarol. A crystallizable acid called artanthic acid and a little tannin and resin are also found.

In the Amazon Rainforest, many of the native tribes use matico leaves as an antiseptic.It is effective as a topical application to slight wounds, bites of leeches, or after the extraction of teeth. The under surface of the leaf is preferred to the powder for this purpose. In Peru, it was used for stopping hemorrhages and treating ulcers, and in European practice in the treatment of diseases of the genitals and urinary organs, such as those for which cubeb was often prescribed.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/matico24.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piper_aduncum

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Cajeput.(Melaleuca leucadendron)

Botanical Name : :Melaleuca leucadendron
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Melaleuca
Species: M. leucadendra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Synonyms:  Cajeput. White Tea Tree. Swamp Tea Tree. White Wood.

Common Names :Cajeput Tree, is derived from the Malay word kayu putih (old Indonesian spelling: kaju putih) – meaning “white wood”.

Habitat: Cajuput is native to East Indies, Tropical Australia. Imported from Macassar, Batavia, Singapore, Queensland and N.S. Wales. It is  widely distributed in northern parts of Australia (Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland) and is found even further north in the Solomon Islands and on New Guinea in Papua New Guinea and Western New Guinea. It has also been used as a street tree in Hong Kong.

Description:
The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white, on a long spike.
The foliage of Cajeput is of a brighter green and has a slightly weeping habit.
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The leaves have a very aromatic odour and the oil is distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, and is volatile and stimulating with an aroma like camphor, rosemary, or cardamom seeds; taste bitter, aromatic and camphoraceous. Traces of copper have been found in it, hence the greenish tint; it should be stored in dark or amber-coloured bottles in a cool place. Cajuput oil is obtained from Melaleuca leucadendron, Roxburgh, and the minor Smith, but several other species of Melaleuca leucadendron are utilized such as M. hypericifolia, M. veridifolia, M. lalifolia, and others. The Australian species M. Decussata and M. Erucifolia are also used. The oil is fluid, clear, inflammable, burns without residue, highly volatile. The trace of copper found may be due to the vessels in which the oil is prepared, but it is doubtless sometimes added in commerce to produce the normal green tinge when other species have been used which do not impart it naturally.

Constituents:  The principal constituent of oil is cineol, which should average 45 to 55 per cent. Solid terpineol is also present and several aldehydes such as valeric, butyric and benzoic.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, stimulant, antiseptic, anthelmintic.

Highly stimulant, producing a sensation of warmth when taken internally, increasing the fullness and rapidity of the pulse and sometimes producing profuse perspiration. Used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, as an antiseptic in cystisis and as an anthelmintic for round worms, also used in chronic rheumatism. Applied externally, it is stimulant and mildly counter-irritant and is usually applied diluted with 2 parts of olive oil or turpentine ointment. Used externally for psoriasis and other skin affections.

Traditional Uses:
* In Chronic respiratory and catarrhal infection
* In sinusitis, bronchitis
* In Genitial herpes,cervical dysplasia
* In viral hepatitis, bilary lithiases
* In Psoriasis, boils, fungal dermatitis
* In varicose veins,hemorrhoids, enteritis

Other Uses:
Cajeput is cultivated as an ornamental tree for parks and gardens. It is also used as a screen or windbreak. It tolerates dry conditions.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82445:melaleuca-leucadendron&catid=827:m
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melaleuca_leucadendra

Baeckea frutescens

Botanical Name: Baeckea frutescens
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Genus: Baeckea
Tribe: Chamelaucieae.

Vernacular Names:
*Malyasia:Chuhur atap,cucuran atap,huogn atap

*Indonesia:Junjung atap,(Banka)jung rabab(javanese),jhung rahab(Madurese)

*Thailand :Son naa, son saai(Peninsular), son hom (South-eastem)

*Combodia: Moreck ansaiii

*Vietnam:Ch(oor)i xi(eer), ch(oor)i, thanh hao

*Borneo : Berungis, Cucor atap, Rampa-rampa, Rempah-rempah, Tagai, Tuturun atap, Ujung atap.

Habitat :Baeckea frutescens grows in southeast Asia to Australia, including southern China, Thailand,Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and New Guinea. It does not grow in Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands or the Philippines.In exposed places in keranga, swamp, regrowth and sub-montane forests up to 1000 m altitude. Often on alluvial sites, but also on hillsides and ridges. On poor sandy to ultrabasic soils.

Description:
Shrub up to 6 m tall and 11 cm dbh. Stipules absent. Leaves needle-like, opposite, simple, glabrous. Flowers ca. 3 mm diameter, white-pink, placed solitary in leaf axils. Fruits ca. 3 mm diameter, green-red-brown, urns-shaped, berry-like capsules.
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Medicinal Uses:
Tea of the leaves is used to treat sunstroke, fever.  Indonesians consider the decoction to be diuretic, emmenagogue, refrigerant and tonic.  It is also used for dysmenorrheal, parturition and as a tonic.  Leaves and flowers are also used in Indochina for catarrh, headache and rheumatism.  Packets of leaves are burned under the bed of colic sufferers.Leaves  dried and mixed with other ingredients in a powder, they can be rubbed on the stomach for painful menstruation or childbirth.

Other Uses:
The wood is locally used for fencing. The leaves can be boiled to make a refreshing tea.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79096:baeckea-frutescens-l&catid=366:b
http://www.asianplant.net/Myrtaceae/Baeckea_frutescens.htm
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?400042

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Indian Almond (Terminalia catappa)

Botanical Name :Terminalia catappa
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: T. catappa
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales

Common Names:Desi Badam, Bengal almond, Singapore almond , Ebelebo, Malabar almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond, Sea almond, Beach Almond, Talisay tree, Umbrella tree, Abrofo Nkatie (Akan),

Habitat :The tree has been spread widely by humans and the native range is uncertain. It has long been naturalised in a broad belt extending from Africa to Northern Australia and New Guinea through Southeast Asia and Micronesia into the Indian Subcontinent.

Description:
Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the Leadwood tree family, Combretaceae.It grows to 35 metres (115 ft) tall, with an upright, symmetrical crown and horizontal branches. The Terminalia catappa has corky, light fruit that is dispersed by water. The nut within the fruit is edible when fully ripe,tasting almost like almond. As the tree gets older, its crown becomes more flattened to form a spreading, vase shape. Its branches are distinctively arranged in tiers. The leaves are large, 15–25 centimetres (5.9–9.8 in) long and 10–14 centimetres (3.9–5.5 in) broad, ovoid, glossy dark green and leathery. They are dry-season deciduous; before falling, they turn pinkish-reddish or yellow-brown, due to pigments such as violaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

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The flowers are monoecious, with distinct male and female flowers on the same tree. Both are 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in diameter, white to greenish, inconspicuous with no petals; they are produced on axillary or terminal spikes. The fruit is a drupe 5–7 centimetres (2.0–2.8 in) long and 3–5.5 centimetres (1.2–2.2 in) broad, green at first, then yellow and finally red when ripe, containing a single seed

Cultivation:Terminalia catappa  is grown in tropical countries all over the world.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is edible, tasting slightly acidic.

Chemical Constituents:
The leaves contain several flavonoids (like kaempferol or quercetin), several tannins (such as punicalin, punicalagin or tercatin), saponines and phytosterols. Due to this chemical richness, the leaves (and also the bark) are used in different traditional medicines for various purposes. For instances, in Taiwan fallen leaves are used as a herb to treat liver diseases. In Suriname, a tea made from the leaves is prescribed against dysentery and diarrhea. It is also thought that the leaves contain agents for prevention of cancers (although they have no demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties) and antioxidant as well as anticlastogenic characteristics.

Medicinal Uses;
Extracts from the leaves and bark of the plant have proven anticarcinogenic, anti-HIV and hepatoprotective properties (liver regenerating effects), including anti-diabetic effects.  The leaves and bark have been used traditionally in the South Pacific, for fungal related conditions.  It may be potentially beneficial for overall immune support, liver detoxification and antioxidant support.  The leaves contain agents for chemo-prevention of cancer and probably have anticarciogenic potential.  They also have a anticlastogenic effect (a process which causes breaks in chromosomes) due to their antioxidant properties. The kernel of Indian almond has shown aphrodisiac activity; it can probably be used in treatment of some forms of sexual inadequacies (premature ejaculation). Ethanol extract of the leaves shown potential in the treatment of sickle cell disorders. It appears as an anti-sickling agent for those that suffer from sickle cell.  It has been shown to be of benefit for microbial balancing.; as an aid to lowering high blood pressure and stress; as a treatment for some forms of liver disorders; as an aid in reducing the effect of several heart conditions .  In Asia it has long been known that the leaves of contain a toxic, secondary metabolite, which has antibacterial properties.
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From other countries: the leaves, bark and fruits are used for dysentery in Southeast Asia; dressing for rheumatic joints in Indonesia and India; the fruits and bark are a remedy for coughs in Samoa) and  asthma in Mexico; the fruits treat leprosy and  headaches in India and motion sickness in Mexico; the leaves eliminate intestinal parasites in the Philippines and treat eye problems, rheumatism and wounds in Samoa while they’re used to  stop bleeding during teeth extraction in Mexico; fallen leaves are used to treat liver diseases in Taiwan, and young leaves for colic in South America; the juice of the leaves is used for scabies, skin diseases and leprosy in India and Pakistan; the bark is a remedy for throat and mouth problems, stomach upsets and diarrhea in Samoa and for fever and dysentery in Brazil.

Other Uses:
The wood is red, solid and has high water resistance; it has been utilized in Polynesia for making canoes. In Tamil, almond is known “Nattuvadumai”.
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Keeping the leaves in an aquarium is said to lower the pH and heavy metal content of the water. It has been utilized in this way by Betta breeders in Thailand for many years. It’s also believed that it helps prevent fungus forming on the eggs of the fish.. Local hobbyists also use it for conditioning the betta’s water for breeding and hardening of the scales.
Terminalia catappa is widely grown in tropical regions of the world as an ornamental tree, grown for the deep shade its large leaves provide.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_catappa

http://www.backyardnature.net/yucatan/almond-t.htm

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Sagu

Botanical Name :Metroxylon sagu Rottb.
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Metroxylon
Species: M. sagu
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Arecales

Scientific names:
Metroxylon sagu Rottb. ,Metroxylon rumphii Mart. Sagus inermis Roxb. Langdang (Bis.) ,Sagus spinosus Roxb.

Common names: Ambolong (Mbo.),Bagsang (Bis.),Langdang (Bis.),Lumbai (Bis.)Lumbia (C. Bis., Bag.),Lumbiag (Sul.),Sagu (Mbo., Bis.),Palma sagu (Span.),Sago palm (Engl.),Smooth sago palm (Engl.),True sago palm (Engl.),Xi mi zong (Chin.)

Habitat :Native to tropical southeastern Asia in Indonesia (western New Guinea, and the Moluccas), Papua New Guinea, Malaysia (both Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak) and possibly also the Philippines (though maybe introduced there).

Description:
It is a monocarpic palm growing to 10 m tall or more,throwing up stems in succession. Each stem in turn flowering, fruiting and dying after about 15 years. Leaves are pinnate, 6 to 9 meters long. Leaflets are linear-ensiform, up to 1.5 meters in length. Spadix is 3.5 to 4.5 meters long, the spathes quite spineless. Spikes are 10 to 12 cm long and about 1 cm in diameter. Fruits are globular, slightly depressed, with about 5 mm pericarp, spongy and succulent mesocarp, and thin endocarp. Seeds are globular, depressed, with white, bony albumen.
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Constituents
Contains 80% starch, 16% water, 2% nitrogenous substances, and very little ash.

Properties
Nutritive and easily digestible, free of any irritating properties.

Edible Uses: Nutritive, easily digestible.

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
*Food used during fevers and convalescence.
*In Malaya, recommended as an excipient in making poultices for shingles.
*In Papua, New Guinea, stem sap is applied to forehead to ease headaches. Starch from plant trunk mixed with water and drunk for diarrhea and stomach pains. Starch paste appliled to burns. Leaf used to cover fresh or infected sores until they heal. Liquid starch given to new borns to treat enlarged spleen.
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Studies
• Glycemic and Insulinaemic Responses: Study investigated the effect of different forms of sago supplementation on plasma glucose and plasma insulin responses, as compared to white bread supplementation in man, during resting state. Results showed sago paste and porridge may be used for supplementation before and during exercise, and sago gell after endurance exercaise during recovery process.
• Inexpensive Lactic Acid from Sago Palm: Dulce Flores, a researcher from the University of the Philippines in Mindanao discovered a new streptococcus strain called Enterococcus faecium with the capability of converting sago starch directly into lactic acid without the costly pre-enzymatic treatment. Lactic acid is a colorless acid found in sour milk; used as a preservative in dyeing and in making adhesives and pharmaceuticals.

Others Uses:
*Poison: Fruit reportedly used as a poison in Malaya; the sap mixed with Datura by prisoners.
*Stabilizers: Sagu starch used in food production (high fructose syrup, MSG, maltodextrins, cyclodextrins); manufacture of paper coating, adhesives and biodegradable filler in bioplastics.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Sagu.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metroxylon_sagu
http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/1EA13AB9-91B2-4E42-BCC5-9CDADE00D91A/0/Part2_MedicinalPlantsinPNG.pdf

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