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Herbs & Plants

Bhumiamla / Phyllanthus niruri

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Botanical Name:Phyllanthus niruri
Family:Phyllanthaceae
Genus:Phyllanthus
Species:P. niruri
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:Malpighiales

Common names : Chanca Piedra in Spanish, Bhumyamalaki in Ayurveda, and Quebra-Pedra in Portuguese, Keezha Nelli  in Tamil, Nela Nelli  in Kannada,Keezhar Nelli in Malayalam and Nela Usiri in Telugu. It has many other common names in assorted languages, including dukong anak, dukong-dukong anak, amin buah, rami buah, turi hutan, bhuiaonla, and Meniran (in Indonesia).

Habitat : Common in central and southern India extending to Sri Lanka.
Historical aspects:
Charaka mentions the plant. In ayurveda the expressed juice of the fresh plant is given for a sluggish liver and also for chronic liver diseases. It is commonly and widely used for dysentery and intestinal colic. Phyllanthus niruri, also called “stonebreaker” due to its strong roots, is native to South America. The plant is dried into an extract that acts as a diuretic and an astringent.

Description:  The annual herb is 30-60cm high, quite glabrous, stem often branched at the base, angular. Leaves numerous subsessile distichous often imbricating, elliptic oblong obtuse.Stem is angular with numerous distichous, elliptic-oblong leaves. Stipules present, very acute. Flowers yellowish, very numerous, axillary, the male flowers 1-3, female flowers are solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks. The flowering time in Indian conditions is July to August.

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Pharmacognoy:
It is safe lipotropic drug and its primary action is on the liver. Blumberg showed in inhibition of DNA polymerase of Hepatitis b virus and a viral-agglutinating activity. The characteristics have been well studied.

Phytochemistry
:
In the aerial parts, three crystalline lignans including phyllanthine and hypophyllanthine have been found. Five flavonoids have been identified, quercetin, astralgin, quercitrin, and rutin. Four leucodelphinidine alkaloids were separated from the leaves and stems one of then being and enantiomorph of securinine.

Medicinal Uses:
A clinical study with Phyllanthus niruri, indicated that it may reduce the levels of urinary calcium.  A subsequent study of 150 patients over a 6-month period indicated that an extract of this herb reduces the incidence of stone formation, and concluded, “Regular self-administration of P. niruri after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones results in an increased stone-free rate that appears statistically significant for lower caliceal location. Its efficacy and the absolute lack of side effects make this therapy suitable to improve overall outcomes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower pole stones.”  A more recent rat study found that Phyllanthus niruri has been shown to interfere with many stages of stone formation, reducing crystals aggregation, modifying their structure and composition as well as altering the interaction of the crystals with tubular cells leading to reduced subsequent endocytosis.”

Ayurvedic properties :
Guna: Laghu, Ruksha.
Rasa
: Tikta, kashaya.
Veerya: Sheeta.Vipaka: Katu.
Dosha: Kaphapittaghna
karma: Kasaswasahara, Dahaprashamana, Rochana, Yakrutottejaka, kandughna.

Safety:
With the formulation and dosage used no adverse reactions have been reprted.

Cinical Usage:
The fresh root is used for the treatment of viral hepatitis.the plant is also used as a diuretic in oedema.it is also used to increase appetite and locally to relieve inflammations.

Healing Options:
Phyllanthus has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for over 2,000 years and has a wide number of traditional uses.

This includes employing the whole plant for jaundice, gonorrhea, frequent menstruation, and diabetes and using it topically as a poultice for skin ulcers, sores, swelling, and itchiness

CHANCA PIEDRA (Phyllanthus niruri) is a composite name, “chanca” meaning “to break” in Quechua and “piedra” meaning “stone” in Spanish. It is the popular name given to several small shrub-like plants in the Phyllanthus genus (botanical family Euphorbiaceae), including Phyllanthus niruri, and Phyllanthus stipulatis. These two species have the same medicinal effects and look identical, except for their seeds, by which the botanist can tell them apart. A third species, Phyllanthus amarus, has been considered identical (perhaps not a different species at all) to Phyllanthus niruri. These species of Phyllanthus have been proven in scientific research to have antihepatotoxic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, febrifugal, and hypoglycemic activity.*

Liver Disorders/ Jaundice :
The herb stimulates the liver and is useful in liver and spleen disorders. It can be used in jaundice and enlargement of liver. The leaf should be administered with black salt and ginger every morning for 10 days in the treatment of such disorders.

Loss of Appetite:
Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice is very useful in Loss of appetite . It is a major component of many popular liver tonics which increase Appetite & locally to relieve inflammations.

Oedema:
The plant is also used as a diuretic in oedema. Powdered leaves & roots – pulverized & made into poultice with rice-water useful in oedematous swelling and ulcers.

Formulation and Dosage:
Juice: 10-20 ml b.i.d
Herb powder: 3-6 gms b.i.d

Ayurvedic supplements made from Bhumiamla:
Livgood
Livrol Syrup
Arogyavardhini Bati

Liver Tonic Livogod
Herbal Liver Tonic for cirrhosis,alcholic ilver and jaundice

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_niruri
allayurveda.com

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Categories
Herbs & Plants Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Black cumin seeds (Kalo zira)

Botanical Name : Nigella sativa
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Nigella
Species: N. sativa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names : Black Seed Oil , Black cumin, black caraway, Roman-coria

Other Names
Black Caraway, Black Cumin, Black Seed, Damascena, Devil in-the-bush, Fennel flower, Melanthion, Nutmeg Flower, Roman Coriander, Wild Onion Seed
French: cheveux de Venus, nigell, poivrette
German: Scharzkummel (black caraway)
Italian: nigella
Spanish: neguilla
Indian: kala zeera (lit, black cumin), kalonji, krishnajiraka, Bengali  name; Kalo Zeera
Spice Description:
Nigella seeds are small, matte-black grains with a rough surface and an oily white interior. They are roughly triangulate, 1 1/2 – 3 mm (1/16 to 1/8 in ) long. They are similar to onion seeds.
Bouquet: The seeds have little bouquet, though when they are rubbed they give off an aroma reminiscent of oregano.
Flavour: Slightly bitter and peppery with a crunchy texture.
Hotness Scale: 3

Parts Used : Seeds

Plant Description and Cultivation
An herbaceous annual of the buttercup family, about 60 cm (2 ft) high. The gray–green leaves are wispy and threadlike. Flowers are have five petals bout 2.5 cm wide (1 in), white with blue veins and appearing between June and September. They yield a seed capsule with five compartments each topped by a spike. The compartments open when dried to disperse the seeds. Nigella is native to western Asia where it grows both wild and cultivated. India, Egypt and the Middle East also cultivate it.

Click to see the pictures:->

Plants :
flower 1:
flower-2 :

 Negella seeds
Nigella damascena seed capsule

Nigella has been used since antiquity by Asian herbalists and pharmacists and was used for culinary purposes by the Romans. The seeds are known to repel certain insects and can be used like moth balls. The name nigella derives from the Latin nigellus, or niger, meaning black.
A spice that is made from seeds of the black cumin plant. A member of the parsley family of plants, black cumin is native to parts of Asia, India and Pakistan where the seeds are harvested. Narrow, tiny and curved in shape, Kala Jeera has a strong earthy aroma that becomes nutty flavored when cooked. Although it is not the same as cumin, it can be similarly used in small amounts to enhance the flavor of meats, soups, stews, rice, and sauces.

Culinary uses
The seeds of N. sativa, known as kalonji, black cumin (though this can also refer to Bunium persicum) or just nigella, are used as a spice in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The dry roasted nigella seeds flavor curries, vegetables and pulses. The black seeds taste mostly like oregano crossed with pepper. Most people use it as a “pepper” in recipes with pod fruit, vegetables, salads and poultry.

Nigella is used in India and the Middle East as a spice and condiment and occasionally in Europe as both a pepper substitute and a spice. It is widely used in Indian cuisines, particularly in mildly braised lamb dishes such as korma. It is also added to vegetable and dhal dishes as well as in chutneys. The seeds are sprinkled on to naan bread before baking. Nigella is an ingredient of some garam masalas and is one of the five spices in panch phoran. In the Middle East nigella is added to bread dough.

Other uses
Several species are grown as ornamental plants in gardens, popular for their seed capsules, which are used in dried flower arrangements. Love in the mist are used exclusively for dried arrangements. These flowers are the best to add texture to any dried flower arrangement. The delicate, purple striped pods are used in several arrangements for an airy effect.

In India the seeds are used as a carminative and stimulant to ease bowel and indigestion problems and are given to treat intestinal worms and nerve defects to reduce flatulence, and induce sweating. Dried pods are sniffed to restore a lost sense of smell. It is also used to repel some insects, much like mothballs.

Constituents::oleic-acid ,palmitic-acid,phenylalanine ,phytosterols, potassium,stearic-acid, stigmasterol,tannin,thymoquinone,tryptophan ,tyrosine

Medicinal Uses:
Nigella is considered carminative, a stimulant, and diuretic. A paste of the seeds is applied for skin eruptions and is sure to relieve scorpion stings. The seeds are antiseptic and used to treat intestinal worms, especially in children. The seeds are much used in India to increase breast milk. The seeds are often scattered between folds of clothes as an effective insect repellent. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds are used as stabilizing agents for some edible fats. In India, the seeds are also considered as stimulant, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. Some of the conditions nigella has been used for include: eruption fever, puerperium (Iraq); liver disease (Lebanon); cancer (Malaya); joints, bronchial asthma, eczema, rheumatis (Middle East); with butter for cough and colic (North Africa); excitant (Spain); boosing immune system, colds (U.S.) A recent study in South Carolina at the International Immuno-Biology Research Laboratory showed that there was some action against cancer cells using nigella plant extract. nder, fennel-flow.

Black cumin seed oil is used as a healthy dietary supplement. Black seed oil contains fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in a unique cell structure. Native to Western Asia, Turkey, Iraq, and Egypt, black seed oil has been valued for it’s health benefits for centuries, and is now becoming more well known in the West. As a general tonic 1 teaspoon of black seed oil, taken in food or drink, is said to benefit many conditions, in much the same manner as other oils rich in fatty acids, such as flax and walnut oils. According to Dr. Duke, the constituents in black cumin oil have been shown to have health benefits for: Stomach aches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, digestive system, and fevers. The is anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and acts as an emmenagogue (brings on menses) and a lactagogue (increase breast milk.)

Benefits and Side Effects
Black cumin seed is derived from a plant with the botanical name Nigella sativa. The plant is indigenous to Mediterranean areas, though it is grown in other parts of the world as well. The seeds of the Nigella sativa plant are black in color and look something like sesame seeds. Both the seeds and oil from the seeds are used as a nutritional supplement. Black cumin seed is considered to have a number of beneficial properties when used as part of an overall holistic health program. Many studies show that, while black cumin seed is effective by itself, it is particularly potent when combined with other herbs in regimens used to treat specific ailments.

Black cumin seed (also referred to simply as “black seed”) has been used as a nutritional supplement for centuries. It was even found in King Tut’s tomb, suggesting that even centuries ago, great respect existed for black cumin seed’s beneficial health effects. Ancient traditions document the use of black cumin seed as an energy source, perhaps because of its rich nutritional value. The seeds are still believed to increase heat in the body, making metabolism more efficient.

As a nutritional supplement in modern times, black cumin seed is used to treat respiratory conditions like bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. In addition, it is used to support stomach and intestinal health as well as kidney and liver function. Black cumin seed is thought to have antihistamine-like properties that make it useful in treating congestion, and it is widely used as a general tonic to boost immune function and to help prevent cancer. Several skin conditions can be treated with black cumin seed, and it is also used to enhance circulation. Over the past six decades, black cumin seed has been studied at various universities throughout the world, and more than 200 studies support its use as an effective herbal supplement

The primary active ingredient in black cumin seed is crystalline nigellone. The substance was first identified and isolated for use in supplements in 1959. Other components with health benefits include amino acids, essential fatty acids, crude fiber, and minerals such as potassium, sodium, iron and calcium.

The usual recommended dosage is between 50 and 75 mg of a supplement made from standardized extracts. Black cumin seed oil is also available as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are cold pressed to extract the oil, which is especially effective when used topically on the skin to treat eczema, psoriasis, and dryness.black cumin seed is used to boost immune system function, as an anticancer agent, and to treat skin conditions, including eczema, abscesses, and boil.Very effective for acne, pimples.

Black cumin seed oil can also be taken internally to treat arthritis and asthma and to boost the immune system. The recommended dosage of the oil is one teaspoon daily with meals. It can be mixed with juice or other beverages and should be refrigerated after opening.

As with many supplements, black cumin seed works best when used on a regular basis so that it can support the body’s natural healing ability. Though there is no known toxicity, pregnant and lactating women should not use black cumin seed, which has a history of use in large doses to induce abortion.

Side Effects:Undiluted oil can cause skin irritation. Not to be used while pregnant For food and dietary use only.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.theepicentre.com/Spices/nigella.html
http://vitamins.ultimatefatburner.com/black-cumin-seed.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigella

http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail469.php

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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