Herbs & Plants

Euonymous atropurpurea

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Botanical Name: Euonymous atropurpurea
Family :Celastraceae – Bittersweet family
Genus : Euonymus L. – spindletree
Species: Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. – burningbush
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom:Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision; Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Celastrales

Synonym: Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.

Common Name:wahoo

Habitat : Primarily a species of eastern North America, wahoo at the northern edge of its range occurs from Maine and New York west to Montana in the Great Plains, principally occurring from the Upper Midwest and the Northeast to Louisiana and Florida in the main portion of its range. It is considered rare in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ontario, and South Carolina (NatureServe 2006).

Euonymus atropurpurea is a small to medium shrub or small tree arising from rhizomes, typically ranging to about 4 m in height in Michigan (Barnes and Wagner 1980). The relatively slender, somewhat delicate twigs are green and often faintly lined, but lack corky wings. The twigs bear opposite, thin, elliptic leaves that are finely toothed and have a pointed (short-acuminate) tip. The leaves are a somewhat dull green color above and finely hairy beneath, turning a bright scarlet color in the fall. The flowers, produced in stalked, more or less loose clusters from the leaf axils (bases), are purplish, four-petaled and insect-pollinated. When mature, the four-lobed fruit (which is a capsule) is pink, containing seeds that develop a bright, scarlet aril (a covering or accessory appendage). As the fruit dries and opens, the combination of the pink capsule with the bright red seeds is an indication of ripeness to birds, the primary consumer and disperser.

click to see the pictures

Medicinal Uses:
Many  native American peoples used wahoo bark in various ways, as an eye lotion, a poultice for facial sores and for gynecological conditions.  Native Americans introduced the plant to early European settlers, and it became very popular in Britain as well as in North America in the 19th century.  Wahoo bark is considered a gallbladder remedy with laxative and diuretic properties.   It is prescribed for biliousness and liver problems as well as for skin conditions such as eczema (which may result from poor liver and gall bladder function), and for constipation.  In small doses, Euonymin stimulates the appetite and the flow of the gastric juice. In larger doses, it is irritant to the intestine and is cathartic. It has slight diuretic and expectorant effects, but its only use is as a purgative in cases of constipation in which the liver is disordered, and for which it is particularly efficacious. It is specially valuable in liver disorders which follow or accompany fever. It is mildly aperient and causes no nausea, at the same time stimulating the liver somewhat freely, and promoting a free flow of bile. It the past, it was often used in combination with herbs such as gentian as a fever remedy, especially if the liver was under stress.  Following the discovery that it contains cardiac glycosides, wahoo bark has been given for heart conditions. It is also a remedy for dandruff and scalp problems.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access Euonymus_atropurpurea.pdf

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Herbs & Plants

Caesalpinia coriaria

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Botanical Name:: Caesalpinia coriaria Willd
Family : Fabaceae – Pea family /Leguminosai, Caesalpinioideae.
Genus  : Caesalpinia L. – nicker
Species : Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. – divi divi
Order : Fabales
Kingdom :   Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom :  Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:   Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division :   Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class :  Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Synonyms: Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd.
Common Names: Tauribeej, Divi-divi, Liby-liby, American Sumach,Tamil – Kotivelamaram

Habitat :Caesalpinia coriaria is a leguminous tree or large shrub native to the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.The tree is also the native tree to Aruba.

Description :
They rarely reach their maximum height of 9 m (30 ft) because their growth is contorted by the weather of the exposed coastal sites where they often grow. In other environments it grows into a low dome shape with a clear sub canopy space. Leaves are bipinnate, with 5-10 pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 15-25 pairs of leaflets; the individual leaflets are 7 mm long and 2 mm broad. The fruit is a twisted pod 5 cm (2.0 in) long. Aruba is where the Divi-divi tree is most common.
The Divi-divi is one of the more well known species of Cæsalpinia; it is the national tree of Curaçao. It is also very common and popular on Aruba, where it is alternatively known as watapana. On these islands this tree is never straight because of the trade winds.

This is the national tree of Curacao. In sheltered locations, the tree is symmetrical with a spreading mounded top as shown in the illustration. Exposed to the prevailing winds, however, it leans away from the wind, and its top, growing mostly to the lee side, appears to be blown out horizontally in the wind. In this characteristic it can be confused with Crescentia cujete (calabash tree) which may do the same. The pods are a rich source of tannin. As a tree it grows to approximately 30 feet tall.

Leaves alternate, 2x even-pinnate; leaflets numerous, regularly nearly touching to overlapping; each less than 1/2″ long. The leaf is as fine as the Sweet acacia. Flowers are small, in terminal clusters, white or yellow, pea-like, inconspicuous, very fragrant and attractive to bees. Fruit are small curved, dished, or twisted flat pod with rounded ends, about 1 in. wide; often little longer than wide. The trunk and branches are gnarled, with gray bark.

Medicinal Uses:
The Divi-divi pods are used to extract tannins for the leather production.

Click to see
*Anti-bacterial activity of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd.
against plant pathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars: an ecofriendly

*Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts Against Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

Other Uses: Very good for bonsai ->


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Herbs & Plants

Samanea saman

Botanical Name :Samanea saman
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Albizia
Species: A. saman
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales

Unlike some other Ingeae, its taxonomy was always rather straightforward. Though it has a lot of junior synonyms, it was little confused with other species and unlike some others of its genus has just one homonym:

*Acacia propinqua A.Rich.
*Acacia propinqua Pedley is a synonym of Acacia mimula
*Albizzia saman (Jacq.) Merr. (orth.var)
*Calliandra saman (Jacq.) Griseb.
*Enterolobium sama (Jacq.) Prain
*Feuilleea saman (Jacq.) Kuntze
*Inga cinerea Willd.
*Inga salutaris Kunth
*Inga saman (Jacq.) Willd.
*Mimosa pubifera Poir.
*Mimosa saman Jacq.
*Pithecellobium cinereum Benth.
*Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
*Pithecellobium saman var. saman (Jacq.) Benth.
*Pithecolobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
*Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
*Zygia saman (Jacq.) A.Lyons

Other Names:-
Albizia saman is a well-known tree, rivalled perhaps only by Lebbeck and Pink Siris among its genus. It is well-attested in many languages and has numerous local names in its native range. Most names that originated in Europe (where the tree hardly grows at all) are some variety of “Rain Tree”. The original name, Saman – known in many languages and used for the specific name – derives from zamang, meaning “Mimosoideae tree” in some Cariban languages of northern Venezuela[5].

The name Rain Tree was coined in tropical India, especially Bengal. Its origin is the moisture that collects on the ground under the tree, largely the honeydew-like discharge of cicadas feeding on the leaves.

*English: Saman, Rain Tree, Monkey Pod, Giant Thibet, Inga Saman, Cow Tamarind, East Indian Walnut.
*Grenada: Coco Tamarind. Guyana: French Tamarind
*Spanish: cenízaro, acacia preta, árbol de lluvia (“rain tree”), genízaro.
*Cuba: algarrobo. Central America: carreto, cenicero, dormilon, zarza. Colombia and Venezuela: campano, saman. Venezuela: carabeli, couji, lara, urero, zaman.
*German: Regenbaum (“rain tree”)
*Sanskrit: Shiriesch
*Telugu: Nidra Ganneru
*Marathi: Shiriesch
*Tamil: Thoongu moonji maram (“Tree with a sleeping face”)
*French: arbre à (la) pluie (“rain tree”)
*Haitian Creole: guannegoul(e)
*Hindi: Vilaiti Siris
*Bengali:Belati Siris or Shirish
*Kannada: Bhagaya mara
*Jamaica: goango, guango
*Javanese: trembesi
*Khmer ampil barang (“French tamarind”)
*Malagasy: bonara(mbaza), kily vazaha, madiromany, mampihe, mampohehy
*Malay/Indonesian: Pukul Lima (“5 o’clock tree”, in Malaysia), ki hujan (“rain tree”)
*Portuguese: chorona
*Sinhalese: mara
*Sundanese: ki hujan (“rain tree”)
*Vietnamese: cây m?a (rain tree)
*Thai: dsha:m-dshu-ri: Jamjuree

In the Caribbean region, it is occasionally called marsave. As an introduced plant on Fiji, it is called vaivai (ni vavalagi), from vaivai “watery” (in allusion to the tree’s “rain”) + vavalagi “foreign”.

Habitat : Native to the Neotropics. Its range extends from Mexico south to Peru and Brazil, but it has been widely introduced to South and Southeast Asia, as well as the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii. . It is often placed in the genus Samanea, which by yet other authors is subsumed in Albizia entirely.

Large umbraculiform tree to as much as 60 m tall, the crown to 80 m broad, covering 1/5 hectare, trunk to 1.5 m DBH, unarmed, with gray rough furrowed bark. Leaves alternate, evergreen, bipinnate, 25–40 cm long, with 2–6 pairs of pinnae, each of which bears 6–16 paired stalkless leaflets, with a glandular dot between each pair. Flower heads clustered near the end of twigs, each cluster on a green hairy stalk 7–10 cm long, with many small tubular pinkish-green flowers, calyx and corolla 5-toothed. The many stamen united to form a tube near their bases, seed pods oblong, flat, arcuate, black, 20–30 cm long, with a raised border, each with several oblong reddish-brown seeds ca one cm long. The leaves fold in rainy weather and in the evening, hence the name Rain Tree and 5 o’clock Tree.Several lineages of this tree are available e.g. with reddish pink and creamish golden colored flowers.

Click to see the pictures of  Samanea saman
Easily propagated from seeds and cuttings. Young specimens transplant easily.

Chemical Constituents:-
Per 100 g, the green leaf is reported to contain 47.8 g H2O, 10.2 g protein, 2.1 g fat, 22.2 g insoluble carbohydrate, 15.7 g fiber, and 2.0 g ash. On an oven-dry basis, the leaves contain ca 3.2% N. Gohl, 1981 tabulates as follows:   As % of dry matter

Medicinal Uses:
Folk Medicine :
According to Hartwell (1967–1971), the root decoction is used in hot baths for stomach cancer in Venezuela. Rain tree is a folk remedy for colds, diarrhea, headache, intestinal ailments, and stomachache (Duke and Wain, 1981). The alcholic extract of the leaves inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Perry, 1980). The alkaloid fraction of the leaves is effective on the CNS and PNS. In Colombia, the fruit decoction is used as a CNS-sedative. The leaf infusion is used as a laxative (Garcia-Barriga, 1975). In the West Indies, seeds are chewed for sore throat (Ayensu, 1981).

Other Uses:

With a checkerd nomenclature, under Enterolobium in the Wealth of India, Pithecellobium in Common Trees of Puerto Rico, and Samanea in Woody Plants of Ghana, the rain tree is apparently widely traveled. Perhaps one of its most important uses in Latin America is as a shade tree, especially in parks, pastures, and roadsides. Improved growth, nutritive quality, protein content, and yield have been demonstrated by Axonopus compressus, a tropical forage grass, grown under Samanea. “The benefit by association was presumptively attributed to nitrogen made available in the soil by excretion or decomposition of the leguminous nodules.” (Allen and Allen, 1981). The tree house in Walt Disney’s “Swiss Family Robinson” was built in a rain tree 60 m tall with a canopy 80 m in diameter. Simon Bolivar is said to have encamped his entire liberation army under the “saman de guerra” near Maracay, Venezuela. In Malagasy, it is grown as shade tree for cacao, coffee, patchouly, and vanilla. In Indonesia, it is recommended for nutmeg but not for tea. In Uganda, it is considered good for coffee, bad for tea. According to NAS (1980a), “Grass grows right up to the trunk because this species’ leaflets fold together at night and in wet weather, allowing the rain to fall through.” Like Acacia, Ceratonia, Prosopis, and Tamarindus, this produces copious pods with a sweet pulp, attractive to children and animals alike. Pods can be ground up and converted to fodder or for that matter alcohol as an energy source. A lemon-like beverage can be made from the pulp. The wood is soft, lightweight (spec. grav. 0.44; 720–880 kg/m3) of medium to coarse texture, fairly strong, takes a beautiful finish but is often cross-grained and difficult to work. It is used for furniture, general construction, and interior trim, for boxes and crates, panelling, plywood, and veneer. Central American oxcart wheels are made from cross sections of trunks. It is used for boat building in Hawaii, where it is also famous for making “monkeypod” bowls. Shavings from the wood are used for making hats in the Philippines. The tree yields a gum of inferior quality which could be used as a poor man’s substitute for gum arabic. Like most other mimosaceous trees, this is an important honey plant. Rain tree is one host of the lac insect, which, however, produces a poor quality lac, reddish and rather brittle (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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