Tag Archives: Nitrogen fixation

Robinia pseudoacacia

Botanical Name:Robinia pseudoacacia
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Robinieae
Genus: Robinia
Species: R. pseudoacacia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names: Black Locust, Yellow Locust, False acacia

Habitat :Robinia pseudoacacia is native to Eastern N. America – Appalachian and Ozark mountain ranges. Naturalized in Britain . It grows in woods and thickets, especially in deep well-drained calcareous soils.

Description:
Robinia pseudoacacia is a deciduous tree. It reaches a typical height of 40–100 feet (12–30 m) with a diameter of 2–4 feet (0.61–1.22 m).[12] Exceptionally, it may grow up to 52 metres (171 ft) tall and 1.6 metres (5.2 ft) diameter in very old trees. It is a very upright tree with a straight trunk and narrow crown which grows scraggly with age. The dark blue-green compound leaves with a contrasting lighter underside give this tree a beautiful appearance in the wind and contribute to its grace. Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a fast rate.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

*The bark is dark gray brown and tinged with red or orange in the grooves. It is deeply furrowed into grooves and ridges which run up and down the trunk and often cross and form diamond shapes.

*The roots of black locust contain nodules which allow it to fix nitrogen as is common within the pea family.
The branches are typically zig-zagy and may have ridges and grooves or may be round.[5] When young, they are at first coated with white silvery down, this soon disappears and they become pale green and afterward reddish or greenish brown.

*Prickles may or may not be present on young trees, root suckers, and branches near the ground; typically, branches high above the ground rarely contain prickles. R. psuedoacacia is quite variable in the quantity and amount of prickles present as some trees are densely prickly and other trees have no prickles at all. The prickles typically remain on the tree until the young thin bark to which they are attached is replaced by the thicker mature bark. They develop from stipules (small leaf like structures which grow at the base of leaves) and since stipules are paired at the base of leaves, the prickles will be paired at the bases of leaves. They range from .25–.8 inches (0.64–2.03 cm) in length and are somewhat triangular with a flared base and sharp point. Their color is of a dark purple and they adhere only to the bark.

*Wood: Pale yellowish brown; heavy, hard, strong, close-grained and very durable in contact with the ground. The wood has a specific gravity of 0.7333, and a weight of approximately 45.7 pounds per cubic foot.

*The leaves are compound, meaning that each leaf contains many smaller leaf like structures called leaflets, the leaflets are roughly paired on either side of the stem which runs through the leaf (rachis) and there is typically one leaflet at the tip of the leaf (odd pinnate). The leaves are alternately arranged on the stem. Each leaf is 6–14 inches (15–36 cm) long and contains 9-19 leaflets, each being 1–2 inches (2.5–5.1 cm)long, and .25–.75 inches (0.64–1.91 cm) wide. The leaflets are rounded or slightly indented at the tip and typically rounded at the base. The leaves come out of the bud folded in half, yellow green, covered with silvery down which soon disappears. Each leaflet initially has a minute stipel, which quickly falls, and is connected to the (rachis) by a short stem or petiolule. The leaves are attached to the branch with slender hairy petioles which is grooved and swollen at the base. The stipules are linear, downy, membranous at first and occasionally develope into prickles. The leaves appear relatively late in spring.

*The leave color of the fully grown leaves is a dull dark green above and paler beneath. In the fall the leaves turn a clear pale yellow.
Closeup of flowers.

*The flowers open in May or June for 7–10 days, after the leaves have developed. They are arranged in loose drooping clumps (racemes) which are typically 4–8 inches (10–20 cm) long. The flowers themselves are cream-white (rarely pink or purple) with a pale yellow blotch in the center and imperfectly papilionaceous in shape. They are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, very fragrant, and produce large amounts of nectar. Each flower is perfect, having both stamens and a pistil (male and female parts). There are 10 stamens enclosed within the petals; these are fused together in a diadelphous configuration, where the filaments of 9 are all joined to form a tube and one stamen is separate and above the joined stamens. The single ovary is superior and contains several ovules. Below each flower is a calyx which looks like leafy tube between the flower and the stem. It is made from fused sepals and is dark green and may be blotched with red. The pedicels (stems which connect the flower to the branch) are slender, .5 inches (1.3 cm), dark red or reddish green.

*The fruit is a typical legume fruit, being a flat and smooth pea-like pod 2–4 inches (5.1–10.2 cm) long and .5 inches (1.3 cm) broad. The fruit usually contains 4-8 seeds. The seeds are dark orange brown with irregular markings. They ripen late in autumn and hang on the branches until early spring. There are typically 25500 seeds per pound.

*Winter buds: Minute, naked (having no scales covering them), three or four together, protected in a depression by a scale-like covering lined on the inner surface with a thick coat of tomentum and opening in early spring. When the buds are forming they are covered by the swollen base of the petiole.

*Cotyledons are oval in shape and fleshy.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Aggressive surface roots possible. Succeeds in any well-drained soil, preferring one that is not too rich. Succeeds in dry barren sites, tolerating drought and atmospheric pollution. Succeeds in a hot dry position. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 61 to 191cm, an annual temperature in the range of 7.6 to 20.3°C and a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. A fast-growing tree for the first 30 years of its life, it can begin to flower when only 6 years old, though 10 – 12 years is more normal. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and are very fragrant with a vanilla-like scent. The branches are brittle and very liable to wind damage. When plants are grown in rich soils they produce coarse and rank growth which is even more liable to wind damage. The plants sucker freely and often form dense thickets, the suckers have vicious thorns. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value, some of these are thornless. Any pruning should be done in late summer in order to reduce the risk of bleeding. The leaves are rich in tannin and other substances which inhibit the growth of other plants. A very greedy tree, tending to impoverish the soil. (Although a legume, I believe it does not fix atmospheric nitrogen) A very good bee plant. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: North American native, Invasive, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Attracts butterflies, Fragrant flowers, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation:
Seed – pre-soak for 48 hours in warm water and sow the seed in late winter in a cold frame. A short stratification improves germination rates and time. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the following summer. Other reports say that the seed can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in spring. The seed stores for over 10 years. Suckers taken during the dormant season.
Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked. Oily. They are boiled and used like peas. After boiling the seeds lose their acid taste. The seed is about 4mm long and is produced in pods up to 10cm long that contain 4 – 8 seeds. A nutritional analysis is available. Young seedpods – cooked. The pods contain a sweetish pulp that is safe to eat and is relished by small children. (This report is quite probably mistaken, having been confused with the honey locust, Gleditsia spp.) A strong, narcotic and intoxicating drink is made from the skin of the fruit. Piperonal is extracted from the plant, it is used as a vanilla substitute. No further details. All the above entries should be treated with some caution, see the notes at the top of the page regarding toxicity. Flowers – cooked. A fragrant aroma, they are used in making jams and pancakes. They can also be made into a pleasant drink.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Seed (Dry weight)

*0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 21g; Fat: 3g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 28g; Ash: 6.8g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 1400mg; Phosphorus: 0.3mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
Medicinal Uses:
The flowers are antispasmodic, aromatic, diuretic, emollient and laxative. They are cooked and eaten for the treatment of eye ailments. The flower is said to contain the antitumor compound benzoaldehyde. The inner bark and the root bark are emetic, purgative and tonic. The root bark has been chewed to induce vomiting, or held in the mouth to allay toothache, though it is rarely if ever prescribed as a therapeutic agent in Britain. The fruit is narcotic. This probably refers to the seedpod. The leaves are cholagogue and emetic. The leaf juice inhibits viruses.

Other Uses:
Dye; Essential; Fibre; Fuel; Oil; Soil stabilization; Wood.

A drying oil is obtained from the seed. An essential oil is obtained from the flowers. Highly valued, it is used in perfumery. A yellow dye is obtained from the bark. Robinetin is a strong dyestuff yielding with different mordants different shades similar to those obtained with fisetin, quercetin, and myricetin; with aluminum mordant, it dyes cotton to a brown-orange shade. The bark contains tannin, but not in sufficient quantity for utilization. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains 7.2% tannin and the heartwood of young trees 5.7%. The bark is used to make paper and is a substitute for silk and wool. Trees sucker freely, especially if coppiced, and they can be used for stabilizing banks etc. Wood – close-grained, exceedingly hard, heavy, very strong, resists shock and is very durable in contact with the soil. It weighs 45lb per cubic foot and is used in shipbuilding and for making fence posts, treenails, floors etc. A very good fuel, but it should be used with caution because it flares up and projects sparks. The wood of Robinia pseudoacacia var. rectissima, the so called ‘Long Island’ or ‘Shipmast’ locust, has a greater resistance to decay and wood borers, outlasting other locust posts and stakes by 50 – 100% .Landscape Uses:Erosion control, Firewood.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant (except the flowers) and especially the bark, should be considered to be toxic. The toxins are destroyed by heat.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinia_pseudoacacia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Robinia+pseudoacacia

Trifolium dubium

Botanical Name : Trifolium dubium
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Trifolium
Species: T. dubium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms : Trifolium minus – Sm.

Common Names :Lesser Hop Trefoil or Suckling clover,Yellow suckling clover, lesser yellow trefoil, red suckling clover, little or small hop clover.

Habitat:Trifolium dubium is native to Europe, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to Spain and the Caucasus, but can be found in many parts of the world as an introduced species.

Description:
Sub-erect to prostrate annual, glabrous to slightly pubescent foliage with slender, wiry stems, 0.3-0.6 m, branched at the base. On the stems there are sometimes downy hairs which turn red with age. Grey-green, narrow leaflets are triangular and broadest at the apex; terminal leaflet stalked; broad-based stipules are sharply pointed. Has short tap root but a mass of fibrous roots in upper soil layers. Inflorescences, borne on axillary stalks, are round racemes each with 12-30 lemon yellow florets which become reversed after flowering.It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife. Oval-shaped seeds, yellow to olive in colour, borne singly in seed pods.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun. Succeeds in poor soils. Grows well in a wild flower lawn. It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better. It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias. The nectar-rich flowers are a good food source for bees and butterflies. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.

Propagation:
Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring to early summer in situ.

Medicinal Uses:

The plant is haemostatic. A poultice of the chopped plant has been applied to cuts to stop the bleeding.

Other Uses:
The plant fixes atmospheric nitrogen and is used in seed mixes with grasses for land reclamation sowings.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/DATA/PF000499.HTM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trifolium_dubium
http://www.kuleuven-kulak.be/bioweb/foto.php?link=photos/T/Trifolium%2520dubium_01694.jpg&titel=petit%2520tr%25E8fle%2520jaune%2520-%2520Trifolium%2520dubium

Trifolium incarnatum

Botanical Name : Trifolium incarnatum
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Trifolium
Species: T. incarnatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names :Crimson clover or Italian clover (The species name incarnatum means “blood red”.)

Habitat :Trifolium incarnatum is  native to most of Europe.(Mainly western and southern Europe, including Britain, to the Balkans and the Mediterranean.) Grows in  grassy places near the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall.

Description:
Trifolium incarnatum is a upright annual herb grows to 20-50 cm tall at a medium rate, unbranched or branched only at the base. The leaves are trifoliate with a long petiole, each leaflet hairy, 8-16 mm across, with a truncated or bilobed apex. The flowers are produced throughout the spring and summer, rich red or crimson, congested on an elongated spike inflorescence 3-5 cm tall and 1.5 cm broad; the individual flowers are up to 10-13 mm long and have five petals. The banner of each flower does not sit upright, but folds forward.

You may click to see different pictures of Trifolium incarnatum

It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun. Succeeds in poor soils. The ssp. molinerli is the form of this species that is native to Britain, whilst ssp. incarnatum is naturalized in S. Britain and is the form grown as a green manure crop. It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better. It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias. Fairly resistant to ‘clover rot’. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.

Propagation:
Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring to early summer in situ. The seed can also be sown in early autumn as a winter green manure.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Tea.

The seeds can be sprouted and eaten in salads. They can also be dried and ground into a nutritious flour. Dried flower heads are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
Leaves are made into a strong infusion to suspend the spasms of whooping cough or into a salve for indolent sores.

Other Uses:
Green manure; Soil reclamation.

Used as a green manure. It is relatively fast growing, makes an excellent weed suppressing cover and fixes nitrogen. It is also used with grass seed mixes in soil reclamation projects.

Crimson clover is widely grown as a protein-rich forage crop for cattle and other livestock. It can typically be found in forest margins, fields and roadsides.

It is sown as quickly as possible after the removal of a grain crop at the rate of 20-22 kg/ha. It is found to succeed better when only the surface of the soil is stirred by the scarifier and harrow than when a plowing is given. It grows rapidly in spring, and yields an abundant crop of green food, particularly palatable to live stock. It is also suitable for making into hay. Only one cutting, however, can be obtained, as it does not shoot again after being mown.

In Great Britain it is most valuable in the south, though less successful in northern regions.

It has been introduced into the United States, originally as forage for cattle. It is often used for roadside erosion control, as well as beautification; it tends, however, to eliminate all other desirable spring and early-summer species of native vegetation in the area where it is planted.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Trifolium+incarnatum
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trifolium_incarnatum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Acacia melanoxylon

Botanical Name : Acacia melanoxylon
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. melanoxylon
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names : Australian Blackwood (The species is also known as Sally Wattle, Lightwood, Hickory, Mudgerabah, Tasmanian Blackwood or Black Wattle)

Habitat :Acacia melanoxylon is  native in eastern AustraliaNew South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria. Locally naturalized in S.W. Europe. It grows in wet forests on good soils up to the montane zone. Usually an under-storey tree in Eucalyptus forests.

Description:
Acacia melanoxylon is an evergreen .Trees often 10–20 m tall and 0.5 m dbh, but varies from small shrubs to one of the largest acacias in Australia, attaining heights up to 40 m and diameters of 1–1.5 m on lowlands in northwestern Tasmania, and in southern Victoria. In open situations the smaller and medium-sized  Blackwood trees are freely branched from near ground level, but the largest plants have  welldeveloped  trunk which is usually fairly cylindrical but may be shortly buttressed or flanged at the base…....CLICK   &   SEE

You may click to see the pictures of Acacia melanoxylon

Crowns dense. May spread by root suckers. Juvenile bipinnate leaves often persist on young plants. Bark hard, rough, longitudinally furrowed and scaly, brownish grey to very dark grey. This description is adapted from Doran & Turnbull (1997).

It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid and neutral soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a sandy loam and a very sunny position. Prefers a deep moist soil. Succeeds in a hot dry position. Succeeds in any good garden soil that is not excessively limey. Most members of this genus become chlorotic on limey soils. This is one of the hardier members of the genus, tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c. It succeeds outdoors in Britain from Dorset westwards, also in south-western Scotland and in Ireland. However, even in the mildest areas of the country it is liable to be cut back to the ground in excessively cold winters though it can resprout from the base. It is planted for timber in south-west Europe. This species produces both phyllodes (basically a flattened stem that looks and acts like a leaf) and true leaves. The roots are very vigorous and extensive – they often produce suckers and can damage the foundations of buildings. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse. Stored seed should be scarified, pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then sown in a warm greenhouse in March. The seed germinates in 3 – 4 weeks at 25°c. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and consider giving them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in individual pots in a frame. Overwinter in a greenhouse for the first winter and plant out in their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Fair percentage.

Edible Uses: Flowers – cooked. Rich in pollen, they are often used in fritters. The flowers have a penetrating scent.

Medicinal Uses:

Antirheumatic. :Bathe in a bark infusion for rheumatism.

Other Uses :
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers. A green dye is obtained from the seed pods. The extensive root system of this plant helps to prevent soil erosion. The bark is rich in tannin.

Acacia melanoxylon wood is valued for its highly decorative timber which may be used as a cabinet timber, for musical instruments or in boatbuilding.(Wood is hard, dark, close grained, high quality, takes a high polish.)

The tree’s twigs and its bark are used to poison fish as a way of fishing.

Plain and Figured Australian Blackwood is used in musical instrument making (in particular guitars, drums, Hawaiian ukuleles, violin bows and organ pipes), and in recent years has become increasingly valued as a substitute for koa wood.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_melanoxylon
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Acacia+melanoxylon
http://www.cuyamaca.net/oh170/characteristic%20pages/acacia%20melanoxylon.asp
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

http://www.worldwidewattle.com/infogallery/utilisation/acaciasearch/pdf/melanoxylon.pdf

Enhanced by Zemanta

Medicago lupulina

Botanical Name : Medicago lupulina
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Trifolieae
Genus: Medicago
Species: M. lupulina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names ;Black Hay, Black Nonsuch, Blackweed,  Black Medick

Habitat ;Medicago lupulina can be seen through the old world: all of Europe, a great part of Asia, including China, Korea and Taiwan, as well as the Indian sub-continent, North Africa, the islands of the Atlantic (the Canaries, Madeira) and throughout the United States, including Hawaii

It grows in grassy places and roadsides, often occurring as a garden weed on acid and calcareous soils

Description:
Medicago lupulina is an annual or bi-annual plant, sometimes long-lived thanks to adventitious buds on the roots. The plant measures from 15 to 60 cm in height, with fine stems often lying flat at the beginning of growth and later erecting. The nodes bear three leaves, carried by a long petiole and have oval leaflets, partially toothed towards the tip. This species has very small yellow flowers are grouped in tight bunches. The fruit is a pod that does not open upon maturation, of a little arched form and bearing a single seed.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE  PICTURES

It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from April to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies). The plant is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Dislikes acid soils. (This conflicts with the notes on its habitat above.) Dislikes shade. A good food plant for many caterpillars. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in situ in autumn. Green manure crops can be sown in situ from early spring until early autumn. (the later sowings are for an over-wintering crop)

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – cooked. Used as a potherb. A nutritional analysis is available. Seed – cooked. Parched and eaten or ground into a powder. The seed is said to contain trypsin inhibitors. These can interfere with certain enzymes that help in the digestion of proteins, but are normally destroyed if the seed is sprouted first.

Chemical Constituents:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

*Leaves (Dry weight)
*0 Calories per 100g
*Water: 0%
*Protein: 23.3g; Fat: 3.3g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 24.7g; Ash: 10.3g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 1330mg; Phosphorus: 300mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 450mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 2280mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial; Lenitive.

Aqueous extracts of the plant have antibacterial properties against micro-organisms. The plant is lenitive.The plant has agents that are capable of easing pain or discomfort.  Legume isoflavones seem to be estrogenic and are believed by some NCI scientists to prevent cancer.

Other Uses:
Green manure.

A good green manure plant, it is fairly deep rooted, has good resistance to ‘Clover rot’ but it is not very fast growing. It can be undersown with cereals, succeeding even in a wet season.

Medicago lupulina is sometimes used as a fodder plant. While being of good value, it isn’t a very productive fodder. It is sometimes used in the composition of artificial meadows, especially when implanted in dry lands. It is a common sight in natural pastures. It is also one of the flowers that can be used to create honey.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_lupulina
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Medicago+lupulina
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta