Tag Archives: Nutrient

Astragalus exscapus

Botanical Name : Astragalus exscapus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Habitat :Astragalus exscapus is native to Central EuropeMoldavia and the Ukraine. It grows on steppe and foothills, on limestone soils.
Description:
Astragalus exscapus is a perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
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It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Succeeds in poor soils. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This plant is a sub-shrub and although it produces woody stems these tend to die back almost to the base each winter. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of syphilitic sores.

Other Uses:
A gum called morea tragacanth is obtained from the stem (see above). It has a wide range of uses including:- a thickening agent in preparing dyes for calico printing, textile dyes and for dressing fabrics, it is also a thickener in making glues, water colours, ink (where it supplies a gloss), it is a binding agent in paper making, a culture medium in laboratories etc

Known Hazards : Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+exscapus

Arnica angustifolia alpina

Botanical Name : Arnica angustifolia alpina
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: A. alpina. (L.)Olin.

Common Name: Mountain Tobacco

Other Name: Narrowleaf Arnica

Habitat : Arnica angustifolia alpina is native to N. Europe. N. Asia and Northern N. America. It grows in pasture and open woodland on neutral to calcareous soils. Bare rocky alpine slopes and summits.

Description:
Arnica angustifolia alpina is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in)

*Rootstock: Rootstock long. Forms stands.

*Stem: Stem quite delicate, densely haired especially at top, also with glandular hairs.

*Flower: Flowers 3.5–5 cm (1.4–2 in.) broad, single flower-like capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Capitulum flowers yellow, ray-florets tongue-like; disc-florets tubular, small. Stamens 5. Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, same length, lanceolate, base densely haired, with purple tips. Solitary capitulum terminating stem, often nodding, sometimes with additional 1–4 capitula in stem-leaf axils.

*Leaves: In basal rosette and on stem usually 1–2 pairs opposite, stalkless. Blade lanceolate–lanceolately ovate, long-tipped, with entire margins, almost parallel-veined, short-haired.

*Fruit: Ridged achene, tip with white unbranched hairs.

*Flowering time: July-August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. This species is more lime tolerant than other members of the genus[200]. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat. Closely related to A. montana.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring

Medicinal Uses:
The whole flowering plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory and vulnerary. This species is closely related to A. montana and is included in that species by some botanists. The medicinal uses of that plant are as follows:- Arnica has a long history of herbal use, especially as an external treatment for bruises and sprains – it is an ingredient of a number of proprietary preparations[238]. Internally, it has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system. Arnica increases local blood supply and accelerates healing, it is anti-inflammatory and increases the rate of absorption of internal bleeding. Generally the plant is nowadays only recommended for internal use as a homeopathic medicine, principally for treating shock, injury and pain. If used as a decoction or tincture it stimulates the circulation and is valuable in the treatment of angina and a weak or failing heart, but it can be toxic even at quite low doses and so is rarely used this way. The flowers are the part most commonly used, they are harvested when fully open and dried – the receptacles are sometimes removed since these are liable to be attacked by insects. The root is also used, it is harvested after the leaves have died down in the autumn and dried for later use. The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory, vulnerary. Although a very valuable remedy, it should be used with caution. It has been known to cause contact dermatitis when used externally and collapse when taken internally. Only take it internally under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The freshly crushed flowers cause sneezing if inhaled. The leaves have also been smoked as a tobacco, though it is unclear whether this was for medicinal reasons The whole plant, harvested when in flower, is used in homeopathic remedies. It is especially useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries, sores and bruises. The homeopathic dose has also been used effectively in the treatment of epilepsy and seasickness, and it might be of use as a hair growth stimulant.

Other Uses : This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are  available.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_angustifolia
http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/alpine-arnica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+angustifolia+alpina

Nuphar lutea

Botanical Name: Nuphar lutea
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nuphar
Species: N. lutea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Nymphaeales

Synonyms: Nuphar lutea advena. (Ait.)Kartesz.&Gandhi.

Common Names: Yellow Water-lily, Brandy-Bottle, Common Spatterdock, Yellow pond-lily, Varigated yellow pond-lily
Habitat:Nuphar lutea is native to Southeastern N. America – Labrador and Nova Scotia, south to Florida, Texas and Utah.It grows in ponds, lakes, sluggish streams and rivers, springs, marshes, ditches, canals, sloughs, and tidal waters from sea level to 450 metres.
Description:
Nuphar lutea is a perennial aqqatic plant. The plant grows with its roots in the sediment and its leaves floating on the water surface; it can grow in water up to 5 metres deep.It is usually found in shallower water than the white water lily, and often in beaver ponds
It is in flower from Jul to August.Since the flooded soils are deficient in oxygen, aerenchyma in the leaves and rhizome transport oxygen to the rhizome. Often there is mass flow from the young leaves into the rhizome, and out through the older leaves. The rhizomes are often consumed by muskrats. The flower is solitary, terminal, held above the water surface; it is hermaphrodite, 2–4 cm diameter, with five or six large bright yellow sepals and numerous small yellow petals largely concealed by the sepals. Flowering is from June to September, and pollination is entomophilous, by flies attracted to the alcoholic scent. The flower is followed by a green bottle-shaped fruit, containing numerous seeds which are dispersed by water currents. The species is less tolerant of water pollution than water-lilies in the genus Nymphaea.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.

Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It can grow in water.
Cultivation:
A water plant requiring a rich soil and a sunny position. It is best if grown in still water that is up to 60cm deep but it also tolerates slow moving water. Succeeds in light shade. A very ornamental plant. Nuphar advena is extremely variable and intergrades with N . orbiculata , N . ulvacea , and N . sagittifolia in areas where their ranges overlap.

Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse in pots submerged under 25mm of water. Prick out into individual pots as soon as the first true leaf appears and grow them on in water in a greenhouse for at least two years before planting them out in late spring. The seed is collected by wrapping the developing seed head in a muslin bag to avoid the seed being lost. Harvest it 10 days after it sinks below the soil surface or as soon as it reappears. Division in May. Each portion must have at least one eye. Submerge in pots in shallow water until established.
Edible Uses: 
Root – raw or cooked. The root can be soaked in water in order to remove a bitter taste. After long boiling, it has a taste like sheep’s liver. The root can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a thickener in soups, or can be added to cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be roasted, then ground into a powder and eaten raw or used to thicken soups etc. The seed can also be toasted like popcorn.

Medicinal Uses:
The rhizomes are used medicinally. They are currently being investigated for their physiological effects. In small doses these constituents have a cardiotonic action and they are included in certain pharmaceutical preparations prescribed in Europe. They affect the central nervous system and in large amounts they may cause paralysis. Yellow Water lily is not used in herbal medicine but tinctures are used in homeopathy. It should be used only under medical supervision. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of ‘sexual irritability’, blood diseases, chills etc. The root is poulticed and applied to swellings, inflammations, cuts etc. The root contains steroids and is a folk remedy for infertility.

The pulverized dried rhizomes have been used to arrest bleeding. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea etc. A poultice made from the roots is used in the treatment of swellings, boils, tumours, inflamed skin etc.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuphar_lutea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Nuphar+lutea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Orchis coriophora

Botanical Name : Orchis coriophora
Family: Orchidaceae
Tribe: Orchideae
Genus: Anacamptis
Species:A. coriophora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Common Name : Bug Orchis

Habitat :Orchis coriophora is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dry or damp pastures and marshes in hills and mountains. Usually found on acid soils.

Description:
Orchis coriophora is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is in flower from Apr to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

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Ye sort herbal pequeñu of Tamanu large, terrestrial, which prefer to climate rein. Tien a robustus Tarmu green maciu 4 to 10 Fueyo basal lliniales linear-llanceolaes Fueyo and kaolin it almost Visu‘s Tarmu. Floria in spring and cannula nuna inflorescence cylindrical or oblong 45 to 135 cm Llarga munches with flowers (15 to 25), fragrant color variable.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in full sun in a moist sandy loam. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. Plants can succeed in a lawn in various parts of the country. The lawn should not be mown early in the year before or immediately after flowering. Plant out bulbs whilst the plant is dormant, preferably in the autumn. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Cultivated plants are very susceptible to the predation of slugs and snails. The flowers have an abominable bug-like smell. The flowers of the commoner sub-species, O. coriophora fragrans, however, are sweetly scented.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally.

Edible Uses: Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell. It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day.
Medicinal Uses:
Salep (see above for more details) is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Orchis+coriophora
https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchis_coriophora
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anacamptis_coriophora

Gentianella diemensis

Botanical Name: Gentianella diemensis
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentianella
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Gentiana diamensis.

Common Name: Mountain Gentian

Habitat : Gentianella diemensis is native to Australia – New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria. It grows on swamps, usually found at high elevations.

Description:
Gentianella diemensis is a annual/perennial  plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies….CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have almost no information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer.

Medicinal Uses:
Bitter; Tonic.

The root is a bitter tonic. It is taken internally as a tonic to the digestive system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentianella_barringtonensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentianella+diemensis
http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/dbpages/rbgcensus/index.php/census/species_detail/14001