Herbs & Plants

Trillium sessile

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Botanical Name : Trillium sessile
Family: Melanthiaceae
Genus: Trillium
Species: T. sessile
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names:Toadshade or Sessile-flowered wake-robin

Habitat : Trillium sessile is  native to the central part of the eastern United States and the Ozarks.

Trillium sessile is a small trillium (rarely over 9 cm tall). Toadshade can be distinguished from other trilliums by its single foul smelling, stalkless, flower nestled in the middle of its three leaves. The three maroon petals, maintain a “closed” posture throughout its presence, the petals are occasionally pale green. The leaves are sometimes, but not always mottled with shades of light and dark green. Its species name comes from the Latin word sessilis which means low sitting, and refers to its stalkless flower.

Trillium sessile is most common in rich moist woods but also can be found in rich forests, limestone woods, flood plains, along fence rows. It is persistent under light pasturing. The foul smelling flowers attract its primary pollinators, flies and beetles. The flowers are present from April-June. This plant is clump forming from a thick rhizome. The above ground parts of the plant die back by mid-summer, but may persist longer in areas that do not completely dry out.

Edible Uses:
Though some accounts indicate that the cooked greens of this plant may be edible as an emergency food, however the entire plant, and especially the root is known to induce vomiting.

Medicinal Uses:
Trillium sessile has been used medicinally to treat tumors.It is sometimes cited as having been used as a poultice for boils and as a panacea-like decoction, but this is doubtful as it is attributed to Native American tribes (the Yuki and Wailaki) of California, where this plant is not known to occur.

A poultice of the bruised leaves and crushed roots has been applied as a treatment for boils.  A decoction of the plant has been used to treat any kind of sickness.  American Indians used this plant as an effective eye medicine. They either squeezed the juice directly onto their eyes or soaked the root and made an eye wash out of it.  Indians also used the roots to ease the pain of childbirth

Other Uses:
This plant is sometimes used in woodland wildflower gardens. Like many trilliums, T. sessile often does not transplant successfully from the wild.

Known Hazards:The fruits are considered a suspected poison.Toadshade is listed as state threatened in Michigan and state endangered in New York; both states are on the northern edge of its range.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


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Herbs & Plants

Barren Strawberry

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Botanical Name: Waldsteinia fragarioides
Family: Rosaceae
syn. Dalibarda fragarioides Michx.
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Tribe: Colurieae
Genus: Waldsteinia
Species: W. fragarioides

Barren Strawberry is found in woods and clearings. Native to U.S.

Description: This plant is often used as an underplanting in perennial gardens.The Barren Strawberry, or also Waldsteinia fragarioides is a low, spreading plant with showy yellow flowers that appear in early spring.
A low, strawberry-like plant with evergreen, basal leaves and several yellow flowers on a leafless stalk.

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Although this plant is strawberry-like, the flowers are yellow and the fruit is neither fleshy nor edible at maturity. Lobed Strawberry (W. lobata), found along riverbanks in Georgia and the Carolinas, has lobed and toothed leaves and narrow, yellow petal .

In some ways the appearance is similar to other low plants of the rose family such as Fragaria (strawberries) or Potentilla indica (Indian strawberry), but it lacks runners and has more rounded leaves.

Flowers with 5 broad petals and numerous stamens. Sepals narrow and pointed, generally shorter than the sepals. Stem absent, plant consisting of flower stems and leaf petioles arising from a common base. Runners absent. Leaf divided into 3 leaflets. Leaflets broad with the upper half coarsely dentate. Plant 3 to 8 inches in height
Flowering period: April to June.

Barren strawberry is an ornamental, strawberry-like plant grown primarily as a ground cover. Although native to eastern North America, it is rare in Missouri where it is only known to occur on wooded slopes and ledges in several counties in the Ozarks. It is a mat-forming plant (to 6″ tall) which spreads by runner-like rhizomes creeping just below the soil surface. Features 5-petaled yellow flowers (3/4″ diameter) which bloom singly or in clusters in spring and trifoliate leaves with wedge-shaped leaflets (each 1-2″ long). Flowers and leaves appear on separate stalks. Foliage is evergreen, but tends to bronze up in cold winter climates like St. Louis. Fruits are not berries, but are single-seeded achenes which are inedible, hence the common name of barren strawberry.

Uses: Best as a ground cover for small areas of the border, rock garden, native plant garden, woodland garden or naturalized area. Can also be used as an edging plant. Good substitute for grass in transitional areas.

Medicinal Uses:American Indians preparations of leaves, roots, and flowers to induce labor and to regulate menstruation as well as for the treatment of other disorders.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.