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Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Fight that fever :
Q: I read in the newspaper that there is a lot of flu around. I am worried as I get sick every winter.

A: There is an epidemic of influenza. It is especially dangerous in the paediatric and geriatric age groups. Medication called Tamiflu is available to treat flu once it has developed. If you have been prescribed this medication, please remember to take the entire course. Ideally, it should be given twice a day for five days.

Flu can be prevented with a readily available vaccine, which needs to be taken as a single injection and provides protection for six months. Hopefully by that time the flu season will be over.

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Ankle ache


Q: I twisted my ankle a year ago. After that I found that if I skid while walking, I tend to sprain it repeatedly. This is very painful.

A: There are ligaments around the ankle joint that should hold it firmly in place. Once you sprain your ankle, the ligaments become stretched and weakened. A slight slip will cause injury and pain. You need to go to a physiotherapist and learn ankle-strengthening exercises. It may make sense to wear an ankle support for a couple of months to prevent slips and strains.

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Best exercise :

Q: What is the best exercise to do? There is so much conflicting advice that I am confused.

A: Ideal exercise really depends on how much time you have on your hands. Theoretically you need to do an hour of running or jogging and 20 minutes of stretching. Most people cannot spare that much time. If you are confined to a limited space and cannot go outdoors you could do the same amount of exercise using a stationary exercise cycle, rowing machine or treadmill. But, to make whatever exercise you do more efficient, increase the intensity for 6 minutes and then decrease it for 6. A slow one-hour stroll will improve your health significantly but these variations and additions will add benefit.

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Sports physicians have come to the conclusion that the “Burpee” is the best exercise. It involves a squat, followed by a push-up and a leap into the air. Doing about 20 of them is ideal.

Clotty truth

Q: I am going to have cataract surgery and I am on 75mg aspirin once a day. The doctor asked me to “stop it before surgery” but did not specify for how long I should do so. Also should I take clopidogrel instead?

A: Aspirin and clopidogrel have similar actions. Both prevent platelets from sticking together and increase the time taken by blood to clot. You need to stop both for a week before surgery.

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Kids and TV

Q: How much television should I allow my children to watch?

A: Television is a free baby sitter. You can place your child in front of it and have some quiet time for yourself. However, more and more studies have shown that television is detrimental for the social and cognitive brain development of the child. The rapidly flashing images deplete brain chemicals. Memory becomes poor and school performance suffers. The educative programmes and channels too have the same effect. Children learn far more from playing with their peers and having books read to them.

Hookah harm:

Q: I found a hookah bar near my college. My friends said it is smokeless tobacco and hence not harmful. Is it true?

A: Hookahs use specially treated flavoured tobacco and then pass the smoke through water. This does not do much to reduce the health risks. The cancer causing chemicals and nicotine are still present in high concentrations. Also since the smoking sessions last longer (an hour or so) the total amount of these poisonous substances inhaled may actually be proportionately greater. The risks for throat and lung cancer remain the same.

Jogging in pregnancy :

Q: Is running during pregnancy safe? Recently I read an article about a woman who completed a marathon and then delivered. But my parents worry even if I walk.

A: The marathon woman obviously was a regular runner with a well-conditioned physique. The dangers in exercising vigorously are dehydration (which will adversely affect the baby) and falls, which may result in injury. If you have not been advised to take bed-rest then try walking for a half hour in the morning and evening. It will build stamina, strengthen your leg muscles and help you have an easy delivery.

Groin pain :

Q: I have pain on the right side of my groin if I cough or sneeze. Do I need to worry?

A: You might be developing a hernia. You need to consult a surgeon.

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Sources: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

When the bee stings....CLICK & SEE
Q: I live near a park and have often been stung by bees. Apart from being painful, I have heard that bee stings are also dangerous. How should a sting be treated?

A: The bee sting has a venom sac attached. If this sac breaks, chemicals are released into your body that cause pain, redness, local swelling and also allergic reactions. If you get stung, pull out the sting using your fingernail or a stiff card. Take care not to damage the venom sac. Wash the area with soap and water and apply ice. If the area is red and irritated, apply calamine lotion or hydrocortisone ointment. If there is swelling, see a doctor. You might be prescribed antihistamines.

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Xanthoma ...CLICK & SEE

Q: I have yellow deposits near my eyelids. They are soft and painless but look very ugly.

A: These are called xanthomas. They are caused by deposits of fat under the skin. Although they can occur anywhere —such as the elbows, knees and buttocks — eyelids are the commonest place. Xanthomas are harmless but indicative of high cholesterol, diabetes, liver cirrhosis or certain cancers. The pills you take to lower cholesterol may cause xanthomas to shrink. You can have them surgically removed, but if you do not get high cholesterol or diabetes treated (the reason they appeared in the first place), xanthomas can recur.

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Teething trouble

Q: My daughter is a year old and has no teeth. My sister’s daughter was born with two teeth. Is there reason for worry?

A: One out of 2,000 children have “natal teeth” at birth. Usually teeth appear between six and 12 months but teeth can appear as early as one month or be delayed beyond the first birthday and that is normal. However, in rare cases, the delay can also be due to Down’s syndrome, thyroid disease or bone disease. You need to consult both a paediatrician and a dentist.

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Painful jog ...CLICK & SEE

Q: I recently started jogging and have developed knee pain. My friends have all advised me to stop. They say all runners develop knee pain. Is this true?

A: Runners are not more prone to osteoarthritis of the knee but they do tend to develop pain around the patella (knee cap). This is due to failure to warm up adequately and stretch properly before and after exercising. The quadriceps (the big muscles in front of the knee) also require to be strengthened.

If you develop pain after jogging, apply an ice pack. It will reduce inflammation and pain.

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Party pooper

Q: I frequently develop diarrhoea after I eat at social functions. I cannot refuse to eat without giving offence. Is there a preventive tablet that I can take?

A: You may not be able to tolerate the oil or the colouring and other condiments added to the food. The mineral water provided might also not be of ISI standard. You can avoid diarrhoea, if you stick to vegetarian food, avoid fried items and not drink any water. The safest food is curd rice.

If you do develop diarrhoea, take equal quantities of rice and moong dal and cook it in a pressure cooker with salt. Eat only this for 24 hours.

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Idiot box blues

Q: My son used to do well in school (he is in Class VII). Now he complains of inability to recall what he has studied and poor mathematical ability. He does his homework in front of the television.

A: Why do you allow him to do homework in front of the television? He cannot possibly solve maths problems correctly while watching serials or cartoons. The rapidly flashing images also deplete the brain chemicals responsible for attention, learning and memory.

Physical activity for an hour a day improves memory. Encourage your son to play outside for an hour and then start his homework in a quiet room with no television. I think you will notice a vast improvement.

Keep walking

Q: I am 86 years old and active. Unfortunately my family members keep telling me to “take rest”. They feel that since I worked hard all my life, I should now just sit quietly. I think if I sit long enough I will die.

A: You are right. Walking and other physical activity keeps you mentally agile and physically fit. It also prevents blood clots from forming in your legs and causing strokes and heart attacks. So keep moving as long as you are able to.

Yellow liver

Q: I heard that jaundice causes liver cancer. Is this true?

A: Jaundice” just means that the blood has high levels of bilirubin. It can be due to several reasons — infection, blood destruction, gall bladder disease etc. One of the causes is primary cancer of the liver or secondary tumour deposits there.

Jaundice because of hepatitis B infection can also cause liver cancer. This can be prevented by immunisation with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.

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Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Ouch! My back hurts:

Q: I am 69 years old and have a pain in my lower back which, when I stand, radiates down both my legs. I am a housewife and the pain makes it very difficult for me to do housework. The orthopaedic I consulted said I have spondylolisthesis but none of the tablets I was prescribed seem to work.
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A: Spondylolisthesis can be congenital but usually, especially if it occurs after the age of 50, is due to degeneration of the spinal vertebrae. One vertebra then tends to slip over the other and presses on the nerves (in your case the ones going to the legs) causing the pain.

This condition can usually be managed without surgery. A few days of bed rest should be followed by physiotherapy, concentrating on exercises that help with flexion of the spine and strengthening of the “core” muscles. You should also walk or take up a similar aerobic activity for 40 minutes every day. A lumbosacral brace should be worn at all times, except when lying down or exercising. If you are overweight, you will need to reduce.

Warts and all:

Q: I have had a wart on my finger for some time. Now another one has appeared near it. Both have a repulsive cauliflower like appearance.
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A: Warts are a viral infection spread by contact from person to person. They are more likely to occur in children and young adults. They are harmless and not cancerous. They usually disappear on their own without treatment in six months to two years.

Dermatologists also remove them with cryotherapy (freezing), laser and cauterisation. Sometimes they may advise repeated application of medication.

Tread right:

Q: I want to buy a treadmill but do not know how effective exercise on it will be. Also I do not know what type of treadmill to buy.


A: Manual treadmills do not use a motor and move only when the person moves. Electric treadmills use a conveyor belt and motor. There is no wind resistance in a treadmill so unless the incline of the platform is set at 1 per cent, the calorie consumption is 10-15 per cent less than running the same distance on the road. The gait on the treadmill is also more bouncy because of the platform. This leads to bad running form and difficulty when returning to running on the road. Using the treadmill also tends to get repetitive and monotonous so that more mental effort is needed to persist. In short treadmill is expensive, occupies space and is less efficient and interesting than running on the road.

Life after work :

Q: I looked forward to retiring for 30 years, but once I did retire, I feel more stressed and depressed. My wife, who is a housewife, seems to have more to do than me. Also she is stressed because I am around all the time and in her way.

A: The retirement age in India is 58-60 and that is really too early! Most people are healthy, active and still in their prime. If you just sit around the house watching television, eating and sleeping, you will soon deteriorate mentally and physically. To ward this off, try getting a part-time job, starting a small business, joining socially relevant political peoples movements or doing volunteer work. You will feel needed and everyone (including your wife) will be happy.

Salt control :

Q: I have high blood pressure and am on enalapril to control it. My doctor told me to “control salt intake” but was not very specific about how exactly that is done. What should I do?

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A: You need around 2.5gm (half a teaspoon) of salt a day if you are less than 50 years old and 1.5gm (quarter teaspoon) if older. This includes hidden salt intake from pickles, pappads, chips and other salty snacks. A rule of thumb is to take half a teaspoon of salt per day per person in the household and use it for cooking. People in the family who do not have high blood pressure can add extra salt if needed.

Down at heel :

Q: A severe pain shoots up my leg whenever I put my foot down in the morning. The doctor took an X-ray and said I have a calcaneal spur. He said I need surgery but I am not really willing to go for it. Is there any other remedy?
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A: A calcaneal spur is an extra growth of bone under the heel. It can cause agonising pain. Before you consider surgery, try a few simple measures.

Soak your feet in salted hot water morning and evening. Rock your feet gently in the water.

• Always wear soft footwear. Do not go bare foot even in the house.

• Go to a physiotherapy centre. Ultrasound treatment often helps.

Lose weight if you are obese.

Light therapy:

Q: What should you do if an insect enters your ear?


A: Immediately place your ear near a bright light and turn off all other lights. The insect will usually fly back out again.

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Healthy Tips

Learn to Walk

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Do you know how to walk? Of course, most people would say, everyone knows how to walk; it is as instinctive as breathing. The comparison is apt — just like many people breathe inefficiently, in today’s increasingly motorised world many have forgotten how to walk. If you look around, you will see that by the time people reach their fifties, they either waddle with a sideways swaying movement or have a forward shuffling gait. This unnatural way of walking pushes the spine, hip and knees out of alignment, eventually resulting in aches, pains and even degenerative arthritis.

As we grow older, we need to concentrate on maintaining a proper walking technique. Slouching, bad posture and an improper gait are avoidable pitfalls. Whenever you walk, hold your head high and the neck straight. The eyes should be focused 15-20 feet ahead, the chin held parallel to the ground, the stomach pulled in, the feet a shoulder-width apart and the arms should swing naturally at right angles (not across the body).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is even more important to learn to walk properly as a toddler but cramped housing and an unsafe environment makes fearful parents confine children indoors. Also, early unsteady steps often result in falls, leading to bruises and bumps. Anxious parents then start carrying children or restrict them to prams. Watching television programmes seems safer and less stressful (for the caretaker) than letting tiny tots walk around.

That, however, is not the right attitude. Toddlers attempting to take their first steps need active encouragement. Hold them by the hand and make them walk alongside for around 20 minutes morning and evening. Encourage them to walk fast, run, jump and skip. This will improve muscle tone, balance, coordination as well as make them confident and sturdy. This will help them all through life.

The preparation for a healthy life in which one (barring an unforeseen event) remains active and mobile well into the nineties, should ideally begin in the twenties but it is never too late to start. Even the sixties or the eighties is not too late. These days doctors recommend an hour of aerobic activity a day. Of all the activities — jogging, walking, running swimming, dancing and sports like tennis — walking is the easiest. It does not require much training or equipment, no partner is required, and it is the least likely to cause an injury.

The intensity or speed of the walk can be varied to obtain maximum health benefits. The perception of the intensity of exercise can be misleading. This is why it is important to have an objective assessment. The “target heart rate” should be calculated from the formula 220-age. In light activity, 40 per cent of this heart rate is reached, breathing is normal, sweating is minimal and it is possible to carry on a conversation. In moderate activity, 50-70 per cent of the target heart rate is reached, breathing is rapid, sweating occurs and it is possible to speak but not sing. During vigorous activity 70-80 per cent of the target rate is reached, breathing is rapid and it is not possible to speak without pausing for breath. The intensity of exercise should be gradually built up over a period of months to the “vigorous stage” as this confers the most health benefits.

It is important to wear seamless socks (will not injure the feet) and proper footwear while walking. Slippers slap up against the heel. After many kilometres, this is likely to result in heel pain. Clothes should be loose and made out of natural or “climate controlled” material, not tight fitting synthetic and non sweat absorbing.

In 10-15 per cent of people over the age of 65, walking can result in a pain radiating down the leg or in the buttock or calf. After a period of rest, the pain disappears. This is a condition called intermittent claudication and is caused by poor blood supply to the leg muscles. It can occur in diabetes, hypertension and if cholesterol plaques block the vessels owing to elevated lipids .It can be a precursor to strokes and heart attacks. Intermittent claudication responds 250 per cent within a few months to walking for at least an hour a day with rest whenever the pain arises.

People who walk regularly get an endorphin (mood-elevating chemical) boost. The constant pounding helps calcium enter their bones making them stronger. Recent research has shown that the hippocampus (the area in the brain responsible for memory) expands by as much as 2 per cent in people who walk regularly. In sedentary elders it shrank by 1.5 per cent.

Have a clear aim, like eventually being able to walk for an hour. Make walking a habit, beginning each day with the thought “when I finish my walk,” rather than “if I walk today”. In short, walk to be fit, healthy, happy and to have a good memory.

Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Mastitis

Definition
Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that results in breast pain, swelling, warmth and redness of the breast. If you have mastitis, you might also experience fever and chills. Mastitis most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding (lactation mastitis), although in rare circumstances this condition can occur outside of lactation.

click to see the pictures

The term mastitis is from the Greek word mastos, for breast, and itis, for inflammation of. The response to injury to the udder of sheep is called inflammation. Mastitis is the reaction of milk -secreting tissue to injury produced by physical force, chemicals introduced into the gland or most commonly from bacteria and their toxins.

Click to see the picture   :Udder of a of a Roux du Valais sheep after a healed mastitis, one teat was lost due to the disease.

In most cases, lactation mastitis occurs within the first three months after giving birth (postpartum), but it can happen later during breast-feeding. The condition can leave you feeling exhausted and rundown, making it difficult to care for your baby.

Sometimes mastitis leads a mother mistakenly to wean her baby before she intends to. But you can continue breast-feeding while you have mastitis.

Types:
It is called puerperal mastitis when it occurs in lactating mothers and non-puerperal otherwise. Mastitis can occur in men, albeit rarely. Inflammatory breast cancer has symptoms very similar to mastitis and must be ruled out.

The popular misconception that mastitis in humans is an infection is highly misleading and in many cases incorrect. Infections play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of both puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis in humans and many cases of mastitis are completely aseptic under normal hygienic conditions. Infection as primary cause of mastitis is presumed to be more prevalent in veterinary mastitis and poor hygienic conditions.

The symptoms are similar for puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis but predisposing factors and treatment can be very different.

Click to see the picture    Serous exudate from bovine udder in E. coli mastitis at left. Normal milk at right.

Puerperal:
Puerperal mastitis is the inflammation of breast in connection with pregnancy, breastfeeding or weaning. Since one of the most prominent symptoms is tension and engourgement of the breast, it is thought to be caused by blocked milk ducts or milk excess. It is relatively common, estimates range depending on methodology between 5-33%. However only about 0.4-0.5% of breastfeeding mothers develop an abscess.

Nonpuerperal:
The term nonpuerperal mastitis describes inflammatory lesions of the breast occurring unrelated to pregnancy and breastfeeding. This article includes description of mastitis as well as various kinds of mammary abscesses. Skin related conditions like dermatitis and foliculitis are a separate entity.

Names for non-puerperal mastitis are not used very consistently and include Mastitis, Subareolar Abscess, Duct Ectasia, Periductal Inflammation, Zuska’s Disease and others.

Symptoms:
Lactation mastitis usually affects only one breast and the symptoms can develop quickly.[3] The signs and symptoms usually appear suddenly and they include:

Click to see the pictures..…….
*Breast tenderness or warmth to the touch
*General malaise or feeling ill
*Swelling of the breast
*Pain or a burning sensation continuously or while breast-feeding
*Skin redness, often in a wedge-shaped pattern
*Fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or greater [4]
*The affected breast can then start to appear lumpy and red.

Click to see the picture

Some women may also experience flu-like symptoms such as:

*Aches
*Shivering and chills
*Feeling anxious or stressed
*Fatigue
*Breast engorgement

Contact should be made with a health care provider with special breastfeeding competence as soon as the patient recognizes the combination of signs and symptoms. Most of the women first experience the flu-like symptoms and just after they may notice a sore red area on the breast. Also, women should seek medical care if they notice any abnormal discharge from the nipples, if breast pain is making it difficult to function each day or they have prolonged, unexplained breast pain.

Causes:
Since the 1980s mastitis has often been divided into non-infectious and infectious sub-groups. However, recent research [6] suggests that it may not be feasible to make divisions in this way. It has been shown that types and amounts of potentially pathogenic bacteria in breast milk are not correlated to the severity of symptoms. Moreover, although only 15% of women with mastitis in Kvist et al.’s study were given antibiotics, all recovered and few had recurring symptoms. Many healthy breastfeeding women wishing to donate breast milk have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their milk but have no symptoms of mastitis.

Mastitis typically develops when the milk is not properly removed from the breast. Milk stasis can lead to the milk ducts in the breasts becoming blocked, as the breast milk not being properly and regularly expressed.  It has also been suggested that blocked milk ducts can occur as a result of pressure on the breast, such as tight-fitting clothing or an over-restrictive bra, although there is sparse evidence for this supposition . Mastitis may occur when the baby is not appropriately attached to the breast while feeding, when the baby has infrequent feeds or has problems suckling the milk out of the breast.

Experts are still unsure why breast milk can cause the breast tissue to become inflamed. One theory is that it may be due to the presence of cytokines in breast milk. Cytokines are special proteins that are used by the immune system and are passed on to the baby in order to help them resist infection. It may be the case that the woman’s immune system mistakes these cytokines for a bacterial or viral infection and responds by inflaming the breast tissue in an attempt to stop the spread of what the body perceives as an infection.

Some women (approximately 15% in Kvist et al. study) will require antibiotic treatment for infection which is usually caused by bacteria from the skin or the baby’s mouth that entering the milk ducts through skin lesions of the nipple or through the opening of the nipple.[8] Infection is usually caused by staphylococcus aureus.

Mastitis is quite common among breastfeeding women. The WHO estimates that although incidences vary between 2.6% and 33%, the prevalence globally is approximately 10% of breastfeeding women. Most mothers who develop mastitis usually do so within the first few weeks after delivery. Most breast infections occur within the first or second month after delivery or at the time of weaning.  However, in rare cases it affects women who are not breastfeeding.

Mastitis can also develop after nipple piercing. In some rare cases, however, Mastitis can occur in men.

Risk Factors:
Women who are breastfeeding are at risk for developing mastitis especially if they have sore or cracked nipples or have had mastitis before while breastfeeding another baby. Also, the chances of getting mastitis increases if women use only one position to breastfeed or wear a tight-fitting bra, which may restrict milk flow

Women with diabetes, chronic illness, AIDS, or an impaired immune system may be more susceptible to the development of mastitis.

Complications:
Complications that may arise from mastitis include recurrence, milk stasis and abscess. The abscess is the most severe complication that women can get from this condition. Also, women who have had mastitis once are likely to develop it again with a future child or with the same infant. Recurrence appears especially in cases of delayed or inadequate treatment.

Milk stasis is another complication that may arise from mastitis and it occurs when the milk is not completely drained from the breast. This causes increased pressure on the ducts and leakage of milk into surrounding breast tissue, which can lead to pain and inflammation.

Delayed treatment or inadequate treatment, especially in mastitis related to milk stasis, may lead to the formation of an abscess within the breast tissue. An abscess is a collection of pus that develops into the breast which ultimately requires surgical drainage.

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of mastitis and breast abscess can usually be made based on a physical examination. The doctor will also take into account the signs and symptoms of the condition.

However, if the doctor is not sure whether the mass is an abscess or a tumor, an ultrasound may be performed. The ultrasound provides a clear image of the breast tissue and may be helpful in distinguishing between simple mastitis and abscess or in diagnosing an abscess deep in the breast. The test consists of placing an ultrasound probe over the breast.

In cases of infectious mastitis, cultures may be needed in order to determine what type of organism is causing the infection. Cultures are helpful in deciding the specific type of antibiotics that will be used in curing the disease. These cultures may be taken either from the breast milk or of the material aspirated from an abscess.

Mammograms or breast biopsies are normally performed on women who do not respond to treatment or on non-breastfeeding women. This type of tests is sometimes ordered to exclude the possibility of a rare type of breast cancer which causes symptoms similar to those of mastitis.

Treatment:
If you develop a painful, red or swollen breast, and especially if you have generalized symptoms such as a fever, it’s important to see your doctor because there may be infection that needs treatment with antibiotics.

You should try to continue breastfeeding. Although mastitis may interfere with breastfeeding – because the breasts become distorted in shape, for example – it is often the best treatment because it empties the breast.

In fact it’s important to persevere, because otherwise engorged breasts rapidly lead to a fall in milk production, as the body sees it as a signal that more milk is being produced than is needed.

With engorgement, if the affected area is not drained there’s a risk of infection developing. Try to give frequent feeds varying the position of the baby (many recommend a position where the baby’s chin points towards the affected area). Offer the affected breast first for the best chance of good drainage.

You can also try massaging the affected area of the breast as you feed, and applying warmth to the area.

There’s no risk to the baby from infection being passed on in the milk, so this is not a reason to stop feeding.

You can try to relieve the symptoms with cooling treatments – everything from cabbage leaves to cold flannels to gel-filled cool packs. Gentle breast massage can also help. If there is no infection, medicines are often not very effective in resolving the mastitis but may help with symptoms.

Paracetamol or ibuprofen may ease pain and reduce fever for example. These are usually safe although ibuprofen can get through into breast milk in small amounts – this doesn’t usually do any harm but you should check with your GP if your baby was born prematurely, had a low birth weight or any other medical problems. Paracetamol can also pass through into breast milk in tiny amounts but is thought to be even less likely to do harm.

Lifestyle and home remedies :
If you have mastitis, it’s safe to continue breast-feeding. Continuing breast-feeding offers the added benefit of helping clear the infection in your breast.

To relieve your discomfort:

*Maintain your breast-feeding routine.
*Get as much rest as possible.
*Avoid prolonged engorgement before breast-feeding.
*Use varied positions to breast-feed.
*Drink plenty of fluids.
*If you have trouble emptying a portion of your breast, apply warm compresses to the breast or take a warm shower before breast-feeding or pumping milk.
*Wear a supportive bra.
*While waiting for the antibiotics to take effect, take a mild pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others).

If breast-feeding on the infected breast is too painful or your infant refuses to nurse on that breast, try pumping or hand-expressing milk.

Prevention :
To get your breast-feeding relationship with your infant off to its best possible start — and to avoid complications such as mastitis — consider making an appointment with a lactation consultant. A lactation consultant can give you tips and provide invaluable advice for proper breast-feeding technique.

Minimize your chances of getting mastitis by fully draining the milk from your breasts while breast-feeding. Allow your baby to completely empty one breast before switching to the other breast during feeding. If your baby nurses for only a few minutes on the second breast — or not at all — start breast-feeding on that breast the next time you feed your baby.

Alternate the breast you offer first at each breast-feeding, and change the position you use to breast-feed from one feeding to the next. Make sure your baby latches on properly during feedings. Finally, don’t let your baby use your breast as a pacifier. Babies enjoy sucking and often find comfort in suckling at the breast even when they’re not hungry

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/mastitis1.shtml
http://www.riversideonline.com/health_reference/Womens-Health/DS00678.cfm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastitis
http://www.breastfeedingbasics.com/html/breast_infections.shtml
http://glamomamas.com/2011/05/breastfeeding-it%E2%80%99s-choice/

http://melancoholismo.blogspot.com/2009/12/humor-patologico-5-muestra-del-extrano.html

http://www.righthealth.com/topic/mastitis/overview/adam_images?img=4

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