Botanical Name: Albizia procera
Species: Albizia procera
Synonyms: Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosa elata Roxb. Mimosa procera Roxb.
Common Names: White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris, Albizia procera, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree.
Bengali Name: Sada Sirish.
Other Names :
Akleng-parang, Bellate, Doon siris, Karo, Karunthagara, Kinhai, Konda vagei, Koroi, Raom tree, Soros-tree, Safed Siris, Silver bark rain tree, Tella chinduga, Tram kang, Weru, White siris, Women’s Tongues.
International Common Names:
English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia
Local Common Names:
Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
Nepal: seto siris
Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
Philippines: akleng parang
Trade name: Forest siris
Habitat : Albizia procera is native to E. Asia – Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. It grows in monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest. It is commonly found in open secondary forest.
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. It has a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa. It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Insects.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 – 18 up to 37 – 46?c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 – 5,000 mm. Plants are susceptible to frost[. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 – 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils. Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.
Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%. Seeds that have been stored for 4 – 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately. This doubles the germination rate. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or – 2% mc. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed.
Edible Uses :
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable . The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten.
White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers.
The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species). The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm). The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel.
Known Hazards: The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.