Tag Archives: Papua New Guinea

Albizia procera

Botanical Name: Albizia procera
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Genus: Albizia
Species: Albizia procera
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosa elata Roxb. Mimosa procera Roxb.

Common Names: White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris, Albizia procera, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree.
Bengali Name: Sada Sirish.

Other Names :
Akleng-parang, Bellate, Doon siris, Karo, Karunthagara, Kinhai, Konda vagei, Koroi, Raom tree, Soros-tree, Safed Siris, Silver bark rain tree, Tella chinduga, Tram kang, Weru, White siris, Women’s Tongues.

International Common Names:
English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia

Local Common Names:
Bangladesh: silkorai
Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
Malaysia: oriang
Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
Nepal: seto siris
Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
Philippines: akleng parang

Trade name: Forest siris
Habitat : Albizia procera is native to E. Asia – Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. It grows in monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest. It is commonly found in open secondary forest.

Dscription:
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. It has a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa. It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Insects.It can fix Nitrogen.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 – 18 up to 37 – 46?c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 – 5,000 mm. Plants are susceptible to frost[. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 – 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils. Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.

Propagation:
Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%. Seeds that have been stored for 4 – 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately. This doubles the germination rate. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or – 2% mc. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed.

Edible Uses :
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable . The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers.

Other Uses:
The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species). The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm). The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel.

Known Hazards: The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Albizia+procera
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/4021

Pangium edule

Botanical Name:Pangium edule
Family: Achariaceae
Genus:     Pangium
Species: P. edule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:    Malpighiales

Common Names: Pangi, Pakem, Sis, Riamel, Kepayang, or Football fruit. (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang)

Habitat :Pangium edule is  native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the “football fruit”) which can be made edible by fermentation.

Description:
Pangium edule is a  large, alien tree with large shiny leaves and huge fruits grows to heights of 25 m (80 ft).In the initial stage the tree grows fast.  It only needs about six months to reach full maturity.

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The flowers are yellowish-green or whitish, having a faint odor, about 4 centimeters across. Fruit is pendant upon thick, brown stalks, ovoidly rounded, 10 to 20 centimeters in diameter, brown and rough, containing seeds which are 3 to 5 centimeters across, compressed, somewhat angular, embedded in a yellowish, sweet, aromatic and edible pulp.  In English this plant is sometimes referred to as the “football tree”.

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate. Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa)

Edible Uses:
The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation. The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days, during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black. The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste, and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java. The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder. In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak, a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines,people uses all parts of the plant for as anthelmintic.The seeds,fruits,leaves and barks are considered as narcotic,  in excessive doses causes sleepiness, headache, intoxication, delirium, and occasionally becomes fatal.Malaya people uses crushed seeds to apply on boils to cure.

Other Uses:
Pangium edule oil used as illuminant and for making soap. In the Camarines, plant is used as a fish poison.In Pohnpie, poisonous seeds are  used as bait to kill rats.  Fresh seeds and oil used as dart poison by Sakais.The wood is used to make matchsticks.

Known Hazards:The fruit is considered poisonous.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangium_edule
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_ZZEAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA783&lpg=PA783&dq=medicinal+uses+of+pangium+edule&source=bl&ots=zhFPIvzwRp&sig=ExNgdjsHWKX3sFQVfaPAOd5jLJM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dh4dVLKkJpDJuATc_4HoBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=medicinal%20uses%20of%20pangium%20edule&f=false
http://manoa.hawaii.edu/botany/plants_of_micronesia/index.php/full-database/468-pangium-edule
http://rfcarchives.org.au/Next/Fruits/Pangium/Pangium11-97.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Pangi.html

Cajeput.(Melaleuca leucadendron)

Botanical Name : :Melaleuca leucadendron
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Melaleuca
Species: M. leucadendra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Synonyms:  Cajeput. White Tea Tree. Swamp Tea Tree. White Wood.

Common Names :Cajeput Tree, is derived from the Malay word kayu putih (old Indonesian spelling: kaju putih) – meaning “white wood”.

Habitat: Cajuput is native to East Indies, Tropical Australia. Imported from Macassar, Batavia, Singapore, Queensland and N.S. Wales. It is  widely distributed in northern parts of Australia (Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland) and is found even further north in the Solomon Islands and on New Guinea in Papua New Guinea and Western New Guinea. It has also been used as a street tree in Hong Kong.

Description:
The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white, on a long spike.
The foliage of Cajeput is of a brighter green and has a slightly weeping habit.
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The leaves have a very aromatic odour and the oil is distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, and is volatile and stimulating with an aroma like camphor, rosemary, or cardamom seeds; taste bitter, aromatic and camphoraceous. Traces of copper have been found in it, hence the greenish tint; it should be stored in dark or amber-coloured bottles in a cool place. Cajuput oil is obtained from Melaleuca leucadendron, Roxburgh, and the minor Smith, but several other species of Melaleuca leucadendron are utilized such as M. hypericifolia, M. veridifolia, M. lalifolia, and others. The Australian species M. Decussata and M. Erucifolia are also used. The oil is fluid, clear, inflammable, burns without residue, highly volatile. The trace of copper found may be due to the vessels in which the oil is prepared, but it is doubtless sometimes added in commerce to produce the normal green tinge when other species have been used which do not impart it naturally.

Constituents:  The principal constituent of oil is cineol, which should average 45 to 55 per cent. Solid terpineol is also present and several aldehydes such as valeric, butyric and benzoic.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, stimulant, antiseptic, anthelmintic.

Highly stimulant, producing a sensation of warmth when taken internally, increasing the fullness and rapidity of the pulse and sometimes producing profuse perspiration. Used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, as an antiseptic in cystisis and as an anthelmintic for round worms, also used in chronic rheumatism. Applied externally, it is stimulant and mildly counter-irritant and is usually applied diluted with 2 parts of olive oil or turpentine ointment. Used externally for psoriasis and other skin affections.

Traditional Uses:
* In Chronic respiratory and catarrhal infection
* In sinusitis, bronchitis
* In Genitial herpes,cervical dysplasia
* In viral hepatitis, bilary lithiases
* In Psoriasis, boils, fungal dermatitis
* In varicose veins,hemorrhoids, enteritis

Other Uses:
Cajeput is cultivated as an ornamental tree for parks and gardens. It is also used as a screen or windbreak. It tolerates dry conditions.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82445:melaleuca-leucadendron&catid=827:m
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melaleuca_leucadendra

Alstonia scolaris

Botanical Name :Alstonia scolaris
Family: Apocynaceae
Tribe: Plumeriae
Subtribe: Alstoniinae
Genus: Alstonia
Species: A. scholaris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Echites scholaris L. Mant., Pala scholaris L. Roberty

Common Names :Blackboard tree, Indian devil tree,Saptaparni, Ditabark, Milkwood pine, White cheesewood and Pulai

Bengali name: Chhatim

Habitat : Alstonia scholaris is native to the following regions

*China: Guangxi (s.w.), Yunnan (s.)
*Indian subcontinent: India; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Pakistan
*Southeast Asia: Cambodia; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam, Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
*Australia: Queensland

It has also been naturalised in several other tropical and subtropical climates. Alstonia scholaris (Saptaparni in Bengali) is declared as the State Tree of West Bengal, India

Description:
Alstonia scholaris is an evergreen small tree that grows up to 40 m tall and is glabrous. The bark is greyish; branchlets are copiously lenticellate.The upperside of the leaves are glossy, while the underside is greyish. Leaves occur in whorls of 3-10; petioles are 1–3 cm; the leathery leaves are narrowly obovate to very narrowly spathulate, base cuneate, apex usually rounded; lateral veins occur in 25-50 pairs, at 80-90° to midvein. Cymes are dense and pubescent; peduncle is 4–7 cm long. Pedicels are usually as long as or shorter than calyx. The corolla is white and tube-like, 6–10 mm; lobes are broadly ovate or broadly obovate, 2-4.5 mm, overlapping to the left. The ovaries are distinct and pubescent. The follicles are distinct and linear.

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Flowers bloom in the month October. The flowers are very fragrant similar to the flower of Cestrum nocturnum.

Seeds of A. scholaris are oblong, with ciliated margins, and ends with tufts of hairs 1.5–2 cm. The bark is almost odourless and very bitter, with abundant bitter and milky sap.

Medicinal Uses:
Alstonia or devil tree or Saptaparni is genus of evergreen trees or shrubs with white funnel-shaped flowers and milky sap. In India the bark of Alstonia scholaris is used solely for medicinal purposes, ranging from Malaria and epilepsy to skin conditions and asthma.

There are 43 species of alstonia trees.  The bark of the tree is used medicinally in the Pacific Rim and India.

In Ayurveda it is used as a bitter and as an astringent herb for treating skin disorders, malarial fever, urticaria, chronic dysentery, diarrhea, in snake bite and for upper purification process of Panchakarma . The Milky juice of the tree is applied to ulcers.

The bark contains the alkaloids ditamine, echitenine and echitamine and used to serve as an alternative to quinine. At one time, a decoction of the bark was used to treat diarrhoea and malaria, as a tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary. A decoction of the leaves were used for beriberi. Ayurveda recommends A. scholaris for bowel complaints. In Sri Lanka its light wood is used for coffins. In Borneo the wood close to the root is very light and of white colour, and is used for net floats, household utensils, trenchers, corks, etc. Extracts prepared from the plant has been reported to possess cytotoxic activity. The active compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids etc. These are present in all parts of the plant. An ethanol extract of the bark of Alstonia scholaris enhanced the anticancer activity of berberine in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. This extract also showed cytotoxic activity to HeLa cells. It contains echitamine and loganin as major compounds and could potentially be used as an anti-irritation agent.

Scientific investigation has failed to show why it is of such service in malaria, but herbalists consider it superior to quinine and of great use in convalescence .  It lowers fever, relaxes spasms, stimulates lactation and expels intestinal worms.  Used for chronic diarrhea, dysentery and in intermittent fever; also as an anthelmintic. It is also much used by homoeopaths.

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Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alstonia_scholaris
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

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Imperata cylindrica

Botanical Name : Imperata cylindrica
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Imperata
Species: I. cylindrica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names :Woollygrass, Blady grass, Cogon grass, kunai grass , or Japanese bloodgrass

Habitat :Imperata cylindrica is  native to east and southeast Asia, India, Micronesia, Australia, and eastern and southern Africa.It is found in areas where the soil has been disturbed, such as roadsides, building sites, timber harvesting areas, and borrow pits. It is able to invade both moist and dry upland pine forests. Once established it often forms dense monocultures.

Description:
It is a perennial rhizomatous grass. It grows from 0.6–3 m (2–10 feet) tall. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. Roots are up to 1.2 meters deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil.

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Edible Uses:
Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew.

Medicinal Uses:
Imperata cylindrica  has  medicinal properties which include astringent, febrifuge, diuretic, tonic, and styptic actions. It is used in traditional Chinese medicine.

This is used as Chinese medicinal herb sued for all cases of “heat excess.”  Strong hemostatic action; immediately stops bleeding wounds and suppresses bruises.  The flowers are used in the treatment of hemorrhages, wounds etc. They are decocted and used to treat urinary tract infections, fevers, thirst etc.  The root is used in the treatment of nose bleeds, hematuria, hematemesis, edema and jaundice. The root has antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus dysenteriae etc. Extracts of the plant have shown viricidal and anticancer activity.

Other uses:
It is used for thatching the roofs of traditional homes in Papua New Guinea.

It is planted extensively for ground cover and soil stabilization near beach areas and other areas subject to erosion. Other uses include paper-making, thatching and weaving into mats and bags.

A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use as ornamental plants, including the red-leaved ‘Red Baron’ (also known as Japanese blood grass).

Observed Problems:

Weed problems:
The plant has become naturalized in the Americas, Northern Asia, Europe and Africa in addition to many islands and is listed as an invasive weed in some areas. In the U.S. it survives best in the Southeast (and, according to a 2003 survey, has overtaken more acreage in that region than the notorious kudzu),   but has been reported to exist as far north as West Virginia and Oregon. Worldwide it has been observed from 45°N to 45°S. It grows on wet lands, dry lands, areas of high salinity, organic soils, clay soils and sandy soils of pH from 4.0 to 7.5. It prefers full sun but will tolerate some shade.

It spreads both through small seeds, which are easily carried by the wind, and rhizomes which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport.

In the Southeastern United States, state governments have various eradication efforts in place, and deliberate propagation is prohibited by some authorities.[ Control is typically by the use of herbicides. Burnoff is seldom successful since the grass burns quite hot causing heat damage to trees which would ordinarily be undamaged by a controlled burn and recovers from a burn quickly.

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for Imperata cylindrica.

Flammability
Green kunai grass on fire in Papua New Guinea Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that types of this grass are quite flammable even when apparently green – particularly in Southeast Asian climates. It is not uncommon to see hillsides of cogon grass on fire.


A common expression in the Philippines is ningas cogon (‘cogon brush fire’). It is a figure of speech for procrastination, specifically people who show a fervent interest in a new project but lose interest quickly. It’s in reference to the propensity of cogon grass to catch fire and burn out quickly

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperata_cylindrica
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm