Herbs & Plants

Acacia sinuata

[amazon_link asins=’B00IZYGKMA’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’54f25df9-ff13-11e6-88e9-d7778a3eeb7e’]

[amazon_link asins=’B01LN7OEAU’ template=’ProductLink’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’c1c67531-1dbe-11e7-a0e7-4939eee5b066′]

Botanical name : Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr.
Family : Mimosaceae
Genus :Acacia
Kingdom :Plantae
Division :Magnolophyta
Class :Magnoliopsida
Sanskrit synonyms : Saptala, Charmasahva
Common Name : Chikaka, Shikakai, Banritha, Reetha, Kochi, Ritha, Sige, Shikai, Shikaya.
Indian Vernacular Name:
English [amazon_textlink asin=’B01LN7OEAU’ text=’: Soapnut acacia’ template=’ProductLink’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’8884b719-1dbe-11e7-b0cc-498336e9f66e’]
Hindi : Satala, Kochi, Seekakai
Malayalam : Charmalanta, Cheevikka, Seekakkai, Cheenikka
Marathi : sikakai, shikakaayi, sikekaayi
Oriya : chilli
Sanskrit : carmasahva, saptala, satala
Tamil: sigaikai, cikaikkai, cikkai, ciyakkai, sigakai, seekai, shivakai, siyakkai
Telugu: shikayi, sikai, chika-kai, seege

Habitat : Throughout India, grows wildly in forests Specially in Peninsular  region.

A perennial, woody, large climbing shrub grows on big trees. Leaves bipinnate, with sharp prickles on main rachis. Pinnate 8 -10 pairs, leaflets small, sessile; flowers small heads, fruits thin pods with 6-10 seeds per pod.

You may click to see the pictures of Acacia sinuata

A stout prickly climbing shrub with brown branches dotted with white; leaves bipinnate, main rachis bearing sharp hooked prickles and a large gland on the petiole, pinnae 8 pairs or more, leaflets subsessile, sensitive, unequal sided, glabrous; flowers small in globose heads, polygamous; fruits short-stalked thin pods, flat, coriaceous, the sutures straight: seeds 6 -10 per pod.……CLICK & SEE

Main Constituents:-
Saponins, the major constituent in the fruit, is the mixture of Acacinin A, Acacinin B1, Acacinin C, Acacinin D and Acacinin E2.

Chemical constituents :
Leaves contain alkaloids, nicotine and colycotomine, a triterpentine. Saponin ascorbic acid, rutin, tannin and also oxalic, tartaric, citric and succinic acids, tartaric racimase. Constituents similar to Tamarindus indicus and some other indigenous plant used for. Seeds yield acacinin-A & B, and tree sugar, concinnin.Pods yield saponins (20.8%) saponins (acacinin-C, -D & – E), oligo – and polysac- charides. Aquas Extracts of pods, machaerinic acid & its lactone, sapogenin B, and a new ester of acacic acid. Str. Of acacigenin-B. Neutral fraction of acid hydrolysate of saponins cf pods, acacic acid lactone-3-OAc and a new nortriterpenene, acacidiol. Bark contains hexacosanol, lupeol, a-spinasterol, a-spinasterone, acacic acid lactone, and an amorphous saponin, the saponin spermic. With maximum activity at 0.004% dilution. An acacic acid saponin from bark, spermic. Bark saponin also haemolytic

Medicinal Uses:-
Useful part    :  Pods and bark.
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta,used for the treatment of  skin disease, burning sensation, constipation, calculi, hemorrhoids, vitilligo and eczema.

It is pitta and kapha suppressant. It is widely used fevers especially that of malaria fever. It helps in clotting of blood and liver related disorders and is effective in jaundice. It is a good anti-inflammatory herb. It also helps in relieving from itching and other skin ailments. It relieves from swelling in spleen and liver. It helps in relieving from dandruff. It is anti-wormal in actions. It is a good germicidal and helps in curbing any infection happening in the body.

According to ayurveda it contains :-

•Gunna (properties) – ruksh (dry) and laghu (light)
•Rasa (taste) – tickt (bitter) and kashaya (astringent)
•Virya (potency) – sheet (cold)

Other different Uses:
Acacia sinuata, are grown in agrosilvopastoral systems for fuel, timber, shelterbelts, and soil improvement (Jamal and Huntsinger 1993). The dry pods of the tree called “shikakai” are important raw materials  for cosmetics and agro-based industries. Saponins present in the dry pods are used for the semi-synthesis of steroidal  drugs (Vaidyaratnam 1994).

The pods known as Shikai or Shikakai, are extensively used as a detergent, and the dry ones are powdered, perfumed and sold in the market as soap nut powder.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Enhanced by Zemanta

The Genes Battle

[amazon_link asins=’B00AOCFPRC,B00AOCFPNQ,B01MV0C18R,B01CO5YWXY,B00AOCFPRM,B00AOCFPN6,161661532X,B00P1ATLUO,B01MPXWOTB’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’7299838c-0763-11e8-bd67-271289224e89′]

Can genes, which are present in nature, be patented? A US court recently ruled that they cannot. The outcome may be cheaper diagnostic kits, says Hari Pulakkat
It’s a debate that will continue for a few years, and the dust is unlikely to settle down even after that. Are human genes patentable? While the world slowly seemed to move towards a grudging acceptance of human gene patents, an American judge suddenly springs a surprise, ruling they aren’t valid, providing new hope for those campaigning against them. If the higher courts uphold this judgment, patients around the world could expect cheaper diagnostic tests soon.

To summarise, the American Civil Liberties Union and the Public Patent Foundation, two non-profit organisations, filed a lawsuit against Myriad Genetics, a biotech company based in Salt Lake City, Utah. Myriad, along with the University of Utah Research Foundation, is the holder of several patents on two breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Myriad has developed tests for breast cancer susceptibility, and no one else can do those tests. Now Judge Robert Sweet of the New York District Court has ruled that some claims of the patents are invalid, thus opening the door for competitors.

The US and Europe have been allowing human gene patents for over two decades, and this is the first time a judge has questioned their validity. In the last two decades, the US Patent Office granted patents to over 4,300 genes, which is about 20 per cent of active human genes.

Diagnostic tests based on these patented genes are expensive, and not within the reach of many. In the US, for example, testing for breast cancer susceptibility can cost as much as $3,000 for a full analysis of both genes. “Many patients will benefit from this judgment,” says Mark Stoler, president of the American Society for Clinical Pathology. The judge himself noted that the tests cost less than $1,000 in Canada, where the genes are not patented.

On the other hand, several biotech companies have built business models around those, and raise money based on their gene patents. “Some biotech companies will now find it more difficult to raise money,” says Lisa Haile, partner of life sciences practice at DLA Piper, a large law firm. In fact, as a way of buttressing this fact, the shares of Myriad fell 9.2 per cent immediately after the judgment. Myriad’s revenues had increased almost 50 per cent last year, mostly owing to BRCA gene testing.

So a fierce battle is on between two factions. On one side are the life sciences industry, venture capitalalists and other investors in life sciences companies. On the other side are a large number of doctors, scientists, patients and non-profit organisations. Each has its arguments and supporting evidence. Although the second faction is unlikely to win in a superior court, its victory will have far-reaching impact on the life sciences industry and the future of medicine. “This is very likely to go to the Supreme Court,” says Haile. That would take at least two to four years, and what happens in the US is also a good pointer to what will happen later in other countries.

Opponents of gene patents have more than one argument against them. One of the first is, of course, the principle itself: genes are present in nature and thus cannot be patented. Myriad and others have argued what is patented is a unique DNA sequence isolated in a lab. Judge Sweet in his judgment says genes are genes, whether inside or outside the body. However, there are even stronger arguments against gene patenting. They push up medical costs, stifle innovation and prevent patients from taking a second opinion. It is not just the patients who have to pay Myriad; even scientists who work on the BRCA gene have to pay the company.

“Myriad is just one example,” says Stoler. “Around 5,000 new tests are likely to be developed in the next 10 years.” These tests will be based on genes, and indiscriminate patenting can make them unaffordable except to a small fraction of the world population. Some of these products will be built by a research foundation funded by the public, and hence won’t be the exclusive property of private companies. For example, the BRCA gene was discovered in the University of California Berkeley by Marie-Claire King, now at the University of Washington. King herself is known to be averse to gene patents.

On the other hand, the life sciences industry argues gene patents are no different from drug patents, and a 20-year exclusivity is a small price to pay for treatments and diagnostics that would not exist otherwise.

Even an unfavourable ruling by the Supreme Court is unlikely to stop innovation or patents, as the industry is trying to tell the world. Many diagnostic tests are on multiple genes, and products based on unique combinations of genes may be patentable, even if single genes themselves are not. In any case, the next four years will see some interesting battles.

The Telegraph (Kolkata,India)

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]
Suppliments our body needs

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

[amazon_link asins=’B00AY915CY,B00016AHIS,B000NTTLD0,B0013OUPXE,B000NRXNRC,B00H3KYJLQ,B0045URXNI,B0089SDZV6,B01CS2DIBK’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’051daad5-1767-11e7-bbc3-d5a89c9f62c5′]

Other names: methyl sulfonyl methane or dimethylsulfone (DMSO2)

MSM (methyl sulfonyl methane) is a compound found naturally in foods such as cow’s milk, meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables.It is an odorless breakdown product of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Its principal advocates have been Robert M. Herschler, Ph.D., and Stanley W. Jacob, M.D., of Oregon Health Sciences University. Herschler, who is a research biochemist, holds eleven patents for MSM awarded between 1981 and 1996. Jacob, a longtime advocate of using DMSO for treating arthritis, holds one patent (awarded in 1996) and has co-authored a book called The Miracle of MSM .

Herschler’s claims for MSM are not modest. The background information section of a 1985 patent, for example, states:

MSM is an ameliorating agent for a variety of pathological conditions when administered systemically and preferably orally to persons displaying symptoms of physiological response to stress, e.g., gastrointestinal distress, inflammation of the mucous membranes and allergic reactions.

In particular, it is found found that when those stress response symptoms include gastrointestinal upset, e.g., diarrhea, constipation, nausea, hyperacidity and/or epigastric pain, or inflammation of the mucous membrane, especially of the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tract, dramatic relief from those symptoms can be achieved by the oral ingestion of MSM.

It is also found that the oral ingestion of MSM can be beneficial in treating a variety of other conditions that one would not expect to be responsive to MSM.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a method for the amelioration of physiological symptoms of stress employing MSM.

Another object is the provision of pharmaceutical compositions comprising a stress-inducing physiologically acceptable pharmaceutically active agent and a stress-relieving amount of MSM.

Other objects will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains.

MSM is thought to work by contributing sulfur. It’s found in capsule or tablet forms. MSM is also available as a cream or lotion, although evidence suggests it can’t be absorbed through skin.

Why Do People Use MSM?

Two small studies suggest MSM may reduce osteoarthritis pain. MSM is often combined with glucosamine in commercial arthritis products. It’s thought to work because of the sulfur, which is believed to strengthen collagen. More evidence is needed.

*Interstitial cystitis
MSM has been proposed as a treatment for interstitial cystitis, although human studies are needed.

One small, preliminary study found that MSM resulted in quieter snoring.

*Other Conditions
MSM has been explored for cancer prevention, scleroderma, allergies and constipation.

Side Effects and Safety
Side effects with MSM are rare but may include stomach upset, headache and diarrhea. One study suggested MSM was safe for up to 12 weeks.

The safety of MSM in pregnant or nursining women, children, or people with liver or kidney disease, however, isn’t known.

You may click to learn more about MSM->..…….(1)…..(2)(3).…(4)...


Reblog this post [with Zemanta]
News on Health & Science

Chinese ‘e-cigarette’ helps people stub out the habit

[amazon_link asins=’B0064WXYTC,B01M4LE28G,B073RYVCMD,B01L0OFW2A,B075B7J3CF,B00CX7VRDW,B0060OHXYQ,B00AKHIDDY,B076P9TJN2′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’01532959-e485-11e7-a907-0da7a2c1e2f0′]

[amazon_link asins=’B076WXK5LV,B076WYNYDR,B076WY7VKB,B06X9X7QR7,B073VKJH2H,B076WV8H79,B008U4XHJY,B071FTJ7FM,B01DJECD4Y’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’96ac4eae-e484-11e7-8eb1-6f3843e1bf68′]

HONG KONG: It feels like a cigarette, looks like a cigarette but it isn’t bad for your health.


A Chinese company marketing the world’s first “electronic” cigarette hopes to double their sales this year as it expands overseas and as some of China’s legions of smokers try to quit.

Golden Dragon Group Ltd’s Ruyan cigarettes are battery-powered, cigarette-shaped devices that deliver nicotine to inhalers in a bid to emulate actual smoking.

“The nicotine is delivered to the lungs within 7 to 10 seconds,” said Scott Fraser, vice president of SBT Co Ltd, the Beijing-based firm that first developed the electronic cigarette technology in 2003 and which is now controlled by Golden Dragon.

“It feels like a cigarette, looks like a cigarette, it even emits vapour. In many ways, it is like an actual smoking experience, and that’s what makes us different,” he said.

The cigarettes sell for around $208 apiece and are already available in China, Israel, Turkey, and a number of European countries, but not yet in the United States.

Golden Dragon’s competitors include global giants Pfizer and Novartis AG, which sell more familiar nicotine replacement products such as chewing gum, patches, and inhalers. But Golden Dragon’s financial results show it might be onto a good thing. Sales more than doubled to HK$286.1 million in 2006, after surging more than ten-fold to HK$135.6 million in 2005, a year after the technology was perfected.

China — home to 400 million smokers and a roughly $160 billion dollar tobacco industry — accounts for 65% of Ruyan sales.

The firm estimates around 10% of China’s smokers are attempting to quit, and averaging a 2% success rate.

Source:The Times Of India