Tag Archives: Pinaceae

Abies sibirica

Botanical NameAbies sibirica –
Family : Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species:
A. sibirica

Common names: Siberian fir

Habitat: Native to the taiga east of the Volga River and south of 67°40′ North latitude through Turkestan, northeast Xinjiang, Mongolia and Heilongjiang N. Europe – Russia to E. Asia – China. Forms extensive forests on cool wet mountainsides in N.E. Russia.

Range:-
China: Xinjiang; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Russian Federation: Altay, Amur, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya. Subsp. semenovii is confined to Kyrgyzstan: Talasskij Ala Tau, but is suspected to extend into China. The species as a whole is considered threatened in China (Conifer Specialist Group 1998).

Description:
An evergreen coniferous Tree.
It is hardy to zone 1 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

You may click to see the pictures of    Abies Sibirica      

The tree lives in the cold boreal climate on moist soils in mountains or river basins at elevations of 1900-2400 m. It is very shade-tolerant, frost-resistant, and hardy, surviving temperatures down to ?50 °C. It rarely lives over 200 years due to the susceptibility to fungal decay in the wood.

Siberian Fir grows 30-35 m tall with a trunk diameter of 0.5-1 m at breast height and a conical crown. The bark is grey-green to grey-brown and smooth with resin blisters typical of most firs. Shoots are yellow-grey, resinous, and slightly pubescent. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm long and 1.5 mm broad on average. They are light green above with two grey-white stomatal bands underneath, and are directed upwards along the stem. They are soft, flattened, and strongly aromatic. The cones are cylindrical, 5-9.5 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm broad, with small bracts hidden by the scales. They ripen from bluish to brown or dark brown in mid-autumn. The seeds, 7 mm long with a triangular wing 0.7-1.3 cm long, are released when the cone disintegrates after maturity.

There are two varieties:

#Abies sibirica var. sibirica. Described above.

#Abies sibirica var. semenovii (B. Fedtschenko) Farjon. Endemic in Kyrgyzstan. Branchlets noticeably ridged and grooved. Resin canals marginal.

Cones yellow-brown, with broader bracts than those of var. sibirica.

Taxonomic notes:-
Two subspecies, the type and Abies sibirica subsp. semenovii (B. Fedtsch.) Farjon 1990. There is also a widespread natural hybrid found in China: Heilongjiang, Abies × sibirico-nephrolepis Taken. et Chien 1957 (Farjon 1998).

Synonymy for subsp. sibirica (Farjon 1998):

*Pinus sibirica (Ledeb.) Turcz. non Du Tour
*Pinus picea Pall. non L.
*Abies pichta J. Forbes
*Picea pichta (J. Forbes) Loudon
*Pinus pichta Fisch. ex Endl.
Synonymy for subsp. semenovii (Farjon 1998):

*A. semenovii B. Fedtsch.
*A. sibirica var. semenovii (B. Fedtsch.) Liu

Cultivation:-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Cultivated for timber in N. Europe but although very hardy, this species does not thrive in Britain, preferring much harsher climates. It tolerates temperatures down to about -50°c but in the mild winters of Britain it is often excited into premature growth and is then very susceptible to damage by late frosts. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Most if not all trees grown under this name in Britain are in fact A. sachalinensis.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Action &  Uses:-

Antirheumatic; Expectorant; Stimulant.

The essential oil obtained from the leaves is antirheumatic, expectorant and stimulant.Essential oils extracted from the leaves are used in aromatherapy and perfumes.

Other Uses:-
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally. The wood is soft, lightweight, and weak. It is used in construction, furniture, and wood pulp.(Wood light and soft, has no heart or resin ducts; used poorly.)

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.

Ecology. :-
Forests with dominance of Siberian fir or with its participation, along with spruce and Siberian pine, form the “dark” taiga of Siberia. Less often, occurs as an admixture in pine and larch forests, in the European part in broad-leaved forests, in mountains of southern Siberia in lime forests. In the Polar Ural up to 600 m a.s.l., in Altai up to 2400 m a.s.l.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+sibirica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_sibirica
http://www.conifers.org/pi/ab/sibirica.htm

http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Abies_sibirica/

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Abies fraseri – (She Balsam)

Botanical Name: Abies fraseri – (Pursh.)Poir.
Family: Pinaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Genus: Abies

Species: A. fraseri

Synonyms: Abies fraseri (Pursh) Lindley, Pinus fraseri Pursh.

Common names: Fraser fir, Fraser’s fir, she balsam, southern balsam, southern balsam fir.

Habitat:–  South-Eastern N. America – Virginia and West Virginia to North Carolina and Tennessee.   Mountains, often forming forests of considerable extent at elevations of 1200 – 1800 metres.Woodland Garden; Canopy;

High elevations, generally above 1,500 meters. Seedlings may occur widely scattered throughout this area, but best canopy dominant stands were found at uppermost elevations on the windward slopes. There the fir formed nearly pure stands although tree height was less than on more protected slopes. This tree has been devastated by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae), and which habitats will continue to support Fraser fir in the future, if any, are not known.

Description:
This medium sized  Perennial evergreen conifer can grow to excess of 20 meters in height (Collingwood and Brush,1964), although usually to ~15 m. in the natural areas of the Park. Stupka (1964) recorded a specimen 15.3 meters tall and 2.4 meters in circumference (~77 cm diameter at breast height) from the summit of Mt. LeConte.

click to see the pictures….>..…(1).…….(2)………(3)......(4)....(5).…...(6).

Fraser fir bark is smooth gray on mature trees, although usually covered with bryophytes and lichens. Some older trees have scaling near the base of the trunk. The branches are all generally ascending in younger trees. The foliage is a blunt or notched, flat needle about 1 to 1.5 cm long. The leaves are very fragrant, shiny dark green above and silvery below.

Fruit is a medium sized, rounded cone to 6 cm long, held erect on uppermost branches. Cones have irregular tipped bracts exerted from the cone scales and obscuring a portion of the cone surface. The cone scales break off from the central axis in the fall.

It is the only fir endemic to the southern Appalachian Mountains. The largest tree on record measures almost 86 cm (34 in) in d.b.h., 26.5 m (87 ft) tall, and has a crown spread of 15.8 m (52 ft). Because of the high elevation at which Fraser fir grows, its primary value is for watershed protection and scenic attraction.

It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

You may click to learn botanical detail of She Balsam  :http://www.wildwnc.org/education/trees/fraser-fir-abies-fraseri-pursh-poir-pinaceae-pine-family

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant is not wind tolerant.


Cultivation:-

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Very shade tolerant, especially when young   but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. A shallow-rooted plant, making it vulnerable to high winds. A fast-growing but short-lived species. Trees are very cold hardy but are often excited into premature growth in mild winters and this new growth is susceptible to damage by late frosts. No other member of this genus has proved to be of as little value, or so short-lived as this species; there is scarcely a good tree in the country, though it is attractive when young. Usually short-lived in cultivation, though bearing its interesting cones whilst still young. Young trees can be handsome and vigorous, one grew 120cm in two years, but growth soon slows. Trees are known to have lived more than 60 years. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Trees have a thin bark and are therefore susceptible to forest fires . This species is closely related to A. balsamea and is seen as no moer than a form of that species by some botanists. There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value. Trees can produce cones when only 2 metres tall. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. The cones break up on the tree and if seed is required it should be harvested before the cones break up in early autumn.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March . Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks . Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn  . The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80]. Trees often self-layer in the wild, so this might be a means of increasing named varieties in cultivation.

Cultivars:-
There are many named forms for this species, but these have been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses. Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the cultivars in this database.
Medicinal Action and Uses:-

Analgesic; Antiscorbutic; Antiseptic; Diuretic; Poultice; Stimulant; Tonic; VD.

The following uses are for the closely related A. balsamea. Since this species also has blisters of resin in the bark, the uses quite probably also apply here. The resin obtained from the balsam fir  has been used throughout the world and is a very effective antiseptic and healing agent. It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. It is also used to treat sore nipples and is said to be one of the best curatives for a sore throat. The buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk remedies for treating cancers, corns, and warts. The resin is also antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is used internally in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea, though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for gonorrhoea. A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. It is used in the treatment of coughs, colds and fevers. The leaves and young shoots are best harvested in the spring and dried for later use. This plant was widely used medicinally by various North American Indian tribes. The resin was used as an antiseptic healing agent applied externally to wounds, sores, bites etc., it was used as an inhalant to treat headaches and was also taken internally to treat colds, sore throats and various other complaints.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses
Adhesive; Microscope; Repellent; Resin; Stuffing; Wood.

Wood – light, soft, coarse grained, not strong. It is occasionally manufactured into lumber. The following uses are for the closely related A. balsamea. Since this species also has blisters of resin in the bark, the uses quite probably also apply here. The balsamic resin ‘Balm of Gilead’ or ‘Canada Balsam’ according to other reports is obtained during July and August from blisters in the bark or by cutting pockets in the wood. Another report says that it is a turpentine. It is used medicinally, also in the manufacture of glues, candles and as a cement for microscopes and slides – it has a high refractive index resembling that of glass. The average yield is about 8 – 10 oz per tree. The resin is also a fixative in soaps and perfumery. Leaves are a stuffing material for pillows etc – they impart a pleasant scent   and also repel moths.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+fraseri
http://www.dlia.org/atbi/species/Plantae/Coniferophyta/Pinopsida/Pinales/Pinaceae/Abies_fraseri.shtml
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ABFR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraser_fir

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Abies amabilis

Botanical Name : Abies amabilis
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. amabilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Common Name   :Red Fir, Pacific Silver Fir, Cascades Fir, white fir, Lovely fir, Amabilis fir, Cascades fir

Habitat ; Abies amabilis is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from the extreme southeast of Alaska, through western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, to the extreme northwest of California. It grows in high mountain slopes and benches, going down to sea-level in the north of its range. The best specimens grow in deep moist soils and cool wet air conditions such as fog belts

Description:Abies amabilis   is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 30-45 m (exceptionally 72 m) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m (exceptionally 2.3  m). The bark on younger trees is light grey, thin and covered with resin blisters. On older trees, it darkens and develops scales and furrows. The leaves are  needle-like, flattened, 2-4.5 cm long and 2 mm wide by 0.5 mm thick, matt dark green above, and with two white bands of stomata below, and slightly notched at the tip. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they lie flat to either side of and above the  shoot, with none below the shoot. The shoots are orange-red with dense velvety pubescence. The cones are 9-17 cm long and 4-6 cm broad, dark purple before  maturity; the scale bracts are short, and hiddenick to see the pictures of Abies amabilis in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6–7 months  after pollination.

You may click to see the pictures of Abies amabilis
..
Pacific Silver Fir is very closely related to Maries’ Fir A. mariesii from Japan, which is distinguished by its slightly shorter leaves (1.5-2.5 cm) and  smaller cones (5-11 cm long).

CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

It has a gray trunk, a rigid, symmetrical crown, and lateral branches perpendicular to the stem. It contrasts strikingly with the more limber crowns, acute branch angles, and generally darker trunks of its common associates Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and mountain hemlock (T. mertensiana). The species name, amabilis, means lovely....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant is not wind tolerant. It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation :-
Requires a good moist but not water-logged soil in a sheltered position. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant   but growth is slower in dense shade  . Intolerant of atmospheric pollution  . Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope  . Trees are somewhat shallow rooted and are therefore susceptible to strong winds. Grows best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland . It does very well on glacial moraines in Scotland. When grown in an open position, the tree clothes itself to the ground with gracefully drooping branches, though on the whole, this species does not grow well in Britain. Trees have been of variable growth in this country and seem to be  short-lived. The best and fastest growing specimens are to be found in the north and far west of the country  . Growth in girth can be very quick,  1.8 metres in 35 years has been recorded  . Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in  height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. The  crushed leaves have an odour like orange peel. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly . They hybridize freely  with other members of this genus. This species is often confused with A. nordmanniana . A very ornamental plant . Trees are sometimes grown as  ‘Christmas trees’ . Plants are susceptible to injury by aphis.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks . Stratification is said  to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains  viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored . When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least  their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if   you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of  about 550 plants per square metre   whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Uses:-

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark.

Edible Uses: Gum; Tea.
Young shoot tips are used as a substitute for tea. The pitch obtained from the bark can be hardened (probably by immersing it in cold water) and used as a

chewing gum. Inner bark. No further information is given, but inner bark can be dried, ground into a powder and then used with grain flours etc to make bread  and other preparations.

Medicinal Uses:-

This plant was used quite widely by native North American Indians. An infusion of the bark was used as a tonic and to treat stomach ailments, TB, haemorrhoids and various minor complaints. The pitch, or resin, was also used to treat colds, sore throats etc. The bark of this tree contains blisters that  are filled with a resin called ‘Canadian Balsam’. Although the report does not mention the uses of this resin, it can almost certainly be used in the same  ways as the resin of A. balsamea, as detailed below:- The resin obtained from this tree  has been used throughout the world and is a very effective   antiseptic and healing agent. It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. It is also used to treat sore  nipples and is said to be one of the best curatives for a sore throat. The resin is also antiscorbutic, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is used internally  in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea, though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for  gonorrhoea . A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. It is used in the treatment of coughs, colds and fevers. The leaves and young shoots are best harvested in the spring and dried for later use.

Other uses:-
Wood.

The boughs are fragrant and can be hung in the home as an air freshener. Wood – hard, light, not strong, close grained, not very durable. It is used for  framing small buildings but is not strong enough for larger buildings. It is also used for crates, pulp etc. This tree yields the resin ‘Canadian Balsam’.

The report does not mention the uses of this balsam, but the following are the ways that it is used when obtained from A. balsamea:- The balsamic resin ‘Balm of Gilead’ or ‘Canada Balsam’ according to other reports is obtained during July and August from blisters in the bark or by cutting pockets in the wood.

Another report says that it is a turpentine. It is used medicinally and in dentistry, also in the manufacture of glues, candles and as a cement for microscopes and slides – it has a high refractive index resembling that of glass. The average yield is about 8 – 10 oz per tree. The resin is also a fixative in soaps and perfumery

The wood is soft and not very strong; it is used for paper making, packing crates and other cheap construction work. The foliage has an attractive scent, and is sometimes used for Christmas decoration, including Christmas trees.

It is also planted as an ornamental tree in large parks, though its requirement for cool, humid summers limits the areas where it grows well; successful growth away from its native range is restricted to areas like western Scotland and southern New Zealand.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+amabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_amabilis
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/abies/amabilis.htm
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Abies_amabilis

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