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Herbs & Plants

Picea mariana

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Botanical Name: Picea mariana
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Picea
Species: P. mariana
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms: P. nigra. Abies mariana. Pinus nigra.

Common Names: Black Spruce, Swamp Spruce

Habitat :Picea mariana is native to Northern N. America – Alaska to Newfoundland and south to British Columbia and W. Virginia. It grows on the cool slopes and bogs. Found on well-drained soils in the north of its range and swamps in the south.Found on a variety of soil types, it grows best in those that are moist and acidic.
Description:
Picea mariana is a slow-growing, small upright evergreen coniferous tree (rarely a shrub), having a straight trunk with little taper, a scruffy habit, and a narrow, pointed crown of short, compact, drooping branches with upturned tips. Through much of its range it averages 5–15 m (15–50 ft) tall with a trunk 15–50 cm (6–20 in) diameter at maturity, though occasional specimens can reach 30 m (98 ft) tall and 60 cm (24 in) diameter. The bark is thin, scaly, and grayish brown. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The leaves are needle-like, 6–15 mm (1/4–9/16 in) long, stiff, four-sided, dark bluish green on the upper sides, paler glaucous green below. The cones are the smallest of all of the spruces, 1.5–4 cm (1/2–1 1/2 in) long and 1–2 cm (1/2–3/4 in) broad, spindle-shaped to nearly round, dark purple ripening red-brown, produced in dense clusters in the upper crown, opening at maturity but persisting for several years. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Pyramidal.

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The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist or wet soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
Tolerates poor peaty soils. Succeeds in wet cold and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6 and dislikes shallow chalky soils. Dislikes shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Resists wind exposure. This tree is one of the most widespread and abundant species in N. America where it is extensively utilized as a timber tree. A short lived and slow growing tree both in the wild and in cultivation. New growth takes place from early May to the end of June and rarely exceeds 60 cm even when young and is less as the tree grows old. Trees have been planted experimentally as a timber crop in N. Europe (this appears to contradict the previous statement that the tree is slow growing. The reason is probably that it is either planted in areas too harsh for most trees to grow or it is only slow growing in milder areas such as Britain). A prolific seed-producer, usually beginning to bear cones at around 10 years of age. In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain. Closely related to P. rubens. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Lower branches often self-layer and form a ring of stems around the parent plant. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value. The crushed foliage has a strong scent of balsam or lemon balm. Special Features: North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. A position in light shade is probably best. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts. Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 – 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months. Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure. Layering. Lower branches often layer naturally in the wild.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Seed; Seedpod.

Young male catkins – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. Immature female cones – cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy. The cones are 1 – 4cm in diameter. Inner bark – cooked. It is usually harvested in the spring and can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. Seed – raw. The seed is about 2 – 4mm long and is too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate. A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips. A tea is also made from the needles and the bark. A gum obtained from the bark is collected in considerable quantities and used for chewing. Hardened blobs make an excellent chewing gum. It should be aged for 3 days or more before using it. The best gum is obtained from the southern side of the tree. Another report says that the gum, called ‘spruce gum’, is a resinous exudation collected from the branches. A source of ‘spruce oil’, used commercially for flavouring. The young twigs are boiled with molasses, sugar etc and then fermented to produce ‘Spruce beer’. The beer is ready to drink in a week and is considered to be a good source of minerals and vitamins.
Medicinal Uses:
A poultice of the inner bark has been applied to inflammations. A tea made from the inner bark is a folk remedy for kidney stones, stomach problems and rheumatism. An infusion of the roots and bark has been used in the treatment of stomach pains, trembling and fits. A resin from the trunk is used as a poultice and salve on sores to promote healing. The resin can be mixed with oil and used as a dressing on purulent wounds, bad burns, skin rashes, scabies and persistent scabs. The resin can be chewed as an aid to digestion. A decoction of the gum or leaves has been used in treating respiratory infections and kidney problems. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a bath or a rub in treating dry skin or sores. A decoction of the young twigs has been used in the treatment of coughs. A decoction of the cones has been drunk in the treatment of diarrhoea. A decoction has been used externally as a gargle to treat sore throats. The cones have been chewed to treat a sore mouth and toothaches.

Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Screen, Specimen. Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil.

A yellow-orange dye is obtained from the cones. Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes, to sew baskets etc. The pitch obtained from the trunk has been used as a sealing material on the hulls of canoes. Wood – light, soft, not strong. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot. Since it is a smaller tree than the other spruces, it is not an important lumber source for uses such as construction. However, it is widely used for making boxes, crates etc, and is valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper, plus it is also used as a fuel.

Known Hazards : The sawdust, the resin from the trunk and even the needles can cause dermatitis in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picea_mariana
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Picea+mariana

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Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Abies concolor

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Botanical Name: Abies concolor
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. concolor
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms : Picea concolor.

Common Names: Colorado Fir, White fir

Habitat :Abies concolor is a fir native to the mountains of western North America(Oregon to California, to Arizona and New Mexico.), occurring at elevations of 900–3,400 m (3,000–11,200 ft).It is found on a wide range of soils, but preferring moist soils with a humid climate and a long winter from 700 metres to 3,400 metres.
Description:
Abies concolor is a medium to large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 25–60 m (82–197 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m (6.6 ft).
The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 2.5–6 cm long and 2 mm wide by 0.5–1 mm thick, green to glaucous blue-green above, and with two glaucous blue-white bands of stomatal bloom below, and slightly notched to bluntly pointed at the tip. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they all lie in either two more-or-less flat ranks on either side of the shoot, or upswept across the top of the shoot but not below the shoot.

The cones are 6–12 cm long and 4–4.5 cm broad, green or purple ripening pale brown, with about 100–150 scales; the scale bracts are short, and hidden in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6 months after pollination

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It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. It is popular as an ornamental landscaping tree and as a Christmas tree. It is sometimes known as concolor fir.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Trees succeed on poor dry sites in the wild. Trees are shallow rooted and therefore liable to be wind-blown in exposed sites. Trees grow almost as well in S. Britain as they do in cooler areas of the country. They are at their best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and in N.E. England, trees in the south and east of the country tend to be thin in the crown and soon lose their shape. Trees in the west grow better but also lose their shape after a while. New growth is from mid-May to July and trees are virtually never damaged by late frosts or aphis. Most trees of this species that are grown in Britain are in fact the sub-species A. concolor lowiana. (Gordon.)Lemmon. This form tends to grow better in Britain than the type. There are 2 basic forms of this sub-species, those from the north of the range are vigorous in height growth whilst the southern form is vigorous in girth growth. They both have a potential for forestry use in Britain. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. A very ornamental tree. The crushed leaves have a strong lemony scent. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Fragrant foliage, There are no flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.
Medicinal Uses:
The pitch from the trunk has been used as an antiseptic poultice for cuts, wounds etc. An infusion of the pitch, or the bark, has been used in the treatment of TB. An infusion of the foliage has been used in a bath for relieving rheumatism. An infusion of the pitch and leaves has been used in the treatment of pulmonary complaints.

Other Uses: .

Landscape Uses:Christmas tree, Firewood, Pest tolerant, Screen, Specimen.
A tan coloured dye can be obtained from the bark. Wood – very light, not strong, coarse grained, soft, not durable. Used mainly for pulp, cases etc. It is sometimes used in framing small houses but is not strong enough to be used in larger buildings. The wood lacks a distinctive odour and so does not impart a flavour to items stored in it. Thus it can be used for making tubs for storing food.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provid.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_concolor
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abies+concolor

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Herbs & Plants

Equisetum telmateia

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Botanical Name : Equisetum telmateia
Family: Equisetaceae
Genus: Equisetum
Species: E. telmateia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order: Equisetales

Synonyms : Equisetum maximum. auct.

Common Names : Great horsetail or Northern giant horsetail

Habitat : Equisetum telmateia is native to Europe, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia, N.W. N. America. It grows on damp shady banks etc, to 350 metres.

Description:
Equisetum telmateia is a herbaceous perennial plant, with separate green photosynthetic sterile stems, and pale yellowish non-photosynthetic spore-bearing fertile stems. The sterile stems, produced in late spring and dying down in late autumn, are 30–150 cm (rarely to 240 cm) tall (the tallest species of horsetail outside of tropical regions) and 1 cm diameter, heavily branched, with whorls of 14–40 branches, these up to 20 cm long, 1–2 mm diameter and unbranched, emerging from the axils of a ring of bracts. The fertile stems are produced in early spring before the sterile shoots, growing to 15–45 cm tall with an apical spore-bearing strobilus 4–10 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, and no side branches; the spores disperse in mid spring, with the fertile stems dying immediately after spore release. It also spreads by means of rhizomes that have been observed to penetrate 4 meters into wet clay soil, spreading laterally in multiple layers. Occasional plants produce stems that are both fertile and photosynthetic. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in April.

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There are two subspecies:
*Equisetum telmateia subsp. telmateia. Great Horsetail. Europe, western Asia, northwest Africa. Main stem between branch whorls pale greenish white.

*Equisetum telmateia subsp. braunii (Milde) Hauke. Northern Giant Horsetail. Western North America, from southeastern Alaska and western British Columbia south to California. Main stem between branch whorls green.

CLICK & SEE : Equisetum telmateia  & Spore-bearing strobilus

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Plants are hardy to about -30°c. Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a large container which can be sunk into the ground.

Propagation:
Spores – best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult. Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and should not really need any assistance.

Edible Uses:
Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) – raw or cooked. The tough outer fibres are peeled off, or can be chewed and then discarded. The vegetative shoots, produced from late spring onwards, were occasionally cleaned of their leaves, sheathing and branches and then eaten by native North American Indians, but only when very young and tightly compacted. Root – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Diuretic; Poultice.

The plant is astringent and diuretic. A decoction has been used to treat ‘stoppage of urine’. A poultice of the rough leaves and stems is applied to cuts and sores.

Other Uses:
Basketry; Fungicide; Hair; Liquid feed; Polish; Sandpaper.

The stems are very rich in silica. They are used for scouring and polishing metal and as a fine sandpaper. The stems are first bleached by repeated wetting and drying in the sun. They can also be used as a polish for wooden floors and furniture. The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust and blackspot on roses. It also makes a good liquid feed. Used as a hair rinse it can eliminate fleas, lice and mites. The black roots have been used for imbrication on coiled baskets.

Known Hazards : Large quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the enzyme thiaminase, a substance that can rob the body of the vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase. The plant also contains equisetic acid – see the notes on medicinal uses for more information.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with   your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equisetum_telmateia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Equisetum+telmateia

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Ajuga chamaepitys

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Botanical Name :Ajuga chamaepitys
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus:Ajuga
Species: A. chamaepitys
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

 Common Names:  Ground Pine, Yellow bugle

Habitat: Ajuga chamaepitys is native to CentraL and souther Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa and E. Asia. It grows in very local in sandy and chalky arable fields and in open habitats in chalky grassland in southeastern England.

Description: A. chamaepitys is a small herbaceous perennial that reaches 10–40 cm in height. The leaves have an opposite arrangement. It’s flowering season is generally in late spring. Ground pine is a plant whose richness has been severely reduced by changes to downland farming. At first sight, A. chamaepitys looks like a tiny pine tree with a reddish purple four-cornered hairy stem. The leaves can get up to 4 cm long, and the leaves are divided into three linear lobes which, when crushed, has a smell similar to pine needles. Ground pine sheds its shiny black seeds close to the parent plant and the seeds can remain alive in the soil for up to 50 years. click to see…………..(01)………...(1).……..(2)...

Both in foliage and blossom it is very unlike its near relative, the Common Bugle, forming a bushy, herbaceous plant, 3 to 6 inches high, the four-cornered stem, hairy and viscid, generally purplish red, being much branched and densely leafy. Except the lowermost leaves, which are lanceshaped and almost undivided, each leaf is divided almost to its base into three very long, narrow segments, and the leaves being so closely packed together, the general appearance is not altogether unlike the long, needle-like foliage of the pine, hence the plant has received a second name- Ground Pine. The flowers are placed singly in the axils of leaf-like bracts and have bright yellow corollas, the lower lip spotted with red. They are in bloom during May and June. The whole plant is very hairy, with stiff hairs, which consist of a few long joints. It has a highly aromatic and turpentiny odour and taste.

Cultivation:
Thrives in a poor dry soil in full sun. Prefers a humus-rich moisture-retentive soil. Plants are usually annual, but are sometimes short-lived perennials. The whole plant smells of pine trees when crushed.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Germination can be erratic

Medicinal Uses: A. chamaepitys has stimulant, diuretic and emmenagogue action and is considered by herbalists to form a good remedy for gout and rheumatism and also to be useful in female disorders. Ground pine is a plant well known to Tudor herbalists who exploited the resins contained within the leaves. The herb was formerly regarded almost as a specific in gouty and rheumatic affections. The plant leaves were dried and reduced to powder. It formed an ingredient of the once famous gout remedy, Portland Powder. It was composed of the leaves of A. Chamaepitys, which has a slightly turpentine-like smell and a rough taste, with properties described as being similar to diluted alcohol.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajuga_chamaepitys http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/bugley83.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ajuga+chamaepitys

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Calophyllum Inophyllum


Botanical names :
Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
Family : Clusiaceae /Mangosteen
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Tribe: Calophylleae
Genus: Calophyllum
Species:C. inophyllum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Synonyms : Calophyllum Bintagor Roxb
Common names :  Punnappoovu
English :Alexandrian Laurel, Tamanu, Pannay Tree, Sweet Scented Calophyllum.
Borneo Mahagany… Bengali: Punnang… Marathi: Undi… Burmese: Pongnyet… Cutchi: Udi… Hindi: Undi, Surpan, Surpunka, Sultan Champa… Konkani: Undee-phal… Malyalam: Cherupuna, Ponnakum, Sinhalese: Domba, Dombagaha, Teldomba, Sultanchampa… Tamil:Nagam,Nameru, Pinmai,Punnagam, Punnai, Punnagum, Punnaivirai. Pinnay…Telagu: Pumagamu, Ponnvittulu, Ponnachettu…Hawaiian: Kamani

Habitat : Bitaog (as it is most usually called) is found throughout the Philippines along the seashores. It is native to Tropical Asia and its geographical distribution area also includes Melanesia and Polynesia. It grows near the sea coast throughout India. In French Polynesia, the Tamanu tree is widespread on most of the islands. It grows primarily in the coral sands and on the sea shore, although specimens may be found in valleys. Its seeds sprout easily in muddy and saline soils. The Motu (coral reefs), which surround the volcanic islands, are covered with Tamanu trees; they are very much appreciated for their fragrant flowers and elegant foliage and are thus planted along avenues. Kamani, as it is also known, was brought north to Hawai from the South Pacific islands in early migrations of Polynesian settlers. Also called Alexandrian laurel, true kamaniwas probably introduced by seed, which is how it is propagated. This native of the Pacific and of tropical Africa, grows slowly along sandy shores and in lowland forests. It was cultivated in villages, near houses and also in groves away from villages. When found growing in windy areas, it is sometimes in a picturesque form.

Cultivated for in Manila and large towns use as shade tree on lawns, avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.


Description:

The tree is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters  and has a thick trunk covered with a rough, black and cracked bark. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9-18 cm long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers have a sweet, lime-like fragrance. The tree, which flowers twice a year, is said to attain a great age Fruit is round, yellow, smooth, pulpy, 3-4 cm in diameter.

You may click to see the pictures…...(01).…….(1)……(2).(3)…..(4)

 

The numerous fruits, arranged in clusters, are spherical drupes. Once ripe, their smooth, yellow epidermis discloses a thin layer of pulp, which tastes somewhat of apple. The gray, ligneous and rather soft nut contains a pale yellow kernel, which is odourless when fresh.

Constituents :
*Kernels reported to contain 70-75% bitaog oil.
*Oil is reported to contain a poisonous resin to which its color and oder are due.
*Bark yields 11.9 % tannin; exudes oleoresin when cut.
*Resin reported to contain benzoic acids.
*Seeds contain coumarins: calanolide A and B.
*Study yields inocalophyllins A, B and methylesters from the seeds. source

Medicinal Uses:-
Parts Used :Kernels, bark, leaves.

Properties:

*Oil is considered vulnerary, cicatrising, rubefacient and irritant.
*Resinn considered sudorific.
*Fruit infusion is considered pectoral.
*Bark is considered astringent, emetic, purgative, demulcent.
*Considered antiinflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial.
*Milky juice is irritant and blinding to the eye.

Folkloric :
*Gas pains, indigestion, colic: Crush some kernels and apply on abdomen.
*Infusion or decotion of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
*Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant.
*Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments.
*Gum resin from the bark applied to wounds and old sores.
*Oil used as external application for indigestion and colic.
*Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
*Pounded bark applied to orchitis.
*Infusion of leaves taken for heatstroke.
*Oil used externally as an antiinflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
*Crushed kernels on affected joints in rheumatism.
*In Hawaii, bark resin used for ulcers.

*In the Netherland Indies, decoction of bark taken internally after childbirth.
*In Java, used for its diuretic properties.
*In Fiji, leaves usedas lotion for sore eyes.
*In Indo-China, pounded bark used used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds.
Astringent juice from the bark used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.
*In Samoa, leaves used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
*In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
Oil used for scabies.
*In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea.

*In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. source.


Other Uses:

*Trees are normally planted along the highways, roads to stop soil erosion.
*The tree is  a popular ornamental plant.
*Wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding.
*Fragrant flowers used for boquets and wreaths; also, used to decorate women’s hair.
*The thin, rounded seed shells used as containers for “buri” sugar which are sold as confection.
*Oil used as illuminant; for making soap; also used as varnish.
*Oil used in many cosmetic products.
*Considered a biodiesel potential.
*In Samoa, the plant is used for production of arrow poison.

Studies:-
•Anti-tumor / Chemopreventive: Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum: A screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from C inophyllum showed some of them might have a potential for cancer chemoprevention.
• Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum: Study yielded a new prenylated xanthone, caloxanthone N, with two other known constituents. Study showed compounds with cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense: Some of the compounds isolated (protocatechuic acid and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone) showed antimicrobial activity, confirming and justifying the traditional use of the plants to treat infectious processes.
• Inophylline A / Larvicidal: Study of roots yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A, with triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol and suggests a potential for a natural larvicide.
• Antitumor: Study of ten 4-phenylcoumarins of Calophyllum inophyllum showed some of them with a potential as cancer chemoprotective agents.
Xanthones: Study of the leaves of C inophyllum isolated a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A and four known compounds: pancixanthone A, gerontoxanthone b, jacareubin and pyranojacareubin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://www.svlele.com/undie.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum
http://www.stuartxchange.com/PaloMaria.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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