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Herbs & Plants

Siberian Fir

Botanical Name :Abies sibirica – Ledeb.
Family : Pinaceae
Synonyms:-.
#Pinus sibirica (Ledeb.) Turcz. non Du Tour
#Pinus picea Pall. non L.
#Abies pichta J. Forbes
#Picea pichta (J. Forbes) Loudon
#Pinus pichta Fisch. ex Endl.

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. sibirica
Genus: Abies

Habitat: N. Europe – Russia to E. Asia – China. Native to the taiga east of the Volga River and south of 67°40′ North latitude through Turkestan, northeast Xinjiang, Mongolia and Heilongjiang.  Forms extensive forests on cool wet mountainsides in N.E. Russia. Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description:
An evergreen Tree growing to 30m.
It is hardy to zone 1 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
Abies_sibirica.-1jpg..Abies_sibirica
Siberian Fir (Abies sibirica) is a coniferous evergreen tree. The tree lives in the cold boreal climate on moist soils in mountains or river basins at elevations of 1900-2400 m. It is very shade-tolerant, frost-resistant, and hardy, surviving temperatures down to ?50 °C. It rarely lives over 200 years due to the susceptibility to fungal decay in the wood.
abies_cone_
Siberian Fir grows 30-35 m tall with a trunk diameter of 0.5-1 m at breast height and a conical crown. The bark is grey-green to grey-brown and smooth with resin blisters typical of most firs. Shoots are yellow-grey, resinous, and slightly pubescent. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm long and 1.5 mm broad on average. They are light green above with two grey-white stomatal bands underneath, and are directed upwards along the stem. They are soft, flattened, and strongly aromatic. The cones are cylindrical, 5-9.5 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm broad, with small bracts hidden by the scales. They ripen from bluish to brown or dark brown in mid-autumn. The seeds, 7 mm long with a triangular wing 0.7-1.3 cm long, are released when the cone disintegrates after maturity.

There are two varieties:
*Abies sibirica var. sibirica. Described above.
*Abies sibirica var. semenovii (B. Fedtschenko) Farjon. Endemic in Kyrgyzstan. Branchlets noticeably ridged and grooved. Resin canals marginal. Cones yellow-brown, with broader bracts than those of var. sibirica.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Cultivated for timber in N. Europe but although very hardy, this species does not thrive in Britain, preferring much harsher climates. It tolerates temperatures down to about -50°c but in the mild winters of Britain it is often excited into premature growth and is then very susceptible to damage by late frosts. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Most if not all trees grown under this name in Britain are in fact A. sachalinensis.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Action & Uses :-
Antirheumatic; Expectorant; Stimulant.
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally.

The essential oil obtained from the leaves is antirheumatic, expectorant and stimulant.Essential oils extracted from the leaves are used in aromatherapy and perfumes.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses
Essential; Wood.
Wood – light, soft, not very durable. Used for construction, furniture and pulp.

Scented Plants
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.


Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+sibirica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_sibirica
http://www.conifers.org/pi/ab/sibirica.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Momi Fir

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Botanical Name:Abies firma – Siebold.&Zucc.
Family: Pinaceae
Genus : Abies
Synonyms: Abies bifida – Siebold.&Zucc,  Abies momi – Siebold.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. firma


Habitat :
Native to central and southern Japan, Hills and mountains, C.& S. Japan .Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description:
An evergreen Tree growing to 30m at a medium rate.  It is hardy to zone 6 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is a medium-sized to large evergreen coniferous tree growing 30 to 50 m tall and 2 m in trunk diameter, with a broad conical crown of straight branches rising at an angle of about 20° above horizontal. The bark is scaly grey-brown, with resin blisters on young trees. The shoots are grooved, buff to grey-brown, glabrous or finely pubescent. The leaves (“needles”) are flattened, 2-5 cm long and 2-4 mm broad, spread at nearly right angles from the shoot; the apex is sharp, bifid (double-pointed) on the leaves of young trees, single-pointed on mature trees. They are bright green above, and greyish-green below with two broad stomatal bands. The cones are 7-15 cm long by 3-5 cm wide, green maturing yellow-brown, tapering to a 2-3 cm broad bluntly rounded apex. The scale bracts are exserted 3-6 mm, triangular. The seeds are 7-9 mm long with a wedge-shaped wing 1.5 cm long, are released after the cones disintegrate at maturity in October.


Cultivation:

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions, down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. New growth of the side shoots starts in April and this is very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The terminal buds do not open until mid-May and usually escape damage. Trees are fairly fast growing when young, sending up new growth of 60cm a year from the age of about 6 years. Side shoots grow with equal vigour, however and the tree often loses apical dominance. Trees grow best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. The flowers are produced in axils of the previous year’s shoots. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Seed – roasted. No more details are given, but the seed is very small and fiddly to utilize.

Medicinal Uses: Not known.

Other Uses
Wood.
Wood – light, soft, coarse grained, not very durable. Used for construction, pulp, etc.Momi Fir is sometimes, but not commonly, used as an ornamental tree, particularly in warm temperate regions with hot, humid summers such as the southeastern United States.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+firma
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_firma

http://search.myway.com/search/AWimage.jhtml?searchfor=Abies firma – Siebold.

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Herbs & Plants

Abies amabilis

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Botanical Name : Abies amabilis
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. amabilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Common Name   :Red Fir, Pacific Silver Fir, Cascades Fir, white fir, Lovely fir, Amabilis fir, Cascades fir

Habitat ; Abies amabilis is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from the extreme southeast of Alaska, through western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, to the extreme northwest of California. It grows in high mountain slopes and benches, going down to sea-level in the north of its range. The best specimens grow in deep moist soils and cool wet air conditions such as fog belts

Description:Abies amabilis   is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 30-45 m (exceptionally 72 m) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m (exceptionally 2.3  m). The bark on younger trees is light grey, thin and covered with resin blisters. On older trees, it darkens and develops scales and furrows. The leaves are  needle-like, flattened, 2-4.5 cm long and 2 mm wide by 0.5 mm thick, matt dark green above, and with two white bands of stomata below, and slightly notched at the tip. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they lie flat to either side of and above the  shoot, with none below the shoot. The shoots are orange-red with dense velvety pubescence. The cones are 9-17 cm long and 4-6 cm broad, dark purple before  maturity; the scale bracts are short, and hiddenick to see the pictures of Abies amabilis in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6–7 months  after pollination.

You may click to see the pictures of Abies amabilis
..
Pacific Silver Fir is very closely related to Maries’ Fir A. mariesii from Japan, which is distinguished by its slightly shorter leaves (1.5-2.5 cm) and  smaller cones (5-11 cm long).

CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

It has a gray trunk, a rigid, symmetrical crown, and lateral branches perpendicular to the stem. It contrasts strikingly with the more limber crowns, acute branch angles, and generally darker trunks of its common associates Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and mountain hemlock (T. mertensiana). The species name, amabilis, means lovely....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant is not wind tolerant. It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation :-
Requires a good moist but not water-logged soil in a sheltered position. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant   but growth is slower in dense shade  . Intolerant of atmospheric pollution  . Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope  . Trees are somewhat shallow rooted and are therefore susceptible to strong winds. Grows best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland . It does very well on glacial moraines in Scotland. When grown in an open position, the tree clothes itself to the ground with gracefully drooping branches, though on the whole, this species does not grow well in Britain. Trees have been of variable growth in this country and seem to be  short-lived. The best and fastest growing specimens are to be found in the north and far west of the country  . Growth in girth can be very quick,  1.8 metres in 35 years has been recorded  . Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in  height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. The  crushed leaves have an odour like orange peel. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly . They hybridize freely  with other members of this genus. This species is often confused with A. nordmanniana . A very ornamental plant . Trees are sometimes grown as  ‘Christmas trees’ . Plants are susceptible to injury by aphis.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks . Stratification is said  to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains  viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored . When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least  their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if   you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of  about 550 plants per square metre   whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Uses:-

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark.

Edible Uses: Gum; Tea.
Young shoot tips are used as a substitute for tea. The pitch obtained from the bark can be hardened (probably by immersing it in cold water) and used as a

chewing gum. Inner bark. No further information is given, but inner bark can be dried, ground into a powder and then used with grain flours etc to make bread  and other preparations.

Medicinal Uses:-

This plant was used quite widely by native North American Indians. An infusion of the bark was used as a tonic and to treat stomach ailments, TB, haemorrhoids and various minor complaints. The pitch, or resin, was also used to treat colds, sore throats etc. The bark of this tree contains blisters that  are filled with a resin called ‘Canadian Balsam’. Although the report does not mention the uses of this resin, it can almost certainly be used in the same  ways as the resin of A. balsamea, as detailed below:- The resin obtained from this tree  has been used throughout the world and is a very effective   antiseptic and healing agent. It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. It is also used to treat sore  nipples and is said to be one of the best curatives for a sore throat. The resin is also antiscorbutic, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is used internally  in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea, though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for  gonorrhoea . A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. It is used in the treatment of coughs, colds and fevers. The leaves and young shoots are best harvested in the spring and dried for later use.

Other uses:-
Wood.

The boughs are fragrant and can be hung in the home as an air freshener. Wood – hard, light, not strong, close grained, not very durable. It is used for  framing small buildings but is not strong enough for larger buildings. It is also used for crates, pulp etc. This tree yields the resin ‘Canadian Balsam’.

The report does not mention the uses of this balsam, but the following are the ways that it is used when obtained from A. balsamea:- The balsamic resin ‘Balm of Gilead’ or ‘Canada Balsam’ according to other reports is obtained during July and August from blisters in the bark or by cutting pockets in the wood.

Another report says that it is a turpentine. It is used medicinally and in dentistry, also in the manufacture of glues, candles and as a cement for microscopes and slides – it has a high refractive index resembling that of glass. The average yield is about 8 – 10 oz per tree. The resin is also a fixative in soaps and perfumery

The wood is soft and not very strong; it is used for paper making, packing crates and other cheap construction work. The foliage has an attractive scent, and is sometimes used for Christmas decoration, including Christmas trees.

It is also planted as an ornamental tree in large parks, though its requirement for cool, humid summers limits the areas where it grows well; successful growth away from its native range is restricted to areas like western Scotland and southern New Zealand.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+amabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_amabilis
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/abies/amabilis.htm
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Abies_amabilis

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Herbs & Plants

Taxus Brevifolia (Yew)


Botanical Name:
Taxus baccata
Family
: Taxaceae
Genus:
Taxus
Species:
T. brevifolia
Kingdom:
Plantae
Phylum:
Pinophyta
Class:
Pinopsida
Order:
Pinales


Common Names:
Yew, English yew, Common Yew

Other Names:Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Yew or Western Yew
Poisonous Parts: Leaves, seed and fruit.

Habitat :Taxus Brevifolia  is native to  Europe, incl Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa, the Caucasus, Iran, Himalayas.   It grows in woods and scrub, usually on limestone. It sometimes forms pure stands in sheltered sites on chalk in the south-east and on limestone in the north-west.  

Description: It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10-15 m tall and with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter, rarely more. forming with age a very stout trunk covered with red-brown, peeling bark and topped with a rounded or wide-spreading head of branches; leaves spirally attached to twigs, but by twisting of the stalks brought more or less into two opposed ranks, dark, glossy, almost black-green above, grey, pale-green or yellowish beneath, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, 1/16 to 1/12 inch wide. Flowers unisexual, with the sexes invariably on different trees, produced in spring from the leaf axils of the preceding summer’s twigs. Male, a globose cluster of stamens; female, an ovule surrounded by small bracts, the so-called fruit bright red, sometimes yellow, juicy and encloses the seed.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Bloom Color: Green, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.

It has thin scaly brown bark. The leaves are lanceolate, flat, dark green, 1-3 cm long and 2-3 mm broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious.

The seed cones are highly modified, each cone containing a single seed 4-7 mm long partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril, 8-15 mm long and wide and open at the end. The arils are mature 6-9 months after pollination, and with the seed contained are eaten by thrushes and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings; maturation of the arils is spread over 2-3 months, increasing the chances of successful seed dispersal. The male cones are globose, 3-6 mm diameter, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, or change sex with time.

No tree is more associated with the history and legends of Great Britain than the Yew. Before Christianity was introduced it was a sacred tree favoured by the Druids, who built their temples near these trees – a custom followed by the early Christians. The association of the tree with places of worship still prevails.

Many cases of poisoning amongst cattle have resulted from eating parts of the Yew.

Click to read about The Yew ,Sacred Tree of Transformation and Rebirth

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Espalier, Firewood, Hedge, Screen, Standard, Superior hedge, Specimen. A very easy plant to grow, it is extremely tolerant of cold and heat, sunny and shady positions, wet and dry soils, exposure and any pH[200]. Thrives in almost any soil, acid or alkaline, as long as it is well-drained. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Sensitive to soil compaction by roads etc. Very shade tolerant. Tolerates urban pollution.  In general they are very tolerant of exposure, though plants are damaged by severe maritime exposure. A very cold hardy plant when dormant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c. The fresh young shoots in spring, however, can be damaged by frosts. Plants are dioecious, though they sometimes change sex and monoecious trees are sometimes found. Male and female trees must be grown if fruit and seed is required. The fruit is produced mainly on the undersides of one-year old branches. A very long lived tree, one report suggests that a tree in Perthshire is 1500 years old, making it the oldest plant in Britain. Another report says that trees can be up to 4000 years old. It is, however, slow growing and usually takes about 20 years to reach a height of 4.5 metres. Young plants occasionally grow 30cm in a year but this soon tails off and virtually no height increase is made after 100 years. A very ornamental tree, there are many named varieties. Very resistant to honey fungus, but susceptible to phytopthera root rot. The bark is very soft and branches or even the whole tree can be killed if the bark is removed by constant friction such as by children climbing the tree. Plants produce very little fibrous root and should be planted in their final positions when still small. The fruit is greatly relished by thrushes. Special Features: Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – can be very slow to germinate, often taking 2 or more years. It is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn when it should germinate 18 months later. Stored seed may take 2 years or more to germinate. 4 months warm followed by 4 months cold stratification may help reduce the germination time. Harvesting the seed ‘green’ (when fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and then sowing it immediately has not been found to reduce the germination time because the inhibiting factors develop too early. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and grow them on in pots in a cold frame. The seedlings are very slow-growing and will probably require at least 2 years of pot cultivation before being large enough to plant out. Any planting out is best done in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, July/August in a shaded frame. Should root by late September but leave them in the frame over winter and plant out in late spring. High percentage. Cuttings of ripe terminal shoots, taken in winter after a hard frost, in a shaded frame.

Edible Uses:

Fruit – raw. Very sweet and gelatinous, most people find it delicious though some find it sickly. A number of people who like the flavour do not like the texture which is often described as being ‘snotty’. All other parts of this plant, including the seed, are highly poisonous. When eating the fruit you should spit out the large seed found in the fruit’s centre. Should you swallow the whole seed it will just pass straight through you without harm (UPDATE: this is probably not true: unfortunately, the digestive system of most mammals, including humans, is robust enough to break down the seeds. This will release the toxic taxanes. Birds are able to eat the whole “berry” because they cannot digest the seeds). If it is bitten into, however, you will notice a very bitter flavour and the seed should immediately be spat out or it could cause some problems. The fruit is a fleshy berry about 10mm in diameter and containing a single seed. Some reports suggest using the bark as a tea substitute, this would probably be very unwise.

Constituents: The fruit and seeds seem to be the most poisonous parts of the tree. An alkaloid taxine has been obtained from the seeds; this is a poisonous, white, crystalline powder, only slightly soluble in water; another principle, Milossin, has also been found.

Medicinal Uses:

The yew tree is a highly toxic plant that has occasionally been used medicinally, mainly in the treatment of chest complaints. Modern research has shown that the plants contain the substance ‘taxol’ in their shoots. Taxol has shown exciting potential as an anti-cancer drug, particularly in the treatment of ovarian cancers. Unfortunately, the concentrations of taxol in this species are too low to be of much value commercially, though it is being used for research purposes. This remedy should be used with great caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. See also the notes below on toxicity. All parts of the plant, except the fleshy fruit, are antispasmodic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, narcotic and purgative. The leaves have been used internally in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hiccup, indigestion, rheumatism and epilepsy. Externally, the leaves have been used in a steam bath as a treatment for rheumatism. A homeopathic remedy is made from the young shoots and the berries. It is used in the treatment of many diseases including cystitis, eruptions, headaches, heart and kidney problems, rheumatism etc. Ingestion of 50-100g of needles can cause death.

(In homoeopathy a tincture of the young shoots and also of the berries is used in a variety of diseases: cystitis, eruptions, headache and neuralgia, affections of the heart and kidneys, dimness of vision, and gout and rheurmatism. – EDITOR) .

The chemotherapy drug paclitaxel, used in breast, ovarian and lung cancer treatment, is derived from Taxus brevifolia. Over-harvesting for production of this drug has resulted in the Pacific Yew becoming a rare species, despite the fact the drug can be produced semi-synthetically from cultivated yews. Pharmaceutical use of closely-related wild yew species in India and China threatens some of those species as well.

Click to read Taxol, an Anticancer Drug, is found in the Pacific Yew tree

Other Uses:  
Very tolerant of trimming, this plant makes an excellent hedge. The plants are often used in topiary and even when fairly old, the trees can be cut back into old wood and will resprout. One report says that trees up to 1000 years old respond well to trimming. A decoction of the leaves is used as an insecticide. Some cultivars can be grown as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre or more apart each way. ‘Repandens’ has been recommended. Wood – heavy, hard, durable, elastic, takes a good polish but requires long seasoning.  Highly esteemed by cabinet makers, it is also used for bows, tool handles etc. It makes a good firewood. The wood is burnt as an incense

Known Hazards :  All parts of the plant, except the flesh of the fruit, are highly poisonous, having a paralyzing affect on the heart. Poisoning symptoms are dry mouth, vomiting, vertigo, abdominal pain, dyspnoea, arrhythmias, hypotension & unconsciousness.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to c

Yew may refer to various other species, click to read about them:
Any of various coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus Taxus:
European Yew or Common Yew (Taxus baccata)
Canadian Yew (Taxus canadensis)
Chinese Yew (Taxus chinensis)
Japanese Yew (Taxus cuspidata)
Florida Yew (Taxus floridana)
Mexican Yew (Taxus globosa)
Sumatran Yew (Taxus sumatrana)
Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallichiana)
Any of various coniferous plants in the families Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae:
White-berry Yew (Pseudotaxus chienii)
New Caledonian Yew or Southern Yew (Austrotaxus spicata)
Catkin-yew (Amentotaxus sp.)
Plum-yew (Cephalotaxus sp.)
Any of the various coniferous plants in the family Podocarpaceae which are superficially similar to other yews:
Prince Albert’s Yew (Saxegothaea conspicua)
Plum-yew (Prumnopitys sp.)

Fortigall Yew

Resources:
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/y/yew—08.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxus_brevifolia

.http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Taxus+baccata