Tag Archives: Plantago

Plantago maritimo

Botanical Name : Plantago maritimo
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. maritima  : Plantago maritimo
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Sheep’s Herb.

Common Names : Sea plantain, Seaside plantain, Goose tongue.

Habitat : Plantago maritimo  is native to most of Europe, northwest Africa, northern and central Asia, northern North America, and southern South America.
It grows in Short turf in salt marshes near the sea and by streams in mountains, usually in saline or wet soils

Description:
Plantago maritimo is a herbaceous perennial plant with a dense rosette of stemless leaves. Each leaf is linear, 2–22 cm long and under 1 cm broad, thick and fleshy-textured, with an acute apex and a smooth or distantly toothed margin; there are three to five veins. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.  The flowers are small, greenish-brown with brown stamens, produced in a dense spike 0.5–10 cm long on top of a stem 3–20 cm tall.The plant is self-fertile.
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There are four subspecies:

*Plantago maritima subsp. maritima. Europe, Asia, northwest Africa.

*Plantago maritima subsp. borealis (Lange) A. Blytt and O. Dahl. Arctic regions. All parts of the plant small, compared to temperate plants.

*Plantago maritima subsp. juncoides (Lam.) Hultén. South America, North America (this name to North American plants has been questioned[5]).

*Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (All.) Arcang. Central Europe, on serpentine soils in mountains.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position[200]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies[30].

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious flavour. This is one of the nicer-tasting members of the genus, the leaves are fairly low in fibres and make an acceptable addition to a mixed salad. The leaves are canned for winter use in Alaska. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed can be ground into a powder and used as a flour extender. The seed is very small and tedious to harvest.

Medicinal Uses:
The herb is used as Laxative.

Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Other Uses:
The plant attracts wildlife.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_maritima
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+maritima
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/plasea49.html

Plantago rugelii

Botanical Name : Plantago rugelii
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. rugelii
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Plantaginales

Synonyms. Plantago rugelii var. alterniflora Farw.,

Common Names:Blackseed Plantain, Rugel’s plantain, American plantain, Red-stalked plantain

Habitat : Plantago rugelii is native of North America (Eastern N. America – Quebec to North Dakota, south to Florida.) .It is similar to the closely related Plantago major  and grows in damp shores, roadsides and waste places.It is a ruderal species and is common on lawns and disturbed sites.P. rugelii is difficult to differentiate from Plantago major in the vegetative state. Plantago Rugelii grows in more moist and shaded habitats than does Plantago Major.

Description:
Plantago rugelii is an erect perennial forb with fibrous roots which grows from 3 to 12 inches tall. It blooms from June through August producing narrow, tapering, 2 to 12 inch flower spikes. It’s leaves are oval to elliptical with three veins. The bases of the leaf stalks have a reddish appearance. This characteristic in addition to paler green color, less waxy appearance, lack of hairs and toothed, irregular margins distinguishes P. rugelii from the similar and closely related Plantago major (broadleaf plantain).

You may click to see the picture

Identifying Characteristics: Blackseed Plantain (Plantago rugelii) has petioles with red or purple colorations at their bases, a lighter green, less waxy leaf appearance, and capsules that split below the middle. These are all characteristics that help to distinguish it from the closely-related Broadleaf Plantain (Plantago major). Additionally, the leaves of blackseed plantain are hairless, and have toothed and wavy margins, unlike the leaves of broadleaf plantain.

It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native habitat it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Young leaves – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:

Laxative; Poultice.

Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds. A poultice of the fresh leaves is used to treat burns and inflammations.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_rugelii
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+rugelii
http://www.ppws.vt.edu/scott/weed_id/plaru.htm
http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/image/p/plru–fr36379.htm

Plantago media

Botanical Name : Plantago media
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus:Plantago
Species: P. media
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Lamiales

Common Name :Hoary plantain

Habitat :Plantago media is native to central and western Europe, including Great Britain and introduced to parts of the north-east United States. Its generic name is derived from the Latin for sole; like other members of Plantago, it should not be confused with the plantain, a starchy banana.It grows fields, meadows and lawns. A common weed of lawns and cultivated land, especially on dry or calcareous soils.It generally grows in damp grassy meadows up to an altitude of 2000 m.

Description:
Plantago media is a perennial herb growing to 0.1m by 0.1m.
It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September.  A slender stalk of between 5 to 50 cm develops from a basal rosette of finely-haired leaves. Delicate pink-white flowers are borne between May and September. P. media is hemaphrodite and is pollinated by wind or insects, particularly bees. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

You may click to see the picture

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Grows well in the spring meadow. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies. The flowers are sweetly scented.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: :Flowers; Leaves.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. The very young leaves have a fairly mild flavour but with a slight bitterness. Used in salads before they become tough. The inflorescence is sweet and is sucked by children.

Medicinal Uses:
Astringent; Demulcent; Deobstruent; Depurative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Haemostatic; Laxative; Odontalgic; Ophthalmic; Refrigerant.

The leaves, flowering stems and roots are somewhat astringent, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, refrigerant and vulnerary. They are applied externally to skin inflammations, malignant ulcers, cuts etc. A mouthwash made from the leaves helps to relieve toothache and a distilled water is a good eyewash. The seeds are demulcent and laxative. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Other Uses
Fungicide.

The leaves are a cure for blight on fruit trees.

Scented Plants
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are sweetly scented.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_media
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+media
http://www.fungoceva.it/erbe_ceb/plantago_media.htm

Plantago maritima

Botanical Name : Plantago maritima
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. maritima
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names :Sea Plantain, Seaside Plantain, Goose Tongue

Habitat :Plantago maritima is  native to most of Europe, northwest Africa, northern and central Asia, northern North America, and southern South America. Like samphires, the plant is commonly harvested in the Maritimes and eaten.It grows in short turf in salt marshes near the sea and by streams in mountains, usually in saline or wet soils

Description:
Plantago maritima is a herbaceous perennial plant with a dense rosette of stemless leaves. Each leaf is linear, 2-22 cm long and under 1 cm broad, thick and fleshy-textured, with an acute apex and a smooth or distantly toothed margin; there are three to five veins. The flowers are small, greenish-brown with brown stamens, produced in a dense spike 0.5-10 cm long on top of a stem 3-20 cm tall.

You may click to see the picture
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It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

There are four subspecies:
*Plantago maritima subsp. maritima. Europe, Asia, northwest Africa.

*Plantago maritima subsp. borealis (Lange) A. Blytt and O. Dahl. Arctic regions. All parts of the plant small, compared to temperate plants.

*Plantago maritima subsp. juncoides (Lam.) Hultén. South America, North America (this name to North American plants has been questioned).

*Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (All.) Arcang. Central Europe, on serpentine soils in mountains.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious flavour. This is one of the nicer-tasting members of the genus, the leaves are fairly low in fibres and make an acceptable addition to a mixed salad. The leaves are canned for winter use in Alaska. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed can be ground into a powder and used as a flour extender. The seed is very small and tedious to harvest.

Medicinal Uses:
Laxative.

Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes . Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_maritima
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+maritima
http://www.korseby.net/outer/flora/rosopsida/plantaginaceae/plantago_maritima_aehre.jpeg

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Plantago coronopus

Botanical Name : Plantago coronopus
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. coronopus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name : Minutina, Erba stella, Buck’s horn plantain

Habitat :Plantago coronopus is native to Eurasia and North Africa but it can be found elsewhere, including the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as an introduced species.It grows in sandy or gravelly soils and cracks in rocks, in sunny places in dry soils usually near the sea.

Description:
Plantago coronopus  is an annual or biennial herb producing a basal rosette of narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 25 centimeters long. The leaves are edged with small lance-shaped lobes. The inflorescences grow erect to about half a meter in maximum height. They have dense spikes of flowers which sometimes curve.It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is self-fertile. Each flower has four whitish lobes each measuring about a millimeter long.

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It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender.  It is noted for attracting wildlife.

This plant is suitable for   light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves – raw or cooked. High yielding. One of the nicer tasting members of this genus, the leaves are fairly tender and have a slight bitterness. Some people blanch the leaves in boiling water for a few seconds before using them in salads in order to make them more tender. This leaf is one of the ingredients of ‘misticanze’, a salad mixture of wild and cultivated leaves that originated in the Marche region of Italy.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. A polymorphic species. This plant has sometimes been cultivated for its edible leaves. An important food plant for many caterpillars.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiperiodic;  Laxative;  Ophthalmic.

The leaves are antiperiodic and ophthalmic. They are used as a remedy for ague and sore eyes. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_coronopus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+coronopus