Categories
Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Lactuca sativa angustana

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Botanical Name: Lactuca sativa angustana
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. sativa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms : L. sativa asparagina

Common Name: Celtuce

Habitat: Garden origin, it is probably derived from L. serriola. Grown in cultivated bed.

Description:
Lactuca sativa angustana is an annual or biennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is a surface-rooting plant, the roots can be damaged by hoeing. A good companion for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions.
It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Prefers a light sandy loam. Succeeds in most well-drained, humus-rich soils but dislikes acid conditions. Prefers some shade in the summer to slow down the plants tendency to go to seed and to prevent the leaves becoming bitter.

Cultivation:
Prefers a light sandy loam. Succeeds in most well-drained, humus-rich soils but dislikes acid conditions. Prefers some shade in the summer to slow down the plants tendency to go to seed and to prevent the leaves becoming bitter. Plants can resist some frost, they can also tolerate temperatures in excess of 27°c. They are fairly resistant to bolting, though they can run to seed prematurely in very hot conditions. The celtuce is a form of lettuce with a longer and thicker central stem, it is sometimes cultivated for its edible leaves and stems. There are some named varieties. It takes 3 – 4 months from sowing before the stems are ready to harvest. A surface-rooting plant, the roots can be damaged by hoeing. A good companion for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions.

Propagation:
Seed – sow March to June in situ. Seedlings can be transplanted. Seed becomes dormant at temperatures above 27°c.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. A mild, slightly sweet flavour, they are rather more coarse than ordinary lettuce, though they make an acceptable ingredient in mixed salads. Old leaves become coarser and bitter. Stem – raw or cooked. Thick, tender, crisp and juicy, its flavour is variously described as being like lettuce, celery, artichoke, squash, asparagus or chard. It is usually peeled before being used. The stems can be harvested just before the plants flower without them turning bitter, though they might become hollow at this stage.

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[4]. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. The cultivated lettuce does not contain as much lactucarium as the wild species, most being produced when the plant is in flower. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used[9]. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts. The seed is anodyne and galactogogue. Lettuce has acquired a folk reputation as an anaphrodisiac, anodyne, carminative, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypnotic, narcotic, parasiticide and sedative.

Other Uses : Parasiticide. No further details are given, but it is probably the sap of flowering plants that is used. The seed is said to be used to make hair grow on scar tissue.

Known Hazards: The mature plant is mildly toxic.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Lactuca sativa


http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+sativa+angustana
Lactuca sativa angustana, Celtuce

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Lactuca sativa capitata

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Botanical Name : Lactuca sativa capitata
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. sativa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Cabbage Lettuce

Habitat: Of garden origin, probably derived from L. serriola. It is grown on caltivated bed.

Description:
Lactuca sativa capitata is an annual or biennial herb growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a light sandy loam. Succeeds in most well-drained, humus-rich soils but dislikes acid conditions. Plants strongly dislike dry conditions, quickly running to seed in such a situation. Early and late sowings are best in a sunny position, but summer crops are best given a position with some shade in order to slow down the plants tendency to go to seed and to prevent the leaves becoming bitter. The garden lettuce is widely cultivated in many parts of the world for its edible leaves and is probably the most commonly grown salad plant. This is the heading form of lettuce, including the Iceberg and Butterhead varieties. There are many named varieties[183] capable of providing fresh leaves throughout the year if winter protection is given in temperate areas. Lettuces are quite a problematic crop to grow. They require quite a lot of attention to protect them from pests such as slugs, aphids and birds. If the weather is hot and dry the plants tend to run very quickly to seed, developing a bitter flavour as they do so. In wet weather they are likely to develop fungal diseases. In addition, the seed needs to be sown at regular intervals of 2- 3 weeks during the growing season in order to provide a regular supply of leaves. Lettuces make a good companion plant for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions. They also grow well with cucumbers, cabbages and beetroot.

Propagation :
Seed – sow a small quantity of seed in situ every 2 or 3 weeks from March (with protection in cooler areas) to June and make another sowing in August/September for a winter/spring crop. Only just cover the seed. Germination is usually rapid and good, thin the plants if necessary, these thinnings can be transplanted to produce a slightly later crop (but they will need to be well watered in dry weather). More certain winter crops can be obtained by sowing in a frame in September/October and again in January/February.
Edible Uses :
Leaves – raw or cooked. A mild slightly sweet flavour with a crisp texture, lettuce is a very commonly used salad leaf and can also be cooked as a potherb or be added to soups etc. The plant forms a head of leaves in a similar way to cabbages. The whole head is usually harvested at one time. Seed – sprouted and used in salads or sandwiches. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seed is very small, extraction of the oil on any scale would not be very feasible.
Medicinal Uses :
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets[4], nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. The cultivated lettuce does not contain as much lactucarium as the wild species, most being produced when the plant is in flower. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts. The seed is anodyne and galactogogue. Lettuce has acquired a folk reputation as an anaphrodisiac, anodyne, carminative, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypnotic, narcotic, parasiticide and sedative.

Other Uses :
The seed is said to be used to make hair grow on scar tissue

Known Hazards: Matured plant is littlebit toxic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lettuce
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+sativa+capitata

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Lactuca sativa crispa

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Botanical Name: Lactuca sativa crispa
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. sativa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name : Cutting Lettuce

Habitat: It is grown on the cultivated bed.

Description:
Lactuca sativa crispa is an annual or biennial plant, growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a light sandy loam. Succeeds in most well-drained, humus-rich soils but dislikes acid conditions. Plants strongly dislike dry conditions, quickly running to seed in such a situation. Early and late sowings are best in a sunny position, but summer crops are best given a position with some shade in order to slow down the plants tendency to go to seed and to prevent the leaves becoming bitter. The garden lettuce is widely cultivated in many parts of the world for its edible leaves and is probably the most commonly grown salad plant. This is the curled or leaf lettuce. It does not form a central heart but produces a loose rosette of basal leaves and can be harvested on a cut and come again basis. There are many named varieties capable of providing fresh leaves throughout the year if winter protection is given in temperate areas. Lettuces are quite a problematic crop to grow. They require quite a lot of attention to protect them from pests such as slugs, aphids and birds. If the weather is hot and dry the plants tend to run very quickly to seed, developing a bitter flavour as they do so. In wet weather they are likely to develop fungal diseases. In addition, the seed needs to be sown at regular intervals of 2- 3 weeks during the growing season in order to provide a regular supply of leaves. Lettuces make a good companion plant for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions. They also grow well with cucumbers, cabbages and beetroot.

Propagation:
Seed – sow a small quantity of seed in situ every 2 or 3 weeks from March (with protection in cooler areas) to June and make another sowing in August/September for a winter/spring crop. Only just cover the seed. Germination is usually rapid and good, thin the plants if necessary, these thinnings can be transplanted to produce a slightly later crop (but they will need to be well watered in dry weather). More certain winter crops can be obtained by sowing in a frame in September/October and again in January/February.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. A mild slightly sweet flavour with a crisp texture, lettuce is a very commonly used salad leaf and can also be cooked as a potherb or be added to soups etc. This variety forms a loose rosette of leaves and can be harvested on a cut and come again basis. Seed – sprouted and used in salads or sandwiches. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seed is very small, extraction of the oil on any scale would not be very feasible.

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[4]. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. The cultivated lettuce does not contain as much lactucarium as the wild species, most being produced when the plant is in flower. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts. The seed is anodyne and galactogogue. Lettuce has acquired a folk reputation as an anaphrodisiac, anodyne, carminative, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypnotic, narcotic, parasiticide and sedative.

Other Uses :
Parasiticide. No further details are given, but it is probably the sap of flowering plants that is used. The seed is said to be used to make hair grow on scar tissue.

Known Hazards : The mature plant is mildly toxic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Lactuca sativa


http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+sativa+crispa

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Hibiscus trionum

 

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Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species:H. trionum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names: Flower-of-an-hour, Bladder hibiscus, Bladder ketmia, Bladder weed, Flower-of-the-hour, Modesty, Puarangi, Shoofly, and Venice mallow

Habitat : Hibiscus trionum is native to the Levant. It has spread throughout southern Europe both as a weed and cultivated as a garden plant. It has been introduced to the United States as an ornamental where it has become naturalized as a weed of cropland and vacant land, particularly on disturbed ground.

Description:
Hibiscus trionum is an annual/perennial plant.It grows to a height of 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in), sometimes exceeding 80 centimetres (31 in), and has white or yellow flowers with a purple centre. In the deeply pigmented centre of the flower, the surface features striations, which were previously considered to act as a diffraction grating, creating iridescence. Because of the irregularities of the plant cells and surface, the periodicity of the striations is however too irregular to create clear iridescence and thus the iridescence is not visible to man and flower visiting insects. The visual signal of the flower’s of H. trionum to flower visiting insects is thus determined by the white and red pigmentary coloration. The pollinated but unripe seedpods look like oriental paper lanterns, less than an inch across, pale green with purple highlights.

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The flowers of the Hibiscus trionum can set seed via both outcrossing and self-pollination. During the first few hours after anthesis, the style and stigma are erect and receptive to receive pollen from other plants. In the absence of pollen donation, the style bends and makes contact with the anthers of the same flower, inducing self-pollination. Although outcrossing plants seem to perform better than self-pollinating plants, this form of reproductive assurance might have contributed to the success of H. trionum plants in several environments.
Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in a sheltered position in full sun   A very ornamental plant[1], it is an annual or short-lived perennial. Not very frost-tolerant, if started off early in a warm greenhouse it can be grown as an annual in Britain, flowering and setting seed in its first year.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.
Edible Uses: Young leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. Root – it is edible but very fibrousy. Mucilaginous, without very much flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
Diuretic; Skin; Stomachic.

The flowers are diuretic. They are used in the treatment of itch and painful skin diseases. The dried leaves are said to be stomachic

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_trionum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hibiscus+trionum

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Gnaphalium Arenarium

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Botanical Name: Gnaphalium Arenarium
Family: Compositae/Asteraceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Genus: Helichrysum
Species: Helicrysum arenarium
Class : Dicotyledones

Synonym : Stoechados citricum (inflorescences Hel. Arenarium – are used in a scientific compounding).

Common Name: Everlasting Flower

Habitat: Gnaphalium Arenarium occurs in Mongolia, Russia; Europe & Japan.
It grows mainly on sandy soils, on dry wood glades, coppices, hills, on mezhah and deposits, sandy and stony slopes. It is extended everywhere.

Description:
Gnaphalium Arenarium is a perennial herb.It is a Long-term grassy plant in height 10 – 30 see the Stalk of this plant sherstisto-felt, as well as all plant, single (and if it is some of them the secondary do not fructify), grows from a rhizome – idle time, direct or ascending. The Rhizome woody, more often thick, 5-7(-15) mm in diam., or much thinner, only 1-4 mm in diam.

Leaves radical – prodolgovato-obratnojajtsevidnye, tupovatye, top – linearly-lantsetnye, sharp. Flowers citreous, sometimes orange, happen brick colour, are collected in spherical small baskets. Blossoms from June till October. A smell, plants, original.

Capitula (5-)10-30(-100) arranged in compact or slightly branching loose corymb, subspherical or widely obovate, (3-)4-6(-9) mm in diam., on peduncles of indefinite length; in young state corymbs capitate, usually surrounded by a few terminal leaves. Phyllaries ca. 50, slightly loosely arranged in (3 or)4-6(or 7) rows, often with declined tip at end of anthesis, bright lemon-yellow, more pallid yellow, pinkish, or orange; outer ones obovate or elliptic, abaxially densely villous, apex rounded; inner ones widely oblong-spatulate to sublinear.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Inflorescences-baskets, usually in first two weeks of flowering Gather. It is necessary to dry longer as touch of dryness is deceptive, and nedosushennye inflorescences if are still stored compressed, zaprevajut and spoil.

It is applied in the people as zhelchegonnoe, glistogonnoe, disinfecting bilious channels and mochetochniki, krovoostanavlivajushchee.

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained, sunny sheltered position. Often cultivated for its flowers which are extensively used as a decoration and in wreaths etc. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow February/March in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 3 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts

Medicinal Uses:
Cholagogue; Diuretic; Homeopathy; Skin; Stomachic.

The fresh or dried flowers, or the entire flowering herb, are cholagogue, diuretic, skin and stomachic. An infusion is used in the treatment of gall bladder disorders and as a diuretic in treating rheumatism, cystitis etc. A homeopathic remedy is made from the flowering plant. It is used in the treatment of gall bladder disorders and lumbago.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gbif.org/species/111436439
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200024007
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helichrysum+arenarium
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/gnapha21.html