Tag Archives: Polynesia

Ambarella(Spondias dulcis)

Botanical Name :Spondias dulcis
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Spondias
Species: S. dulcis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Name:- Ambarella,Malay Apple,Golden Apple,Pomme cythere in Trinidad and Tobago, June plum in Jamaica, Juplon in Costa Rica, Jobo Indio in Venezuela, and Caja-manga in Brazil.
Hog Plum in English , In Bengali it is called as  Amra or bilati amra

Vernacular names:-
(Ambarella) (Sinhalese)
ambarella (Dutch)
amra (Bengali)
buah kedondong (Malay)
cajá-manga (Brazilian Portuguese)
cóc (Vietnamese)
Manzana de Oro (Dominican Republic)
évi (Réunion)
Goldpflaume (German)
gway (Burmese)
hevi (Philippines)
hog plum
jobo indio (Español de Venezuela)
June plum (Jamaica)
kedondong (Indonesian)
makok farang (Thai)
manga zi nsende (Kikongo)
mkak  (Khmer)
mokah (Cambodian)
naos (Bislama)
pomarosa (Puerto Rico)
prune Cythère, pomme Cythère (French)
sugar apple (St. Lucia)
wi apple (Hawaii)
Pomcite (Trinidad and Tobago)

Habitat: Native to Melanesia through Polynesia, S. dulcis has been introduced into tropical areas across the world. The species was introduced into Jamaica in 1782, and, among other places, is also cultivated in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and also from Puerto Rico to Trinidad, and Sucre east, in Venezuela. Although the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received seeds from Liberia in 1909, S. dulcis has yet to become popular in America.

Description:
This fast growing tree can reach up to 60 ft (18 m) in its native homeland of Melanesia through Polynesia; however, it usually averages out at 30 to 40 ft (9-12 m) in other areas. Spondias dulcis has deciduous, “pinnate leaves, 8 to 24 in (20-60 cm) in length, composed of 9 to 25 glossy, elliptic or obovate-oblong leaflets 2 1.2 to 4 in (6.25-10 cm) long, finely toothed toward the apex” (Morton 1987). The tree produces small, inconspicuous white flowers in terminal panicles, assorted male, female. Its oval fruits, 2 ½ to 3 ½ in (6.25-9 cm) long, are long-stalked and are produced in bunches of 12 or more. Over several weeks, the fruit fall to the ground while still green and hard, turning golden-yellow as they ripen. According to Morton (1987), “some fruits in the South Sea Islands weigh over 1 lb (0.45 kg) each”.

click to see the pictures….…(01)......(1)..…….(2)..…...(3).……..(4)...

Edible Uses:
Spondias dulcis is most commonly used as a food source. Its fruit may be eaten raw; the flesh is crunchy and a little sour. In Indonesia and Malaysia, S. dulcis is eaten with shrimp paste (a thick black salty-sweet sauce, called hayko in Chinese Southern Min dialect). It occurs as an ingredient in rojak. It may also be juiced, and goes then under the name “umbra juice” in Malaysia, or balonglong juice in Singapore.

click to see

Alternative food uses include cooking the fruit into a preserve, similar in consistency to apple butter, sauce flavoring, soups, and stews.

In Fiji, it is used to make jam.

In West Java, its young leaves are used as seasoning for pepes.

In Vietnam it is not considered as a regular “table” fruit, just a snack. It is consumed unripe, like green mangoes, sliced and dipped in a mixture of salt, sugar and fresh chili, or in shrimp paste. Another recipe favored by children is to macerate in liquid, artificially sweetened licorice extract.

In Jamaica it is mostly considered a novelty especially by children. The fruit is peeled and sprinkled with salt. The sourness and saltiness provide amusement. The fruit is also made into a drink sweetened with sugar and spiced with some ginger.

In India & Bangladesh this fruit is used in “Achar” and “Chatni”

The ambarella has suffered by comparison with the mango and by repetition in literature of its inferior quality. However, taken at the proper stage, while still firm, it is relished by many out-of-hand, and it yields a delicious juice for cold beverages. If the crisp sliced flesh is stewed with a little water and sugar and then strained through a wire sieve, it makes a most acceptable product, much like traditional applesauce but with a richer flavor. With the addition of cinnamon or any other spices desired, this sauce can be slowly cooked down to a thick consistency to make a preserve very similar to apple butter. Unripe fruits can be made into jelly, pickles or relishes, or used for flavoring sauces, soups and stews.

Young ambarella leaves are appealingly acid and consumed raw in southeast Asia. In Indonesia, they are steamed and eaten as a vegetable with salted fish and rice, and also used as seasoning for various dishes. They are sometimes cooked with meat to tenderize it.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion:-
Calories -157.30
Total Solids -14.53-40-35%
Moisture -59.65-85.47%
Protein- 0.50-0.80%
Fat– 0.28-1.79%
Sugar (sucrose)-8.05-10-54%
Acid-0.47%
Crude Fiber- 0.85-3-60%
Ash-0.44-0.65%

Medicinal Uses: In Cambodia, the astringent bark is used with various species of Terminalia as a remedy for diarrhea.

Other Uses: The wood is light-brown and buoyant and in the Society Islands has been used for canoes.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spondias_dulcis
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/ambarella_ars.html
http://saintlucianplants.com/cultivated/spondulc/spondulci.html
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/ambarella.htm

http://www.kew.org/mng/gallery/348.html

Blechnum orientale Linn.

Botanical Name : Blechnum orientale Linn.
Family: Blechnaceae
Synonym(s): Blechnopsis orientalis (L.) Presl.
English Name: Shield Fern
Local name:
Pakong-alagdan (Tag.).

Habitat
: Pakong-alagdan is widely distributed in the Philippines. It is also found throughout India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula and extends to the Malay Islands, tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Australia.

Description:
A robust fern. Caudex stout, erect, stipes 70 cm long, bearing small auricles; fronds 150 cm long, pinnae numerous, close, oblique; sori in a long continuous line close to the midrib.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The caudex is stout, erect and densely covered with glossy brown scales. The stipes are erect, 10 to 40 centimeters long. The fronds are 20 to 200 centimeters long and 10 to 40 centimeters wide. The pinnae are 5 to 20 centimeters long and 0.5 to 2 centimeters wide and sessile. The sori are arranged in a long continuous line close to the costre.

Constituents and properties:-
Considered anthelmintic, antiviral, contraceptive and tonic.
Phytochemistry showed essential oil, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids.

Medicinal uses:

Folkloric
Used as poultife for boils.
Used for urinary complaints.
In China, the rhizomes are used as anthelmintic.
The Malays eat them.
In India, used for impotence; boils in infants and older children, diarrhea,
Used to stop wound bleeding.
In Malaysia, used for abscesses, blisters and sores; poultice of young leaves for furuncles and boils.
One of the plants used for fungal skin infections, esp ringworm: Plant is pounded with some kerosene and applied to affected areas. (source)
In Papua New Guinea, new fronds are eaten to induce sterility in women. (source)

Studies
:-
• Antibacterial: Antibacterial effect could come from the bioactive constituents of essential oil, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids.Study showed antibacterial activity, greatest against P vulgaris and less with B subtilis and S aureus.
• Studies on immunomodulatory and anthelmintic properties.
• Blechnum orientale is one of the herbal components of Blechni Rhizoma, an anti-viral formulation. (souirce)
Cytotoxicity / Breast Cancer: In vitro studies on the cytotoxic potential of three plants – Blechnum orientale, Tectaria singaporeana and Tacca integrifolia showed the roots displayed the highest cell mortality. All three plants – roots, leaves and stems – showed cytotoxic potential.
• Polyphenols / Antioxidative / Antibacterial: Study of the leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns – A aureum, Asplenium nidus, Blechnum orientale, C barometz and D linearis– showed B orientale to possess the highest amount of total polyphenols and strongest potential as antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibition and antibacterial.

Click to see : Blechnum Orientale Linn – a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent

Herb Effects:Antiviral, anthelmintic, female contraceptive.

According to Caius the rhizomes are used in China as an anthelmintic. Burkill reports that the Malays eat them. They also poultice boils with them. Hooper found the rhizome among drugs from Chinese pharmacies in the Straits. It seems that the Chinese use it in urinary complaints.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.impgc.com/plantinfo_A.php?id=698
http://www.2010taipeiexpo.tw/ct.asp?xItem=39619&ctNode=5719&mp=3
http://www.fernsiam.com/FernWorld/Taxonomy/BLECHNACEAE/Blechnum/
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/pakong-alagdan.pdf

http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/html/p/pakong-alagdan.htm

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pakong-alagdan.html

Enhanced by Zemanta