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Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Helianthus annuus

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Botanical Name:Helianthus annuus
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily:
Helianthoideae
Tribe:
Heliantheae
Genus:
Helianthus
Species:
H. annuus
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Asterales

Synonyms:
*Helianthus aridus Rydb.
*Helianthus erythrocarpus Bartl.
*Helianthus indicus L.
*Helianthus jaegeri Heiser
*Helianthus lenticularis Douglas
*Helianthus macrocarpus DC. & A.DC.
*Helianthus multiflorus Hook.
*Helianthus ovatus Lehm.
*Helianthus platycephalus Cass.
*Helianthus tubaeformis Nutt.

Common Names: Sunflower, Common sunflower

Habitat :Helianthus annuus is native to Western N. America. An occasional garden escape in Britain. It grows on open dry or moderately moist soils on the plains.
Description:
Helianthus annuus is an annual plant.  It has an erect rough-hairy stem, reaching typical heights of 3 metres (9.8 ft). The tallest sunflower on record achieved 9.17 metres (30.1 ft). Sunflower leaves are broad, coarsely toothed, rough and mostly alternate. What is often called the “flower” of the sunflower is actually a “flower head” or pseudanthium of numerous small individual five-petaled flowers (“florets”). The outer flowers, which resemble petals, are called ray flowers. Each “petal” consists of a ligule composed of fused petals of an asymmetrical ray flower. They are sexually sterile and may be yellow, red, orange, or other colors. The flowers in the center of the head are called disk flowers. These mature into fruit (sunflower “seeds”). The disk flowers are arranged spirally. Generally, each floret is oriented toward the next by approximately the golden angle, 137.5°, producing a pattern of interconnecting spirals, where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. Typically, there are 34 spirals in one direction and 55 in the other; however, in a very large sunflower head there could be 89 in one direction and 144 in the other. This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds mathematically possible within the flower head.. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife…….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Bloom Color: Orange, Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Seashore, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, including poor soils provided they are deep and well-drained, but it grows best in a deep rich soil. Plants are intolerant of acid or waterlogged conditions. Especially when grown for its edible seed, the plant prefers a sunny position though it also tolerates light shade. Requires a neutral or preferably calcareous soil. As sunflowers have highly efficient root systems, they can be grown in areas which are too dry for many other crops. Established plants are quite drought-resistant except during flowering. The sunflower tolerates an annual precipitation of 20 – 400cm, an average annual temperature in the range of 6 – 28°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 – 8.7. The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be totally destroyed by them. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. The sunflower is a very ornamental plant that is widely grown in gardens and is also a major commercial crop for its edible seed and many other uses. It grows well in Britain, but it does not ripen its seed reliably in this country and so is not suitable for commercial cultivation at the present. It is the state flower of Kansas. Three distinct groups of sunflowers are cultivated:- Giant types grow from 1.8 – 4.2 metres tall with flower heads 30 – 50cm in diameter. The seeds are large, white or gray in colour, sometimes with black stripes, and are the best for culinary purposes, though the oil content is lower than for other types. ‘Grey Stripe’, ‘Hopi Black Dye’, ‘Mammoth Russian’ and ‘Sundak’ are examples of this type. Semi-dwarf types grow from 1.3 – 1.8 m tall, are early maturing and have heads 17 – 23 cm diameter. The seeds are smaller, black, gray or striped, the oil content is also higher. Examples include ‘Pole Star’ and ‘Jupiter’ Dwarf types grow from 0.6 – 1.4 m tall, are early maturing and have heads 14 – 16 cm in diameter.
The seeds are small but the oil content is the highest. Examples include ‘Advance’ and ‘Sunset’. Some forms are being bred for greater cold tolerance and should be more reliable in Britain. Plants tend to grow better in the south and south-west of England. Most forms require a four month frost-free growing season, though some Russian cultivars can mature a crop in 70 days. When plants are grown in cooler latitudes the seed contains higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty oils. The plant has a strong taproot that can penetrate the soil to depth of 3 metres, it also has a large lateral spread of surface roots. Sunflowers grow badly with potatoes but they do well with cucumbers and corn. A very greedy and vigorous plant, it can inhibit the growth of nearby plants. Plants tend to impoverish the soil if they are grown too often in the same place. A good bee plant, providing large quantities of nectar. The flowers attract beneficial insects such as lacewings and parasitic wasps. These prey on various insect pests, especially aphis. Special Features:Attracts birds, Attractive foliage, North American native, Edible, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – sow in mid spring in situ. An earlier start can be made by sowing 2 – 3 seeds per pot in a greenhouse in early spring. Use a fairly rich compost. Thin to the strongest seedling, give them an occasional liquid feed to make sure they do not become nutrient deficient and plant them out in late spring or early summer. Seed, harvested at 12% moisture content and stored, will retain its viability for several years

Edible Uses:
Seed – raw or cooked. A delicious nut-like flavour, but very fiddly to extract due to the small size of the seed. Commercially there are machines designed to do this. Rich in fats, the seed can be ground into a powder, made into sunflower butter or used to make seed yoghurt. When mixed with cereal flours, it makes a nutritious bread. Cultivars with up to 50% oil have been developed in Russia. The oil contains between 44 – 72% linoleic acid. The germinated seed is said to be best for seed yoghurt, it is blended with water and left to ferment. The sprouted seed can be eaten raw. A nutritional analysis of the seed is available. Young flower buds – steamed and served like globe artichokes. A mild and pleasant enough flavour, but rather fiddly. Average yields range from 900 – 1,575 kg/ha of seed, however yields of over 3,375 kg/ha have been reported. A high quality edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is low in cholesterol, and is said to be equal in quality to olive oil. Used in salads, margarines, or in cooking. The roasted seed is a coffee and drinking chocolate substitute. Another report says the roasted hulls are used. The leaf petioles are boiled and mixed in with other foodstuffs.
Medicinal Uses:
A tea made from the leaves is astringent, diuretic and expectorant, it is used in the treatment of high fevers. The crushed leaves are used as a poultice on sores, swellings, snakebites and spider bites. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. A tea made from the flowers is used in the treatment of malaria and lung ailments. The flowering head and seeds are febrifuge, nutritive and stomachic. The seed is also considered to be diuretic and expectorant. It has been used with success in the treatment of many pulmonary complaints. A decoction of the roots has been used as a warm wash on rheumatic aches and pains.
Powdered leaves of the prairie sunflower are said to work well with the healing of sores and swellings.

Other Uses:
Blotting paper; Dye; Fibre; Fuel; Green manure; Herbicide; Kindling; Microscope; Oil; Paper.

An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Some varieties contain up to 45% oil. The oil is also used, often mixed with a drying oil such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to make soap, candles, varnishes, paint etc, as well as for lighting. The oil is said to be unrivalled as a lubricant. A blotting paper is made from the seed receptacles. A high quality writing paper is made from the inner stalk. The pith of the stems is one of the lightest substances known, having a specific gravity of 0.028. It has a wide range of applications, being used for purposes such as making life-saving appliances and slides for microscopes. The dried stems make an excellent fuel, the ash is rich in potassium. Both the dried stems and the empty seed receptacles are an excellent kindling. A fibre from the stem is used to make paper and a fine quality cloth. A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers. A purple-black dye is obtained from the seed of certain varieties that were grown by the Hopi Indians of S.W. North America. Sunflowers can be grown as a spring-sown green manure, they produce a good bulk of material. Root secretions from the plant can inhibit the growth of nearby plants[

Known Hazards: The growing plant can accumulate nitrates, especially when fed on artificial fertilizers. The pollen or plant extracts may cause allergic reactions.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthus_annuus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthus+annuus

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier huroensis

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier huroensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. sanguinea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names:  Not known
Habitat : Amelanchier huroensis is native to North-western N. America – Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. It grows on the open woods, cliffs and shores, chiefly on trap or other basic rocks.
Description:
Amelanchier huroensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe.  Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is rich in iron and copper

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+huroensis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_sanguinea

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier confusa

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier confusa
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. canadensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Amelanchier canadensis auct., Amelanchier grandiflora auct.

Common Names: Service berry, Shadblow, Shadbush, Sugarplum, Shad

Habitat:Amelanchier confusa is native to Europe – S. Sweden. This species is only known from plants naturalised in Sweden, its origin is uncertain.

Description:
Amelanchier confusa is a deciduous woody perennial Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). It has smooth, ovate leaves which are irregularly serrated. The autumn colour is inconspicuous.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A suckering plant, the suckers are formed very close to the original stem so the plant forms a gradually expanding clump. Plants growing at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire were 4 metres tall in early April 1999, they were suckering quite freely in a tight clump and flowering very freely. This species is closely related to A. laevis. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is  edible both raw and cooked. It is 7 – 9mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+confusa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_canadensis
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/1105
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/plants/amelanchier/confusa.html

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier asiatica

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Botanical Name: Amelanchier asiatica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. asiatica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms A. canadensis japonica. Aronia asiatica.

Common Name: Korean Juneberry

Habitat :Amelanchier asiatica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on Hilly and mountainous regions. On slopes by streams, mixed forests at elevations of 1000 – 2000 metres.

Description:
Amelanchier asiatica is a deciduous Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 10 m (32ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. It produces an edible fruit called a pome. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil, including chalk, so long as it is not too dry or water-logged. Plants succeed in quite shady positions but do not flower or fruit well there. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A very ornamental plant, it is closely allied to A. canadensis and A. laevis, and is also very similar to A. arborea. The sub-species A. asiatica sinica C. Schneid. is found in China. It has smaller fruits than the type species. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. Of good quality, the fruit is sweet and juicy, contains a few small seeds at the centre and has a hint of apple in the flavour. The fruit is rich in iron and copper. The fruit is up to 15mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_asiatica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+asiatica

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. alnifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: A. alnifolia. non Nutt. A. florida. A. oxyodon

Common Name : Pacific Serviceberry

Habitat :Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia is native to Western. N. America. It grows in moist woods and open places.

Description:
Amelanchier alnifolia semiintegrifolia is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in) at a slow rate.
CLICK & SEE  THE PICTURES
It is hardy to zone (UK) 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to about -35°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. This species is particularly interesting because it is quite compact and produces an excellent quality quite large fruit. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. This species loses its leaves early in the autumn, especially in dry years. Closely related to, and included as a sub-species of A. alnifolia by most botanists. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit – raw or cooked. A sweet and succulent fruit, it is soft and juicy with a few small seeds in the centre and has a hint of apple in the flavour. A very acceptable fruit that can be eaten in quantity, it matures about 2 – 3 weeks later than most other members of the genus. Formerly an important food for the N. American Indians, it can also be dried and used as a raisin substitute. It is up to 13mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:

Ophthalmic; VD.
An infusion of the inner bark is used as a treatment for snow-blindness. A compound concoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Other Uses:.Wood is very tough, hard, heavy with close grained and can be very useful for different purposes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+alnifolia+semiintegrifolia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_alnifolia