Tag Archives: Respiratory Disorders

Asthma weed

Botanical Name :Lobelia inflata (LINN.)/Parietaria judaica
Family: Urticaceae /Campanulaceae
Subfamily: Lobelioideae
Genus: Parietaria/Lobelia
Species: P. judaica/ L. inflata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales/Asterales

Common Names: Rapuntium inflatum, Indian-Tobacco, Pukeweed, Asthma Weed, Gagroot, Vomitwort, Bladderpod

Parts Used: The herb and its seeds

Habitat: Asthma Weed is found in the northern United States and Canada

Description:
Perennial herb with spreading to erect stems to 80 (rarely to 100) cm long. Stems reddish to green.It  possesses stalked leaves 1.5–9 cm long, lanceolate, ovate or rhombic, hairy on both surfaces, strongly veined; leaf stalk 1–1.5 cm long.Its flowers are pale violet-blue in colour. Single seeded dry fruit (achene) maturing dark brown to black, hard, 1–1.2 mm long and 0.6–0.9 mm wide
click to see the pictures…>…..(01)....(1).…….(2).…..…(3)…...(.4).…...(5).…(.6)...(7).…...(8)...(9)
Roots are pink or red, and woody on older plants. Flowers are very small, light green in colour, and clustered along the stems. Leaves, flowers and stems are covered with sticky hairs that will stick to skin, clothing and animal fur.

The weed spreads mainly by movement of seed, particularly when attached to animals, machinery and people. Some local spread via root pieces.

Medicinal Uses:
Asthma Weed is used as an expectorant, diaphoretic and anti-asthmatic substance. It is used also in epilepsy, tetanus, diphtheria and tonsilitis. Its infusion is used to treat ophthalmia and its tincture cures skin diseases.

Asthma weed (Euphorbia hirta) has been used traditionally in Asia to treat bronchitic asthma and laryngeal spasm. It is used in the Philippines for dengue fever.
Native Americans used lobelia to treat respiratory and muscle disorders, and as a purgative..The species used most commonly in modern herbalism is Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco). However, there are adverse effects that limit the use of lobelia.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.herbsguide.net/asthma-weed.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medicinal_herbs
http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&state=&s=&card=H68
http://www.pittwater.nsw.gov.au/environment/noxious_weeds/herbs/asthma_weed

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parietaria_judaica

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobelia_inflata

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements

Asmatica

 

Botanical Name : Tylophora asmatica
Family : Apocynaceae
Genus : Tylophora
Species: Asmatica
Common names :  Indian lobelia   asmatica,asmitica
Parts Used : Leaves
Habitat :Grows in tropical countries.Native to the Indian subcontinent, asmatica grows wild on the plains of India.

Description:
The Tylophora is a perennial vine, twining climber with lance-shaped leaves and greenish flowers that produce many flat seeds. The leaves are gathered when the plant is in flower.
The leaves and roots of tylophora have been included in the Bengal Pharmacopoeia since 1884. It is said to have laxative, expectorant, diaphoretic (sweating), and purgative (vomiting) properties. It has been used for the treatment of various respiratory problems besides asthma, including allergies, bronchitis and colds, as well as dysentery and oseteoarthritis pain.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

History:
Asmatica has long been used in Ayurvedic medicine to induce vomiting and expectoration as well as for treating dysentery and rheumatic conditions.

Extensive laboratory research and clinical study has taken place in India and established that asmatica is an effective remedy for asthma. In the 1970s, a number of clinical trials showed that a majority of asthmatics taking the herb for just six days, gained relief for an additional twelve weeks.

It should be noted that the spelling of this plant, asmatica, differs from the asthmatic plant (Euphorbia hirta syn.E. pilulifera) and should not be confused with it although it does have a history of similar usage.

Cultivation
Propagule  Various Pollination method .

Chemical Constituents: Alkaloids (including tylophorine) ,flavonoids ,sterols ,tannins

Medicinal properties: antiasthmatic

Medicinal Uses:
Tylophora asmatica has been traditionally used as an antiasthmatic. Asmatica (sometimes called Indian lobelia) is only to be administered with proper professional knowledge. Herbal remedies are only prepared from the leaves.

Considered a specific remedy for asthma, asmatica may relieve symptoms for up to 3 months.  It is also beneficial in cases of hay fever, and is prescribed for acute allergic problems such as eczema and nettle rash.  The plant holds potential as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and other immune system disorders.  Asmatica may relieve rheumatoid arthritis and may also be of value in the treatment of cancer.  Extensive laboratory and clinical research in India has established that asmatica is an effective remedy for asthma.  In the 1970s, a number of clinical trials showed that a majority of asthmatic patients taking the herb for just 6 days gained relief from asthma for up to a further 12 weeks.  However, the leaves do produce side effects  The plant’s alternative name, Indian lobelia, alludes not only to its value in treating asthma but also to its irritating effect on the digestive tract.
It is also beneficial in cases of hay fever as well as such acute allergic problems as eczema and nettle rash.

The plant holds promise as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and other immune system disorders. It may also relieve rheumatoid arthritis and be of value in the treatment of cancer.

Other Traditional uses :
Parts used  Traditional uses for  Fragrance  intensity. Dye parts  Dye color
Cautions:
*Take only under professional guidance.
*Like its lobelia relatives, the leaves of asmatica do produce side effects and can have an irritating effect on the digestive tract.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.crescentbloom.com/Plants/Specimen/TU/Tylophora%20asmatica.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/asmatica.htm

Allergic Asthma

 

Definition:
Allergic (extrinsic) asthma is characterized by symptoms that are triggered by an allergic reaction. Allergic asthma is airway obstruction and inflammation that is partially reversible with medication. Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma, affecting over 50% of the 20 million asthma sufferers.Over 2.5 million children under age 18 suffer from allergic asthma. Many of the symptoms of allergic and non-allergic asthma are the same (coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or rapid breathing, and chest tightness). However, allergic asthma is triggered by inhaled allergens such as dust mite allergen, pet dander, pollen, mold, etc. resulting in asthma symptoms.

click & see the pictures
Allergies and asthma often occur together. The same substances that trigger your hay fever symptoms may also cause asthma signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing and chest tightness. This is called allergic asthma or allergy-induced asthma. Substances such as pollen, dust mites and pet dander are common triggers. In some people, skin or food allergies can cause asthma symptoms.

An allergic response occurs when immune system chemicals (antibodies) mistakenly identify a harmless substance such as tree pollen as a dangerous invader. In an attempt to protect your body from the substance, antibodies attack the allergen. The chemicals released by your immune system lead to allergy signs and symptoms, such as nasal congestion, runny nose, itchy eyes or skin reactions. For some people, this same reaction also affects the lungs and airways, leading to asthma symptoms.

Symptoms:

The main symptoms are coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and a tight feeling in the chest.

…...CLICK & SEE

Difference Between Allergy and non-Allergic Asthma:

Allergic asthma symptoms are similar to the non-allergy asthma ones. Both types of sufferers experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, sleep troubles. The early warning symptoms can be signs of frequent colds such as sneezing, sore throat, nasal congestion, running nose, or a permanent feeling of tiredness and bad mood. While both types of asthma manifest the same symptoms, the difference is made by the trigger of these symptoms. In case of allergic asthma, attacks are triggered by allergens such as pollens, pet dander, mold or dust. This is why all asthma sufferers need to be aware of their type of asthma, so they can apply preventive measures such as eating healthy foods and staying away from allergens. It is very important that allergic asthma sufferers try not to get in contact with the substances they are allergic to (allergens). These substances are easy to be determined by running some special tests, which any allergology lab can do.


Causes:

Asthma often runs in ‘atopic’ families. Children are also more likely to develop asthma if their mother smoked during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

Most people find several things trigger their asthma. Some of the most common predisposing factors for asthma are allergies to:

•House dust mites
•Mould spores
•Pollen
•Pets
•Food or food preservatives

Asthma triggers include:

•Viral infections, such as colds and flu
•Cigarette smoke
•Certain forms of exercise, such as running
•Exposure to cold, dry air
•Laughing and other emotions
•Medication containing aspirin
•Drinks containing sulphur dioxide, such as squashes and lemon barley water

Treatment:
Some treatment can reduce both asthma and allergy symptoms, but most are designed to treat either one or the other. A few treatments can help with both conditions.

There are two main treatments for asthma:

•Relievers – salbutamol and terbutaline
•Preventers – beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, mometasone and ciclesonide
These all come in a variety of delivery devices, such as aerosol or powder inhalers and nebulisers. You breathe the medicine in through your mouth, directly into your lungs.

Relievers are drugs called bronchodilators (based on adrenaline) that relax the muscles which surround the airways, making it easier to breathe. You should take these as directed by your doctor as soon as symptoms appear.

Taking a dose of the reliever inhaler before exercise will increase your stamina and prevent breathing difficulty.

Preventers are drugs (usually low-dose steroids) that reduce inflammation in the airways and make them less sensitive. This means you’re less likely to react when exposed to a trigger.

The protective effect of this medicine is built up over a period of time, so you must take your preventer regularly, as directed by your doctor.

Combination preventer and long-acting reliever (formoterol and salmeterol) inhalers have become popular and seem to be particularly good at controlling more severe and persistent asthma.

If your asthma is really bad, your doctor may also prescribe a short course of steroid tablets to calm your inflamed airways.

Newer anti-inflammatory medication includes leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast and zafirlukast), which are particularly useful for brittle asthma and patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma.

The most recent addition to the list of possible treatments for asthma is a new injection medication (omalizumab) for those with severe allergic asthma, which works by dampening down the IgE allergic reaction.

An older orally administered bronchodilator, theophylline, isn’t often used these days owing to its unpredictable toxic side-effects and need for blood testing.

There is little scientific evidence to support the use of breathing exercises, such as Buteyko, in the treatment of asthma. However, some people with asthma find breathing exercises calm their symptoms and reduce their need for reliever medication.

You may need other medications to treat allergies or asthma, especially if your symptoms become severe at times. However, recognizing and avoiding the allergic substances that trigger your symptoms is the most important step you can take.

Who’s at risk of allergic asthma?
A family history of allergies is a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk of getting asthma.

Allergic Asthma Preventive Measures:
If you’ve already been diagnosed with allery or allergic asthma, then you should also have a list of allergens you are sensitive to. It is not a joke, you need to stay away as much as you can from getting in contact with those allergens, if you want your allergic asthma not to bother you very often. Living a symptom-free life is possible in a big degree, but you need to understand how serious this allergic asthma issue has to be treated. Maybe this means that you’ll need to stay indoors in the days with high pollen activity, or maybe you won’t be allowed to eat strawberries again for the rest of your life. Understand that your lifestyle could change forever after you’ve found out that you suffer from allergy or allergic asthma.


Is all asthma caused by allergies?

Though allergic asthma is the one of the most common kinds of asthma, there are other types with different kinds of triggers. For example, for some people, asthma can be triggered by exercise, infections, cold air or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Many people have more than one kind of asthma trigger.

Pediatric Asthma
Pediatric asthma is one of the most delicate conditions that affect children of all ages. Before getting to the pediatric asthma treatment, we have to talk about the correct diagnosis, as this is a very hard thing to accomplish. Small children and infants cannot tell what bothers them, so the symptoms have to be guessed first by parents, and then by doctors. If a parent doesn’t suspect anything abnormal in their child, why would they seek for pediatric medical consultation? Children get frequent colds and childhood diseases, so there’s another reason for parents not getting too worried if their child coughs and has difficulties in breathing.

Can one prevent asthma?
You can help to avoid asthma attacks by taking preventer medicine regularly and avoiding your triggers. You can also monitor your asthma by asking your doctor to provide you with a peak flow meter, a simple device that measures the amount of breath in your lungs.

Most childhood asthma is caused by an allergy. Skin-prick and RAST tests may be able to discover the allergen. Practical steps can then be taken to avoid it, be it house dust mites, cats, dogs or other pets. Even mould spores and pollen grains can trigger seasonal asthma attacks.

If you’re prone to sudden or severe asthma attacks, keep asthma diary cards and a peak flow meter on hand to monitor your lung airflow so you can take early action.

Discuss an asthma action plan with your GP, who may issue an emergency supply of oral steroid pills. You may need to increase your medication dosage if your peak flow measurement drops steadily.

Remember, never stop taking your preventer medication, even when your symptoms are stable. Don’t wait until your symptoms get worse – they’ll be harder to treat.

By regular practicing Yoga  one can get rid of  Asthma totally

You may click to see :Yoga For Asthma Patients

You may click  for more informations  about Allergic Asthma :

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://understandingasthma.com/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/in_depth/allergies/allergicconditions_asthma.shtml
http://inflation.us/collegebubble.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/allergies-and-asthma/AA00045

http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&sub=16

http://alltruthabouthealth.info/allergic-asthma-is-the-type-of-asthma-problem/

http://www.poandpo.com/in-sickness-and-health/bronchial-and-allergic-asthma/

http://seerpress.com/causes-of-allergic-asthma-revealed/5423/

http://healthguide.howstuffworks.com/exercise-induced-asthma-picture-a.htm

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

Suganda(Coleus aromaticus Benth.)

Botanical Name : Coleus aromaticus Benth.
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Plectranthus
Species: P. amboinicus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Other scientific Names:Coleus amboinicus Lour.,Coleus suganda Blanco,Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb.

Common Names:Bildu (Sul.),Clavo (C. L. Bis.),Latai (Sub.),Latay (Sub.),Oregano (Span.),Suganda (Tag.),Torongil de Limon (Span.),Zuo shou xiang (Chin.)

Other Common Names: Cuban oregano, Spanish thyme, Orégano Brujo (Puerto Rico), Indian Borage, Húng chanh (Vietnam), Mexican thyme, and Mexican mint

Habitat :Native to Southern and Eastern Africa, but widely cultivated and naturalised in the Old and New World tropics.

Description:
Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 cm long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips.

click to see the pictures…>…...(01).…(1).…...(2)..…....(3).…..…………….

This succulent herb has the typical four-cornered stem of the Lamiaceae family. The leaves are very thick and succulent, grey-green and hairy. The plant grows to around 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are highly aromatic with a strong flavour of mixed herbs.

Cultivation:
The herb grows easily in a well-drained, semi-shaded position. It is frost tender and grows well in sub-tropical and tropical locations, but will do well in cooler climates if grown in a pot and brought indoors, or moved to a warm sheltered position in winter. Water only sparingly.


Edible Uses
:
The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an excellent addition to stuffings for meat and poultry. Finely chopped, they can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game.

The herb is also used as a substitute for oregano in the food trade and food labelled “oregano-flavoured” may well contain this herb.
· As condiment, provides fragrance to salads and strong-smelling meat dishes.
· Sometimes, used as flavoring for drinks.


Constituents
:
Fresh leaves yield 0.055 volatile oil, largely carvacrol.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used : Leaves

The leaves have  had many traditional medicinal uses, especially for the treatment of coughs, sore throats and nasal congestion, but also for a range of other problems such as infections, rheumatism and flatulence. In Indonesia Plectranthus amboinicus is a traditional food used in soup to stimulate lactation for the month or so following childbirth.

In Kerala, India this is called as “panikoorka” and has various uses in treating cold / cough / fever in infants.

Properties
*Aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, tonic, stimulant.
*In India, considered antilithiotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic, antioxidant.

Folkloric:
· In the Philippines, macerated fresh leaves applied externally to burns.
· Leaves are bruised and applied to centipede and scorpion bites. Also, applied to temples and forehead for headache, help in place by a bandage.
· Leaves in infusion or as syrup used as aromatic and carminative; used for dyspepsia and also as a cure for asthma.
· The juice of the leaves for dyspepsia, asthma, chronic coughs, bronchits, colic, flatulence, rheumatism. The dose is one tablespoonful of the fresh juice every hour for adults and one teaspoonful every two hours, four times daily, for children. As an infusion, 50 to 60 grams to a pint of boiling water, and drink the tea, 4 to 5 glasses a day. For chilldren, 1/2 cup 4 times daily.
· For otalgia (ear aches), pour the fresh, pure juice into the ear for 10 minutes.
· For carbuncles, boils, sprains, felons, painful swellings: Apply the poultice of leaves to the affected area, four times daily.
· For sore throats, a decoction of two tablespoonfuls of dried leaves to a pint of boiling water, taken one hour before or after meals.
· Decoction of leaves is given after childbirth.
• In India, leaves are used traditionally for bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, epilepsy, nephro-cystolithiasi, fever, indigestion and cough.
· The Chinese used the juice of leaves with sugar, for cough in children, asthma and bronchitis, epilepsy and convulsive disorders.
· Leaves are applied to cracks at the corners of the mouth, for thrush, headaches; against fever as a massage or as a wash.
· Used for bladder and urinary afflictions, and vaginal discharges.
· Used as carminative, given to childen for colic.
· In Bengal, used for coli and dyspepsia.
· Expressed juice applied around the orbit to relieve conjunctival pain.

Studies:-
Antioxidant / Anticlastogenic / Radioprotective: Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) exposed to gamma radiation: The hydroalcoholic extract of CA showed dose-dependent radical scavenging against free radicals, rendered radioprotection against radiation induced DNA damage. Study results establsihed antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective activities and suggests a potential for chemoprevention.
• Antioxidant: Study of freeze-dried aqueous extract of Ca clearly established the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of C aromaticus.
Mast cell stabilization property: Study showed stabilization of mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue and suggests further studies into mast cells with its role in Type 1 hypersensitivity-mediated diseases like asthma and rhinitis.
• Antimicrobial: (1) Antimicrobial Activity Of Coleus aromaticus (Benth) Against Microbes Of Reproductive Tract Infections Among Women : Results suggests the herb could be an ideal choice for treating reproductive tract infections. (2) Study showed the antimicrobial effect of Coleus ambonicu, Lour folium infuum toward C albican and Strep mutans.
• Anticlastogenicity: Study of ethanolic extract of C aromaticus showed a protective effect against cyclophophamide and mitomycin-C induced cytogenetic damage.
• Anti-Inflammatory: In a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the inhibition of mediators released from the 2nd phase of inflammation.
• Antibacterial: Study showed both ethanol and hot water leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus to possess potent antibacterial activity, the ethanol extract showing greater activity. Results provide scientific support for the centuries-old use of the plant as a medicinal herb.
Forskolin / Antioxidant / Anti-Asthma / Pulmo-protective: Study isolated forskolin, a diterpenoid, from a methanolic extract of C aromaticus. C aromaticus has been used to treat asthma. Forskolin has been thought to be responsible for its pharmaceutical activity through resotration of antioxidant enzyme activity with its ability to scavenge free radicals. The results validate the use of forskolin as an anti-asthmatic agent.

Other Uses:
· Fresh leaves rubbed on clothing or hair for its scent.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Oregano.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plectranthus_amboinicus

http://www.bailane.com/Blog/ViewBlog.aspx?sid=113&hid=21179

Enhanced by Zemanta

Stemona Tuberosa

Botanical Name:Stemona sessilifolia Miq.; Stemona japonica (Bl.) Miq.; Stemona tuberosa Lour.
Family: Stemonaceae
Genus: Stemona
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Pandanales
Species: S. tuberosa

Synonyms: Roxburghia gloriosoides Roxb., R. viridiflora Smith, R. stemona Steud.

Common names: Pai Pu [Hsu]; Bai Bu in Chinese [Geng et al], the name translates to “hundred parts” (so named because its roots are over one hundred in number) [Lu]. Wild Asparagus (English) [Lu]. Sessile Stemona Root, Japanese Stemona Root, Tuber Stemona Root.

Part used: Tuberous roots cropped all the year round, especially in autumn. After being well washed and docked at each end, the roots are steam-cooked, then dried in the sun or in ovens at 50-60°C.

Habitat :It is found in Asia (China, Taiwan, Yunnan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, North-East India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam). Hi, warm, slightly shade, and more growth in the hillside forest, roadsides, stream. Appropriate soil deep, fertile, moist, sandy loam.

Description:
Stemona tuberosa is a species of flowering plant in the family Stemonaceae.Leaves many of the students, whorled, sometimes alternate, was ovate or broadly ovate lanceolate. A fleshy root, showing spindle. Flowers yellow-green, solitary or 2-3 flowers arranged in racemes, more axillary. Capsule obovate. May between the flowering, in July of fruit ripening.
.
You may click to see more pictures:

Landscape Uses:
Big 100 in the green space that can be implanted in the garden corner, it could be climbing on the fence for vertical greenery, but also for being implanted in the understory plants. Roots used as medicine.

Cultivation:
Soil:   Mix
Water:   Medium
Sun:   Minimum-Medium
Reproduction:   Seeds/Dividing of the centre

Medicinal Uses:
Stemona tuberosa (Chinese: pinyin: bai bù) is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

To moisten the lungs and stop cough, to kill lice and parasites [Lu; Geng et al]. Also to bring down energy, and destroy worms [Lu].
Cough in common cold. Stemona root (Bai Bu) is used with Schizonepeta (Jing Jie), Platycodon root (Jie Geng) and Aster root (Zi Wan). Whooping cough. Stemona root (Bai Bu) is used with Glehnia root (Bei Sha Shen), Tendrilled fritillary bulb (Chuan Bei Mu) and Swallowwort rhizome (Bai Qian). Cough due to tuberculosis. Stemona root (Bai Bu) is used with Ophiopogon root (Mai Dong) and Fresh rehmannia root (Sheng Di Huang).
It is recommended for cough due to deficiency fatigue, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, and whooping cough [Lu]. Also indicated for colds, phthisis

You may click to learn more in detail of    Stemona tuberosa

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stemona_tuberosa
http://www.bihrmann.com/Caudiciforms/subs/ste-tub-sub.asp
http://www.dweckdata.com/Published_papers/Stemona_tuberosa.pdf