Tag Archives: Reye’s syndrome

Roseola

Alternative Names: Exanthem subitum; Sixth disease

Definition:
Roseola is a generally mild infection that usually affects children by age 2. It occasionally affects adults. Roseola is extremely common — so common that most children have been infected with roseola by the time they enter kindergarten.
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Two common strains of herpes viruses cause roseola. The condition typically causes several days of fever, followed by a rash.

Some children develop only a very mild case of roseola and never show any clear indication of illness, while others experience the full range of symptoms.

Roseola typically isn’t serious. Rarely, complications from a very high fever can result. Treatment of roseola includes bed rest, fluids and medications to reduce fever.

It is frequently called roseola, although this term could be applied to any rose-colored rash.

Symptoms:
The child may have a runny nose, sore throat, and eye redness.

A fever usually occurs before the rash appears. It lasts for 3 (sometimes up to 7) days. The fever may be as high as 105° Fahrenheit, and it generally responds well to acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Between the second and fourth day of the illness, the fever drops and a rash appears (often as the fever falls).

•The rash starts on the trunk and spreads to the limbs, neck, and face. The rash is pink or rose-colored, and has fairly small sores that are slightly raised.
•The rash lasts from a few hours to 2 – 3 days. It usually does not itch.
Other symptoms include:
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•Irritability
•High fever that comes on quickly

Causes:
Until recently, its origin was unknown, but it is now known to be caused by two human herpesviruses, HHV-6 (Human herpesvirus 6) and HHV-7, which are sometimes referred to collectively as Roseolovirus. There are two variants of HHV-6 and studies in the US, Europe and Japan have shown that exanthema subitum is caused by HHV-6B which infects over 90% of infants by age 2. Current research indicates that babies congenitally infected with the HHV-6A virus can have inherited the virus on a chromosome

The virus is spread through the faecal-oral route (poor hygiene after using the toilet) or by airborne droplets. Careful handwashing can help prevent its spread.

Occasionally other viruses cause an illness very similar to roseola.

Like other viral illnesses, such as a common cold, roseola spreads from person to person through contact with an infected person’s respiratory secretions or saliva. For example, a healthy child who shares a cup with a child who has roseola could contract the virus.
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Roseola is contagious even if no rash is present. That means the condition can spread while an infected child has only a fever, even before it’s clear that the child has roseola. Watch for signs of roseola if your child has interacted with another child who has the illness.

Unlike chickenpox and other childhood viral illnesses that spread rapidly, roseola rarely results in a communitywide outbreak. The infection can occur at any time of the year.
Roseola occurs throughout the year. The time between becoming infected and the beginning of symptoms (incubation period) is 5 to 15 days.

Risk Factors:
Older infants are at greatest risk of acquiring roseola because they haven’t had time yet to develop their own antibodies against many viruses. While in the uterus, babies receive antibodies from their mothers that protect them as newborns from contracting infections, such as roseola. But this immunity fades with time. The most common age for a child to contract roseola is between 6 and 15 months.

Complications:
Seizures in children
Occasionally a child with roseola experiences a seizure brought on by a rapid rise in body temperature. If this happens, your child might briefly lose consciousness and jerk his or her arms, legs or head for several seconds to minutes. He or she may also lose bladder or bowel control temporarily.

If your child has a seizure, seek emergency care. Although frightening, fever-related seizures in otherwise healthy young children are generally short-lived and are rarely harmful.

Complications from roseola are rare. The vast majority of otherwise healthy children and adults with roseola recover quickly and completely.

Concerns for people with weak immune systems
Roseola is of greater concern in people whose immune system is compromised, such as those who have recently received a bone marrow or organ transplant. They may contract a new case of roseola — or a previous infection may come back while their immune system is weakened. Because they have less resistance to viruses in general, immune-compromised people tend to develop more severe cases of infection and have a harder time fighting off illness.

People with weak immune systems who contract roseola may experience potentially serious complications from the infection, such as pneumonia or encephalitis — a potentially life-threatening inflammation of the brain.

Diagnosis:
Roseola is usually diagnosed from the history and symptoms, especially if the infection has recently been reported in the community.
•Physical exam of rash
•Swollen lymph nodes on the neck (cervical nodes) or back of the scalp (occipital nodes)

Clinical features:
Typically the disease affects a child between six months and two years of age, and begins with a sudden high fever (39–40 °C; 102.2-104 °F). This can cause, in rare cases, febrile convulsions (also known as febrile seizures or “fever fits”) due to the sudden rise in body temperature, but in many cases the child appears normal. After a few days the fever subsides, and just as the child appears to be recovering, a red rash appears. This usually begins on the trunk, spreading to the legs and neck. The rash is not itchy and may last 1 to 2 days.  In contrast, a child suffering from measles would usually appear more infirm, with symptoms of conjunctivitis and a cough, and their rash would affect the face and last for several days. Liver dysfunction can occur in rare cases.

The rare adult reactivates with HHV-6 and can show signs of mononucleosis.

Treatment:
The disease usually gets better without complications.
Most children recover fully from roseola within a week of the onset of the fever. With your doctor’s advice, you can give your child over-the-counter medications to reduce fever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others). However, don’t give aspirin to a child who has a viral illness because aspirin has been associated with the development of Reye’s syndrome, which can be serious.

There’s no specific treatment for roseola, although some doctors may prescribe the antiviral medication ganciclovir (Cytovene) to treat the infection in people with weakened immunity. Antibiotics aren’t effective in treating viral illnesses, such as roseola.

Like most viruses, roseola just needs to run its course. Once the fever subsides, your child should feel better soon. However, a fever can make your child uncomfortable. To treat your child’s fever at home, your doctor may recommend:

*Plenty of rest. Let your child rest in bed until the fever disappears.

*Plenty of fluids. Encourage your child to drink clear fluids, such as water, ginger ale, lemon-lime soda, clear broth or an electrolyte solution (such as Pedialyte) or sports drinks (such as Gatorade and Powerade) to prevent dehydration. Remove the gas bubbles from carbonated fluids. You can do this by letting the carbonated beverage stand or by shaking, pouring or stirring the beverage. Removing the carbonation will mean having your child avoid the added discomfort of excess burping or intestinal gas that carbonated beverages may cause.

*Sponge baths. A lukewarm sponge bath or a cool washcloth applied to your child’s head can soothe the discomfort of a fever. However, avoid using ice, cold water, fans or cold baths. These may give the child unwanted chills.There’s no specific treatment for the rash of roseola, which fades on its own in a short time

Prevention:
Because there’s no vaccine to prevent roseola, the best you can do to prevent the spread of roseola is to avoid exposing your child to an infected child. If your child is sick with roseola, keep him or her home and away from other children until the fever has broken. Once the rash appears, the virus is much less contagious.

Most people have antibodies to roseola by the time they’re of school age, making them immune to a second infection. Even so, if one household member contracts the virus, make sure that all family members wash their hands frequently to prevent spread of the virus to anyone who isn’t immune.

Adults who never contracted roseola as children can become infected later in life, though the disease tends to be mild in healthy adults. The main concern is that infected adults can pass the virus on to children.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/roseola/DS00452
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000968.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exanthema_subitum
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/roseola2.shtml

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Reye’s syndrome

Definition:
Reye’s syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver, as well as causing a lower than usual level of blood sugar (hypoglycemia).. Reye’s syndrome most often affects children and teenagers recovering from a viral infection and who may also have a metabolic disorder. The exact cause is unknown, and while it has been associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral illness, it also occurs in the absence of aspirin use.
.You may click to see larger picture
The disease causes fatty liver with minimal inflammation and severe encephalopathy (with swelling of the brain). The liver may become slightly enlarged and firm, and there is a change in the appearance of the kidneys. Jaundice is not usually present.

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Early diagnosis is vital; while most children recover with supportive therapy, severe brain injury or death are potential complications.

Boys and girls can both be affected, but the condition is very rare – there were only three reported cases in the UK and Ireland in 2000.

The syndrome is named after Dr. R. Douglas Reye, who, along with fellow physicians Dr. Graeme Morgan and Dr. Jim Baral, published the first study of the syndrome in 1963 in The Lancet. In retrospect, the occurrence of the syndrome may have first been reported in 1929.

Symptoms :
Reye’s syndrome progresses through five stages, explained below:

*Stage I
…#Rash on palms of hands and feet
…#Persistent, heavy vomiting that is not relieved by not eating
…#Generalized lethargy
…#Confusion
…#Nightmares
…#High fever
…#Headaches

*Stage II
…#Stupor caused by encephalitis
…#Hyperventilation
…#Fatty liver (found by biopsy)
…#Hyperactive reflexes

*Stage III
…#Continuation of Stage I and II symptoms
…#Possible coma
…#Possible cerebral oedema
…#Rarely, respiratory arrest

*Stage IV
…#Deepening coma
…#Dilated pupils with minimal response to light
…#Minimal but still present hepatic dysfunction

*Stage V
…#Very rapid onset following stage IV
…#Deep coma
…#Seizures
…#Multiple organ failure
…#Flaccidity
…#Hyperammonemia (above 300 mg/dL of blood)
…#Death

Causes:
The cause of Reye’s syndrome isn’t fully understood. Reye’s syndrome seems to be triggered by using aspirin to treat a viral illness or infection — particularly flu (influenza) and chickenpox — in children and teenagers who have an underlying fatty acid oxidation disorder. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which the body is unable to breakdown fatty acids because an enzyme is missing or not working properly. A screening test is needed to determine if your child has a fatty acid oxidation disorder.

In some cases, Reye’s syndrome may be an underlying metabolic condition that’s unmasked by a viral illness. Exposure to certain toxins — such as insecticides, herbicides and paint thinner — also may contribute to Reye’s syndrome.

Risk Factors:
The following factors — usually when they occur together — may increase your child’s risk of developing Reye’s syndrome:

Using aspirin to treat a viral infection, such as flu, chickenpox or an upper respiratory infection
Having an underlying fatty acid oxidation disorder

Complications:
Most children and teenagers who have Reye’s syndrome survive, although varying degrees of permanent brain damage are possible. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, Reye’s syndrome can be fatal within a few days.

Diagnosis:
Exams and TestsThe following tests may be used to diagnose Reye syndrome:

•Blood chemistry tests
•Head CT or head MRI scan
•Liver biopsy
•Liver function tests
•Serum ammonia test
•Spinal tap

Treatment:
Immediate emergency treatment is needed for Reye’s syndrome, usually in an intensive care unit.

There is no specific treatment for this condition. The health care provider will monitor the pressure in the brain, blood gases, and blood acid-base balance (pH).

Treatments may include:

•Breathing support (a breathing machine may be needed during a deep coma)
•Fluids by IV to provide electrolytes and glucose
•Steroids to reduce swelling in the brain

Prognosis :
Documented cases of Reye’s syndrome in adults are rare. The recovery of adults with the syndrome is generally complete, with liver and brain function returning to normal within two weeks of the illness. In children, however, mild to severe permanent brain damage is possible, especially in infants. Over thirty percent of the cases reported in the United States from 1981 through 1997 resulted in fatality.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/reyes1.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reye’s_syndrome
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/reyes-syndrome/DS00142
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001565.htm
http://bryanking.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/reyes_syndrome.jpg

Infant Fever

A mother holds her baby while it is immunized

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Fevers are fact of life for most children. In most cases they are nothing to worry about, but it is important to monitor the symptoms closely and to seek medical advice if they persist.

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What is a fever?

Fever has been defined as a body temperature elevated to at least 1F above the ‘normal’ of 98.6F (37.0C).

A baby’s temperature normally varies by as much as 2F, depending on the temperature of his surroundings, clothing worn, degree of stress, level of activity or time of day.

What prompts a fever?

In most cases a fever is the body’s reaction to an acute viral or bacterial infection. Raising the temperature helps create an inhospitable environment for viral or bacterial invaders, it also stimulates the production of disease-fighting white blood cells.

Why are babies prone to fevers?

The body’s temperature control system is not well developed in babies.

Infant and childhood fevers can be caused by a number of different factors including:

* Overexertion
* Dehydration
* Mosquito bites
* Bee stings
* Allergic reactions
* Viral or bacteria infections

What are the symptoms?

Typical symptoms of a fever include coughing, aches or pains, an inability to sleep and shivering.

Other symptoms include poor appetite, lethargy and prolonged irritability.

In some cases breathing may be difficult.

What are the treatments?

Dehydration is a risk for infants, and a feverish baby should always be given lots of fluids.

A child with a temperature of less than 102F (38.8C) does not always require immediate medical attention. The child should be observed, and help sought if the symptoms appear to get worse, or the fever does not subside within 24 hours.

A child with a temperature of 102F or higher should be given paracetamol. A doctor or pharmacist should be consulted for a recommended dose.

A doctor’s advice should always be sought for a child whose temperature is 104F (40C) or higher.

Children should not be given aspirin. Several studies link aspirin use in children with Reye’s Syndrome a severe illness that often is fatal.

Are there danger signs?

Certain symptoms, when combined with a fever, warrant an immediate call to the doctor. These include:

* Red spots on the skin, sensitive eyes and runny nose (measles)
* Red, itchy spots (chicken pox)
* Stiffness in the neck or headache (a sign of a more severe infection)

Febrile seizures

Occasionally, a child with a fever will have a seizure. This is called a febrile seizure, and it demands immediate attention from a doctor.

The seizures do not seem to be related to the height of the fever, or to the rapidity with which it rises, but a small number of children seem to be predisposed to attacks.

About 50% of the children who suffer one febrile seizure will go on to have another one. About 33% will have a third one.

While waiting for a doctor to arrive, it is important to follow basic instructions:

* Keep the child upright and make sure they are breathing well
* Stay with the child and talk reassuringly
* Watch for changes in breathing, and make sure that the airways are kept open
* Clear the area to prevent injury
* Do not restrain as this can cause additional injury
* Try placing a soft pillow or blanket under the child’s head
* Loosen clothing to prevent injury and ease discomfort
* If vomiting occurs, turn the head to the side so there is no risk of his choking on inhaled vomit

You may click to learn more about Infant Fever:->Infants Fever

>Fever Quiz

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Sources:BBC NEWS:2nd.June,1999

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Chickenpox

Definition:

Chickenpox, sometimes called varicella, is a viral infection that used to be common among young children before routine immunization. the infection, with its characteristic rash of blisters, is caused by the varicella zoster virus, which also causes herpes zoster. The virus is transmitted in airborne droplets from the coughs and sneezes of infected people or by direct contact with the blisters. You can catch chickenpox from someone with chickenpox or herpes zoster if you are not immune.

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The illness is usually mild in children, but symptoms are more severe in young babies, older adolescents, and adults. chickenpox can also be more serious in people with reduced immunity, such as those with aids.

It is one of the five classical childhood exanthems or rashes, once a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, but now chiefly of historical importance. Formerly one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child, its incidence had been reduced since the introduction and use of a varicella vaccine in 1995 in the U.S. and Canada to inoculate against the disease. Areas such as England, where the vaccine is not mandated, have increasing prevalence rates for chickenpox. Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV-3), one of the eight herpes viruses known to affect humans. It starts with conjunctival and catarrhal symptoms and then characteristic spots appearing in two or three waves, mainly on the body and head rather than the hands and becoming itchy raw pox (pocks), small open sores which heal mostly without scarring.

Chickenpox has a 10-21 day incubation period and is highly contagious through physical contact two days before symptoms appear. Following primary infection there is usually lifelong protective immunity from further episodes of chickenpox.

Chickenpox is rarely fatal (usually from varicella pneumonia), with pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system being more at risk. Pregnant women not known to be immune and who come into contact with chickenpox may need urgent treatment as the virus can cause serious problems for the fetus. This is less of an issue after 20 weeks.

The most common complication of chicken pox is shingles; this is most frequently a late effect.

Causes:

In a typical scenario, a young child is covered in pox and out of school for a week. The first half of the week the child feels miserable from intense itching; the second half from boredom. Since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine, classic chickenpox is much less common.

Chickenpox is extremely contagious, and can be spread by direct contact, droplet transmission, and airborne transmission. Even those with mild illness after the vaccine may be contagious

Signs and symptoms:
The symptoms of chickenpox appear 1-3 weeks after infection. In children, the illness often starts with a mild fever or headache; in adults, there may be more pronounced flulike symptoms. as infection with the virus progresses, the following symptoms usually become apparent:

· Rash in the form of crops of tiny red spots that rapidly turn into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. within 24 hours the blisters dry out, forming scabs. successive crops occur for 1-6 days. The rash may be widespread or consist of only a few spots, and it can occur anywhere on the head or body.

· Sometimes, discomfort during eating caused by spots in the mouth that have developed into ulcers.

A person is contagious from about 2 days before the rash first appears until it crusts over it about 10-14 days.

Itis a highly contagious disease that spreads from person to person by direct contact or through the air from an infected person’s coughing or sneezing. Touching the fluid from a chickenpox blister can also spread the disease. A person with chickenpox is contagious from one to two days before the rash appears until all blisters have formed scabs. This may take five to 10 days. It takes from 10-21 days after contact with an infected person for someone to develop chickenpox.

The chickenpox lesions (blisters) start as a two to four millimeter red papule which develops an irregular outline (a rose petal). A thin-walled, clear vesicle (dew drop) develops on top of the area of redness. This “dew drop on a rose petal” lesion is very characteristic for chickenpox. After about eight to 12 hours the fluid in the vesicle gets cloudy and the vesicle breaks leaving a crust. The fluid is highly contagious, but once the lesion crusts over, it is not considered contagious. The crust usually falls off after seven days sometimes leaving a crater-like scar. Although one lesion goes through this complete cycle in about seven days, another hallmark of chickenpox is the fact that new lesions crop up every day for several days. Therefore, it may take about a week until new lesions stop appearing and existing lesions crust over. Children are not to be sent back to school until all lesions have crusted over.

Chickenpox is highly contagious and is spread through the air when infected people cough or sneeze, or through physical contact with fluid from lesions on the skin. Zoster, also known as shingles, is a reactivation of chickenpox and may also be a source of the virus for susceptible children and adults. It is not necessary to have physical contact with the infected person for the disease to spread. Those infected can spread chickenpox before they know they have the disease – even before any rash develops. In fact, people with chickenpox can infect others from about two days before the rash develops until all the sores have crusted over, usually four to five days after the rash starts.

Possible Complications:

*Women who get chickenpox during pregnancy are at risk for congenital infection of the fetus.

*Newborns are at risk for severe infection, if they are exposed and their mothers are not immune.

*A secondary infection of the blisters may occur.

*Encephalitis is a serious, but rare complication.

*Reye’s syndrome, pneumonia, myocarditis, and transient arthritis are other possible complications of chickenpox

*Cerebellar ataxia may appear during the recovery phase or later. This is characterized by a very unsteady walk.
The most common complication of chickenpox is bacterial infection of the blisters due to scratching. other complications include pneumonia, which is more common in adults, and rarely inflammation of the brain. newborn babies and people with reduced immunity are at higher risk of complications. Rarely, if a woman develops chickenpox in early pregnancy, the infection may result in fetal abnormalities.

Later in life, chickenpox viruses remaining dormant in the nerves can reactivate, causing shingles.

Secondary infections, such as inflammation of the brain, can occur in immunocompromised individuals. This is more dangerous with shingles.

Congenital defects in babies:
These may occur if the child’s mother was exposed to the zoster virus during pregnancy. Effects on the fetus may be minimal in nature but physical deformities range in severity from under developed toes and fingers, to severe anal and bladder malformation. Possible problems include:

*Damage to brain: encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, aplasia of brain

*Damage to the eye (optic stalk, optic cap, and lens vesicles), microphthalmia, cataracts, chorioretinitis, optic atrophy

*Other neurological disorder: damage to cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord, motor/sensory deficits, absent deep tendon reflexes, anisocoria/Horner’s syndrome

*Damage to body: hypoplasia of upper/lower extremities, anal and bladder sphincter dysfunction

*Skin disorders: (cicatricial) skin lesions, hypopigmentation

Diagnosis:
Chickenpox can usually be diagnosed from the appearance of the rash. Children with mild infections do not need to see a doctor, and rest and simple measures to reduce fever are all that are needed for a full recovery. calamine lotion may help relieve itching. To prevent skin infections, keep fingernails short and avoid scratching. people at risk of severe attacks, such as babies, older adolescents, adults, and people with reduced immunity, should see their doctor immediately. An antiviral drug may be given to limit the effect of the infection, but it must be taken in the early stages of the illness in order to be effective.

Prognosis and treatment:
Children who are otherwise healthy usually recover within 10-14 days from the onset of the rash, but they may have permanent scars where blisters have become infected with bacteria and then been scratched. Adolescents, adults, and people with reduced immunity take longer to recover from chickenpox.

Chickenpox infection tends to be milder the younger a child is and symptomatic treatment, with a little sodium bicarbonate in baths or antihistamine medication to ease itching, and paracetamol (acetaminophen) to reduce fever, are widely used. Ibuprofen can also be used on advice of a doctor. However, aspirin or products containing aspirin must not be given to children with chickenpox (or any fever-causing illness), as this risks causing the serious and potentially fatal Reye’s Syndrome.

There is no evidence to support the effectiveness of topical application of calamine lotion, a topical barrier preparation containing zinc oxide in spite of its wide usage and excellent safety profile.

It is important to maintain good hygiene and daily cleaning of skin with warm water to avoid secondary bacterial infection. Infection in otherwise healthy adults tends to be more severe and active; treatment with antiviral drugs (e.g. acyclovir) is generally advised. Patients of any age with depressed immune systems or extensive eczema are at risk of more severe disease and should also be treated with antiviral medication. In the U.S., 55 percent of chickenpox deaths are in the over-20 age group, even though they are a tiny fraction of the cases.

In most cases, it is enough to keep children comfortable while their own bodies fight the illness. Oatmeal baths in lukewarm water provide a crusty, comforting coating on the skin. An oral antihistamine can help to ease the itching, as can topical lotions. Lotions containing antihistamines are not proven more effective. Trim the fingernails short to reduce secondary infections and scarring.

Safe antiviral medicines have been developed. To be effective, they usually must be started within the first 24 hours of the rash. For most otherwise healthy children, the benefits of these medicines may not outweigh the costs. Adults and teens, at risk for more severe symptoms, may benefit if the case is seen early in its course

In addition, for those with skin conditions (such as eczema or recent sunburn), lung conditions (such as asthma), or those who have recently taken steroids, the antiviral medicines may be very important. The same is also true for adolescents and children who must take aspirin on an ongoing basis.

Some doctors also give antiviral medicines to people in the same household who subsequently come down with chickenpox. Because of their increased exposure, they would normally experience a more severe case of chickenpox.

DO NOT USE ASPIRIN for someone who may have chickenpox. Use of aspirin has been associated with Reyes Syndrome. Ibuprofen has been associated with more severe secondary infections. Acetaminophen may be used.

Click for Ayurvedic medication of Chickenpox….…(1).…….(2)……..(3).…..(4)
Click for Homeopathic Remedies of Chicken Pox …….(1).…..(2)...(3)..…..(4)

Prevention:
Once you catch chickenpox, the virus usually stays in your body forever. You probably will not get chickenpox again, but the virus can cause shingles in adults. A chickenpox vaccine can help prevent most cases of chickenpox, or make it less severe if you do get it.

One attack of chickenpox gives lifelong immunity to the disease. However, the varicella zoster virus remains dormant within nerve cells and may reactivate years later, causing herpes zoster. Immunization against chickenpox is now routine for babies aged 12-18 months and is recommended for children aged 11-12 years who have neither had chickenpox nor been immunized.

Vaccination:

A varicella vaccine has been available since 1995 to inoculate against the disease. Some countries require the varicella vaccination or an exemption before entering elementary school. Protection is not lifelong and further vaccination is necessary five years after the initial immunization.

In the UK, varicella antibodies are measured as part of the routine of prenatal care, and by 2005 all NHS healthcare personnel had determined their immunity and been immunised if they were non-immune and have direct patient contact. Population-based immunization against varicella is not otherwise practiced in the UK, because of lack of evidence of lasting efficacy or public health benefit.

Vaccination reactions:
Common and mild reactions following vaccination may include:

*Fever of 101.9 (38.9 C) up to 42 days after injection

*Soreness, itching at the site of injection within 2 days

*Rash occurring at site of injection anywhere form 8 to 19 days after injection. If this happens you are considered contagious.

*Rash on other parts of body anywhere from 5 to 26 days after injection. If this happens you are considered contagious.

Fever and discomfort may be lessened by taking medication containing paracetamol (aka acetaminophen, such as Panadol, Tempra, Tylenol) or ibuprofen.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickenpox
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001592.htm
http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=117

 

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First aid In Fever

Fever is one of your body’s reactions to infection. What’s normal for you may be a little higher or lower than the average temperature of 98.6 F (37 C). That’s why it’s hard to say just what a fever is. But a “significant” fever is usually defined as an oral or ear temperature of 102 F or a rectal temperature of 103 F. For very young children and infants, however, even slightly elevated temperatures may indicate a serious infection. In newborns, a subnormal temperature   rather than a fever   also may be a sign of serious illness.

Don’t treat fevers below 101 F with any medications unless advised to do so by your doctor. If you have a fever of 101 F or higher, your doctor may suggest taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others). Adults may also use aspirin. But don’t give aspirin to children. It may trigger a rare, but potentially fatal, disorder known as   Reye’s syndrome.

How to take a temperature
You can choose from several types of thermometers. Today most have digital readouts. Some take the temperature quickly from the ear canal and can be especially useful for young children and older adults. Other thermometers can be used rectally, orally or under the arm. If you use a digital thermometer, be sure to read the instructions, so you know what the beeps mean and when to read the thermometer. Under normal circumstances, temperatures tend to be highest around 4 p.m. and lowest around 4 a.m.

Because of the potential for mercury exposure or ingestion, glass mercury thermometers have been phased out and are no longer recommended.

Rectally (for infants)
To take your child’s temperature rectally:

* Place a dab of petroleum jelly or other lubricant on the bulb.
* Lay your child on his or her stomach.
* Carefully insert the bulb one-half inch to one inch into the rectum.
* Hold the bulb and child still for three minutes. To avoid injury, don’t let go of the thermometer while it’s inside your child.
* Remove and read the temperature as recommended by the manufacturer.
* A rectal temperature reading is generally 1 degree F higher than an oral reading.

Orally
To take your temperature orally:

* Place the bulb under your tongue.
* Close your mouth for the recommended amount of time, usually three minutes.
* If you’re using a nondigital thermometer, remove it from your mouth and rotate it slowly until you can read the temperature accurately.

Under the arm (axillary)
Although it’s not the most accurate way to take a temperature, you can also use an oral thermometer for an armpit reading:

* Place the thermometer under your arm with your arm down.
* Hold your arms across your chest.
* Wait five minutes or as recommended by your thermometer’s manufacturer. Then remove the thermometer and read the temperature.
* An axillary reading is generally 1 degree F less than an oral reading

Get medical help for a fever in these cases:

* If a baby is younger than 2 months of age and has a rectal temperature of 100.4 F or higher. Even if your baby doesn’t have other signs or symptoms, call your doctor just to be safe.
* If a baby is older than 2 months of age and has a temperature of 102 F or higher.
* If a newborn has a lower-than-normal temperature — less than 95 F rectally.
* If a child younger than age 2 has a fever for longer than one day, or a child age 2 or older has a fever for longer than three days. If your child has a fever after being left in a very hot car, seek medical care immediately.
* If an adult has a temperature of more than 104 F or has had a fever for more than three days.

Call your doctor immediately if any of these signs or symptoms accompanies a fever:

* A severe headache
* Severe swelling of the throat
* Unusual skin rash
* Unusual eye sensitivity to bright light
* A stiff neck and pain when the head is bent forward
* Mental confusion
* Persistent vomiting
* Difficulty breathing or chest pain
* Extreme listlessness or irritability
* Abdominal pain or pain when urinating
* Any other unexplained symptoms

Source:MayoClinic.Com