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Herbs & Plants

Cistus salviifolius

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Botanical Name : Cistus salviifolius
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species:C. salviifolius
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms:
*Cistus macrocalyx Sennen & Pau
*Cistus paui Sennen
*Cistus salomonis Sennen & Malag.
*Cistus salviifolius   macrocalyx Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   longipedunculatus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   vulgaris Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   biflorus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   cymosus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   grandifolius Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius var. fissipetalus Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. occidentalis Rouy & Foucaud
*Cistus salviifolius var. rierae Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. schizocalyx Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius L.
*Ledonia peduncularis var. salviifolia (L.) Spach
*Ledonia peduncularis Spach

Common Names: Sage-leaved rock-rose, Salvia cistus or Gallipoli rose,Rock Rose, Salvia cistus, Sage Leaf Rock Rose

Habitat: Cistus salviifolius is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows on dry woods, thickets and banks, often on acid soils and on limestone, from sea level to 1200 metres in the Alpes Maritimes.
Description:

Cistus salviifolius is an evergreen Shrub.It has spreading stems covered by clumpy hairs. This bushy shrub reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) in height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in). The oval-shaped green leaves are 1 to 4 centimeters long, opposite, reticulate, tomentose on both sides, with a short petiole (2–4 mm).

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The inflorescence holds one or more round flowers, long-stalked, arranged at the leaf axils. The five white petals have a yellow spot at the base, forming a corolla 4–6 cm in diameter. The stamens are also yellow and the anthers shed abundant yellow pollen. This plant is pollinated by insects entomophily, especially bees. It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in August. The fruit is a pentagonal capsule, 5–7 mm long.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Chemistry:
Cistus salviifolius contains flavan-3ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and prodelphinidins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin -3-O-gallate-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-(4??6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d -(6?-O-galloyl)-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene, epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene and rhododendrin (betuloside). It also contains ellagitannins of the punicalagin type

Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The dried leaves are used as an adulterant for marjoram (Origanum majorana).
Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Other Uses:
A good ground cover plant for the milder areas of Britain. The form ‘Prostratus’ has been recommended
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cistus_salviifolius
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cistus+salviifolius

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Herbs & Plants

Pomaderris kumarahou

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Botanical Name : Pomaderris kumarahou
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Pomaderris
Species: P. kumeraho
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name:Komarahou, papapa,Kumarou, Gumdigger’s soap

Habitat :Pomaderis kumarahou is found in northern and central areas of the North Island. A plant of  northern gumlands and clay banks.

Description:
This is an upright shrub reaching 3 m with oval dark green somewhat wrinkled leaves. The small yellow flowers are in dense clusters forming a spectacular display in the spring. The name “Gumdigger’s soap” was given owing to the lather created when the flowers were rubbed with water.

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Leaves 5-8cm. long with prominent veins and midribs.Flowers numerous and bright yellow in spring.

 

Medicinal Uses:

Kumarahou is a traditional Maori remedy that has been used to treat a wide range of illnesses.  Its most common use is as a remedy for problems of the respiratory tract, such as asthma and bronchitis.  However, it has also been used in the treatment of indigestion and heartburn, diabetes, and kidney problems.  Kumarahou is considered to be a detoxifier and “blood cleansing” plant, and is used to treat skin rashes and sores, including lesions produced by skin cancer.  High in anti-oxidants, protects liver from lipid peroxidation. Adaptagenic activity increases performance, speed and stamina.
Fresh leaves are applied to wounds. Wounds are also bathed in extracts obtained from boiling the leaves.
An infusion obtained from boiling leaves in water is used internally to treat bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, to stop vomiting, for coughs and for colds.

 

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://web.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/science/about/departments/sbs/newzealandplants/maoriuses/medicinal/trees/kumarahou-pomaderris.cfm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm
http://www.bushmansfriend.co.nz/xurl/PageID/9165/ArticleID/-36699/function/moreinfo/content.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomaderris_kumeraho

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Herbs & Plants

Sea-Buckthorn

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Botanical Name: Hippophae Rhamnoides
Family: Elaeagnaceae

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Genus: Hippophae

Other Names: Espino Falso, Oblebicha, Olivella Spinosa, Sallow Thorn, Duindoorn, Seabuckthorn

Parts used: The sea buckthorn berries are used to make juice but also bark and leaves are used for the production of pharmaceuticals or to make sea buckthorn tea. Sea buckthorn oil is produced from the fruits and seeds.

Habitat:There are 6 species and 12 subspecies native over a wide area of Europe and Asia, including China, Mongolia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Great Britain, France, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway.More than 90 percent or about 1.5 million hectares of the world’s sea buckthorn resources can be found in China where the plant is exploited for soil and water conservation purposes.

The name sea-buckthorn is hyphenated here to avoid confusion with the buckthorns (Rhamnus, family Rhamnaceae). It is also referred to as “sea buckthorn”, seabuckthorn, sandthorn or seaberry

Description:
Sea buckthorn is a deciduous winter-hardy shrub with yellow to orange 6 to 8 mm small berries, which remain on the shrubs throughout the winter . Sea buckthorn reaches 2 to 5 m in height. The sea buckthorn?s leaves are alternate and narrow are silver-grey colored. The small, yellow flowers appear in spring before leaves. Both male and female sea buckthorn plants are needed for fruit production.
Sea buckthorn is used for land reclamation and to prevent soil erosion because of its extensive root system and its ability to fix nitrogen and other nutrients.

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The shrubs reach 0.5–6 m tall, rarely up to 10 m in central Asia, and typically occur in dry, sandy areas. They are tolerant of salt in the air and soil, but demand full sunlight for good growth and do not tolerate shady conditions near larger trees.

The common sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is by far the most widespread, with a range extending from the Atlantic coasts of Europe right across to northwestern China. In western Europe, it is largely confined to sea coasts where salt spray off the sea prevents other larger plants from out-competing it, but in central Asia it is more widespread in dry semi-desert sites where other plants cannot survive the dry conditions; in central Europe and Asia it also occurs as a subalpine shrub above tree line in mountains, and other sunny areas such as river banks.

Common sea-buckthorn has branches that are dense and stiff, and very thorny. The leaves are a distinct pale silvery-green, lanceolate, 3–8 cm long and less than 7 mm broad. It is dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The male produces brownish flowers which produce wind-distributed pollen.

Berries and leaves
The female plants produce orange berries 6–9 mm in diameter, soft, juicy and rich in oils. The berries are an important winter food resource for some birds, notably fieldfares.

Leaves are eaten by the larva of the coastal race of the ash pug moth and by larvae of other Lepidoptera including brown-tail, dun-bar, emperor moth, mottled umber and Coleophora elaeagnisella.

Uses
Harvesting and landscaping

Harvesting is difficult due to the dense thorn arrangement among the berries on each branch. A common harvesting technique is to remove an entire branch, though this is destructive to the shrub and reduces future harvests. A branch removed in this way is next frozen, allowing the berries to be easily shaken off. The branches are cut, deep frozen to ?32°C, then shaken or abraded for removal of the berries.

The worker then crushes the berries to remove up to 95% of the leaves and other debris. This causes the berries to melt slightly from the surface as the work takes place at ambient temperature (about 20°C). Berries or the crushed pulp are later frozen for storage.

The most effective way to harvest berries and not damage branches is by using a berry-shaker. Mechanical harvesting leaves up to 50% in the field and the berries can be harvested only once in two years. They only get about 25% of the yield that could be harvested with this relatively new machinery.

During the Cold War, Russian and East German horticulturists developed new varieties with greater nutritional value, larger berries, different ripening months and a branch that is easier to harvest. Over the past 20 years, experimental crops have been grown in the United States, one in Nevada and one in Arizona, and in several provinces of Canada.

Sea-buckthorn is also a popular garden and landscaping shrub, particularly making a good vandal-proof barrier hedge with an aggressive basal shoot system exploited in some parts of the world as wind breaks and to stabilize riverbanks and steep slopes. They have value in northern climates for their landscape qualities, as the colorful berry clusters are retained through winter.[5] Branches may be used by florists for designing ornaments. The plant is the regional flora of the Finnish region of Satakunta.

Nutrients and potential health effects

Sea-buckthorn berries are multipurposed, edible and nutritious, though very acidic and astringent, unpleasant to eat raw, unless ‘bletted’ (frosted to reduce the astringency) and/or mixed as a juice with sweeter substances such as apple or grape juice.

When the berries are pressed, the resulting sea-buckthorn juice separates into three layers: on top is a thick, orange cream; in the middle, a layer containing sea-buckthorn’s characteristic high content of saturated and polyunsaturated fats; and the bottom layer is sediment and juice.  Containing fat sources applicable for cosmetic purposes, the upper two layers can be processed for skin creams and liniments, whereas the bottom layer can be used for edible products like syrup.

Nutrient and phytochemical constituents of sea-buckthorn berries have potential value as antioxidants that may affect inflammatory disorders, cancer  or other diseases,  although no specific health benefits have yet been proved by clinical research in humans.

The fruit of the plant has a high vitamin C content—in a range of 114 to 1550 mg per 100 grams with an average content (695 mg per 100 grams) about 12 times greater than Oranges— placing sea-buckthorn fruit among the most enriched plant sources of vitamin C. The fruit also contains dense contents of carotenoids, vitamin E, amino acids, dietary minerals, ?-sitosterol and polyphenolic acids.

Apart from being nourishing, the juice has a freezing point of ?22 degrees Celsius allowing it to remain a liquid even in sub-zero temperatures.[citation needed]

Consumer products
Sea-buckthorn fruit can be used to make pies, jams, lotions and liquors. The juice or pulp has other potential applications in foods or beverages. For example, in Finland, it is used as a nutritional ingredient in baby food.[citation needed] Fruit drinks were among the earliest seabuckthorn products developed in China. Seabuckthorn based juice is even popular in Germany and Scandinavian countries.It provides a nutritious beverage, rich in Vitamin C and carotenes. For its troops confronting extremely low temperatures (see Siachen), India’s Defence Research Development Organization established a factory in Leh to manufacture a multi-vitamin herbal beverage based on sea-buckthorn juice.

The seed and pulp oils have nutritional properties that vary under different processing methods. Sea-buckthorn oils are used as a source for ingredients in several commercially available cosmetic products and nutritional supplements.
Traditional medicine

Different parts of sea-buckthorn have been used as traditional therapies for diseases. As no applications discussed in this section have been verified by Western science and sufficient clinical trial evidence, such knowledge remains mostly unreferenced outside of Asia and is communicated mainly from person to person.

Grown widely throughout its native China and other mainland regions of Asia, sea-buckthorn is an herbal medicine used over centuries to relieve cough, aid digestion, invigorate blood circulation and alleviate pain. In Mongolia, extracts of sea-buckthorn branches and leaves are used to treat gastrointestinal distress in humans and animals.

Phytochemicals:    Isorhamnetin, Flavonoids, Carotenoids, Phytosterols
Medicinal properties: Although sea buckthorn has other benefits, it is most frequently used for the treatment of diseases of skin and digestive tract. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbiological activity, relieves pain and promotes tissue regeneration. Sea buckthorn oil is traditionally used to treat vaginal mucositis, cervical erosion, radiation damage, burns, ulcers and skin damage. Recent studies have shown that sea buckthorn may also improve heart health.
Wound healing
The best know but also most studied property of sea buckthorn is the improvement of wound healing. Topical treatment of wounds with extracts or oil from sea buckthorn relieves pain and accelerates wound healing. Animal studies showed that sea buckthorn stimulates the healing of gastric ulcers.
Heart health
Flavonoids are linked to a lower risk of heart disease. Studies on humans show no or only a small effect of sea buckthorn on heart health parameters.

Bark and leaves are used for treating diarrhea and gastrointestinal and dermatologic disorders. Topical compressions are used for rheumatoid arthritis. Flowers may be used as a skin softener.

For its hemostatic and anti-in?ammatory effects, berry fruits are added to medications for pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, blood and metabolic disorders in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicines. Sea-buckthorn berry components have potential anticarcinogenic activity.

Fresh juice, syrup and berry or seed oils are used for colds, fever, exhaustion, as an analgesic or treatment for stomach ulcers, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

Called ‘Chharma’ in some native languages, oil from fruits and seeds is used for liver diseases, in?ammation, disorders of the gastrointestinal system, including peptic ulcers and gastritis, eczema, canker sores and other ulcerative disorders of mucosal tissues, wounds, in?ammation, burns, frostbite, psoriasis, rosacea, lupus erythematosus, and chronic dermatoses. In ophthalmology, berry extracts have been used for keratosis, trachoma, eyelid injuries and conjunctivitis. The sea-buckthorn is also known to kill tiny parasitic mites called Demodex.

Other facts:    The berries have very high levels of beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and flavonoids. The vitamin C level of 3600 ppm is about 10 times higher than that of oranges. The seabuckthorn berries are also rich in vitamins B1, B2, K and P. Because of sea buckthorn’s thorny nature, it is becoming popular for planting to deter trespassing animals and people.
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Discover Today How the Many Marvelous Qualities of Sea Buckthorn Oil Promote Your Youthful-Looking Skin

.Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea-buckthorn
http://www.phytochemicals.info/plants/sea-buckthorn.php

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Herbs & Plants

Ziziphus

Botanical Name: Zizyphus Jububa
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Z. jujuba
Kingdom: Planta
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Z. sativa. Z. vulgaris. Z. zizyphus. (L.)Karsten. Rhamnus zizyphus.

Common Names: jujube ( sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date

English Name :Indian Jujube
Bengali Name : Boroi

Habitat : Ziziphus is native to   E. Asia – China, Japan.   It grows on  dry gravelly or stony slopes of hills and mountains.

DESCRIPTION:

Ziziphus is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 ft), usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimetres (0.79–2.76 in) wide and 1–3 centimetres (0.39–1.18 in) broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5 millimetres (0.20 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 centimetres (0.59–1.18 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.

It is one of the most hardy fruit tree.These deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs are natives of the warmer climates. Some are found in California, Texas and Mexico. The most popular is Z. jujuba, commonly known as the Jujube or Chinese Date. The Chinese Date isn’t a true date tree, but the 1- to 2-inch, edible fruits resemble dates and can be eaten fresh, dried or preserved. This tree ultimately grows from 15 to 25 feet high and provides a light, filtered shade. Its spiny branches are clothed with ¾- to 2½-inch, dark green leaves that are quite pest-resistant. In early summer, the Chinese Date produces clusters of tiny, yellow flowers, followed by the fruits, which ripen in late fall. This tree ordinarily begins to produce fruit the first year it is planted. The wood of this tree is hard and heavy and is widely used in some
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Click to see the picture

Click to see the picture

Ziziphus is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae, distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world. The leaves are alternate, entire, with three prominent basal veins, and 2-7 cm long; some species are deciduous, others evergreen. The flowers are small, inconspicuous yellow-green. The fruit is an edible drupe, yellow-brown, red, or black, globose or oblong, 1-5 cm long, often very sweet and sugary, reminiscent of a date in texture and flavour.

Ziziphus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix zizyphella (which feeds exclusively on the genus) and Endoclita malabaricus.

The Jujube (Z. zizyphus) is the best known species. Other species include Z. spinachristi from southwestern Asia, Z. lotus from the Mediterranean region, and Ber (Z. mauritiana), which is found from western Africa to India. Ziziphus joazeiro grows in the Caatinga of Brazil.

Potting: The Chinese Date should be grown in milder climates; it does better where the summers are long and hot. It can be grown in full sun or light shade in almost any soil, though the better the soil the more valuable the fruits will be.

Propagation: These trees are increased by rooting cuttings or by grafting named varieties on understocks raised from seeds.

The Mineral & vitamin contents of Zizyphus are: calcium,phosphorous,iron,carotene,thiamine,riboflavin,niacin and vitamin-C. Its calorific value is 74. The fruit contains zizyphic acid and tannins.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Mealy and sweet. A sourish-sweet flavour. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc. The dried fruit has the nicest taste. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of ‘kochujang’, a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter and contain one or two seeds. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties. The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute. Leaves – cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails. A nutritional analysis is available.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Fruit (Dry weight)

*350 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 7.3g; Fat: 1.2g; Carbohydrate: 84g; Fibre: 4g; Ash: 3g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 130mg; Phosphorus: 168mg; Iron: 3.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 1050mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 125mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.1mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.18mg; Niacin: 2.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 300mg;
*Reference:
*Notes: The figures given here are the median of a range given in the report.

Medicinal Uses :

Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy.  It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength, and increases stamina.  In Chinese medicine, jujube is prescribed as a qi tonic to strengthen liver function.  Mildly sedative and antiallergenic, it is given to reduce irritability and restlessness..  It is also used to improve the taste of unpalatable prescriptions, as a buffer to improve synergy and minimize side effects.  In Japan, jujube has been shown to increase immune-system resistance.  In China, laboratory animals fed a jujube decoction gained weight and showed improved endurance.  In one clinical study, 12 patients with liver ailments were given jujube, peanuts, and brown sugar nightly. In 4 weeks, their liver function had improved.  The fruit is also used for chronic fatigue, diarrhea, anemia and hysteria; the seeds for palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration.  Long term use reputedly improves the complexion.
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), suan zao ren (Ziziphus spinosa) is considered to be sweet and sour in taste, and neutral in action. It is believed to nourish the heart yin, augment the liver blood, and calm the spirit (TCM medical terms). It is used to treat irritability, insomnia and heart palpitations.

Zizyphus is beneficial in the treatment of mental retardation.A handful of dry fruit is boiled in half litre of water and should be taken daily at night before retiring.It increases functioning of brain by releasing more glutamic acid into the bloodstream. The bark made from zizyphus is useful in arresting secretion and bleeding.

Stomach disorders:The bark can be used for treating diarrhoea,dysentary and colic.The infusion of the inner cover of the bark is used as a purgative in constipation.

Influenza and colds: Zizyphus is useful in preventing frequent attacks of cold and influenza. A teaspoonful of fresh fruit juice extracted from the fruit can be taken with a pinch of papper once daily as preventive.

Conjunctivitis:An infution of the leaves can be used as an eye lotion in case of conjunctivitis.

Scalp disorderss: A paste of its leaves can be applied over the scalp to prevent scalp disorder.It also lengthens the hair besides darkening them.

Mouth disorders: Infusion of the fresh and tender leaved,mixed with salt is a useful gargle for sore throat, inflammation onf the mouth, bleeding from gums and cracked tongue due to excessive consumption of sour fruits.

Other different uses: Fresh baked leaved are useful for piles. Those baked leaves are pounded with some castor oil. This worm poultice can be applied over piles.The process should be repeated twice daily for a week. A paste of leaves and small branches of the herb can be applied with excellant result over boils, carbuncles and abcesses to promote suppuration.It can be applied beneficially over painful boils and styes.This paste mixed with a teaspoon of lime juice , can also be applied as a poultice in the treatment of scorpion sting. Infusion of its leaves can be applied as a lotion to wash the wounds and other ulcers.

The mythological lotus tree is often equated with Z. lotus, though the Date Palm is also a possible candidate. The Indian name of Ziziphus is ber (or bor).

Known Hazards  : Caution in diabetics on allopathic medication

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

Miracle of Herbs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziziphus
http://www.botany.com/zizyphus.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jujube

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ziziphus+jujuba

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