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Herbs & Plants

Lime-berry

Botanical Name : Triphasia trifolia
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Triphasia
Species: T. trifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Other scientific Names:Limonia trifolia Burm. f. ,Limonia trifoliata Linn.,Triphasia trifoliata DC. ,Triphasia aurantiola Lour.

Common Names: Sua-sua (Bik.),Suang-kastila (Bik.),Tagimunau (Neg.), Lime-berry (Engl.),Trifoliate limeberry (Engl.),Triphasia (Engl.),Kalamansito (Ilk., Ibn.),Kamalitos (Tag.), Limoncito (Span.),Limonsitong-kastila (Bik.)

Habitat : Triphasia trifolia is native to tropical southeastern Asia in Malaysia and possibly elsewhere.Grows throughout the Philippines, in thickets and settled areas; in some places, abundant.

Description:
It is an evergreen  smooth shrub growing to a height of 2 to 3 meters.
The leaves are trifoliate, glossy dark green, each leaflet 2-4 cm long and 1.5-2 cm broad.  They have two sharp and slender spines at the base. The short-petioled leaves have three leaflets, ovate to oblong-ovate, the terminal one 2 to 4 cm long; the lateral ones, smaller. The margins are crenate. Flowers are very short-stalked, white, fragrant, and about 1 cm long. Fruit is ovoid, fleshy and red, somewhat resinous, about 12 mm long, similar to a small Citrus fruit.

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Cultivation:
It is grown for its edible fruit, and has been widely introduced to other subtropical to tropical regions of the world; it has become naturalized on a number of islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

This tree is also considered a weed in other introduced locations.

Edible Uses:
*Fruit is edilbe, raw or cooked.
*Ripe fruit is pleasant and sweet tasting.
*Fruit can be pickled or made into jams.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized  :Leaves and fruits.

Constituents and Properties
• Berries are lemon-scented.
• Fragrant white flowers have a scent of orange blossoms.
• Leaves exude a resinous scent when bruised.
• Considered antifungal and antibacterial.
• Study yielded a new bicoumarin from the leaves and stems; the two coumarinic moieties are derivatives of mexoticin and meranzin hydrate.
• From the oil 81 compounds were identified, the main constituent was germacrene B.

Folkloric
*Leaves applied externally for colic, diarrhea, and skin afflictions.
*Fruits used for cough and sore throat.
*Preparation: Peel the fruits and soak overnight lime (apog) water. Rinse, and boil in 1 cup water with 1/2 cup sugar. Rinse and boil a second and third time as preferred, syrupy or candied, using as needed for cough or sore throat.

Studies
• Phenolics / Anti-HSV: Study on the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on herpes simplex virus and HIV included 13 coumarins from Triphasia trifolia. The data suggests the bis-hydroxyphenyl structure as a potential target for anti-HSV and HIV drugs development.
• Bicoumarin: Study yielded a new bicoumarin from the leaves and stems of Triphasia trifolia.The two coumarinic moieties are derivatives of mexoticin and meranzin hydrate.

Others Uses:
*Leaves used in making aromatic bath salts.
*Leaves used as cosmetic.
*Cultivated for its ornamental fragrant flower and edible red fruit. Attractive as a garden hedge.
*The Limeberry has been used as a bonsai plant…....CLICK & SEE….

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Limonsito.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triphasia_trifolia
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/limeberry.htm
http://www.artofbonsai.org/galleries/worldview06.php

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Sapote


Botanical Name
:Diospyros ebenaster Retz.
Family: Ebenaceae
Genus: Diospyros
Species: D. digyna
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Other Scientific Names:  Sapote negro Sonn. ,Diospyros sapota Roxb.,Sapota nigra Blanco  ,Diospyros nigra Perr. ,Diospyros nigra Blanco

Common Names :Sapote (Tag.),Zapote (Span.), Sapote negro (Span.),Chocolate fruits (Engl.),Ebony persimmon(Engl.),Chocolate Pudding Fruit and (in Spanish) Zapote Prieto.

Habitat :Native to eastern Mexico and Central America south to Colombia. With time, it reached many parts of the world and now is being grown in the Philippines, Malacca, Maurius, Hawai, Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

Description :
Sapote is a tall, smooth tree, 7 to 17 meters high. Leaves are leathery, shiny, thick, oblong to elliptic-oblong,tapered at both ends, glossy, and 10–30 cm (3.9–12 in) long and borne on rather short stalks. Flowers are dioecious, occurring singly in the axils of leaves and measuring from 1 to 1.5 cm long. Calyx is greenish, with broad truncate lobes. Corolla is tubular, lobed and white. Fruits is large, smooth, green, rounded, 9 to 12 cm in diameter, more or less depressed at its apex, enveloped at its base by a persistent calyx. The flesh of the fruit is yellowish, turning nearly black at maturity. Seeds are usually four and about 2 cm long.
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Fruit are tomato-like  with an inedible skin that turns from olive to a deep yellow-green when ripe and an edible pulp that turns from white when unripe to a flavor, color and texture often likened to chocolate pudding when ripe....click & see

Cultivation:

The black sapote is usually grown from seeds, which remain viable for several months in dry storage and germinate in about 30 days after planting in flats. Vegetative propagation is not commonly practiced but the tree has been successfully air-layered and also shield-budded using mature scions.

Black sapote trees are vigorous growers.  These should be spaced 10-12 m apart.  This fruit is a heavy bearer and can bear sizeable crops with very less attention.

The fruit turns a duller colour when ripe and the persistent calyx at the base, which is pressed against the developing fruit, becomes reflexed. At this stage the fruits are still firm. They soften 3-14 days after harvesting, and must be distributed beforehand because soft ripe fruits are difficult to handle.

Individual fruits ripen suddenly and unpredictably within 24 hours. Harvested fruits can be stored for several months at 10 deg. C. When removed from cold storage and placed at tropical room temperature (about 29 deg. C), they will soften within 48 hours.

Black persimmon is a good source of vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus.  It is hardy tree requiring very less care..  It is also heavy bearer.  So  it has a potential for being developed as a new commercial fruit crop.


Edible Uses:

The fruits are eaten when fully ripe and soft. The pulp, which is contained within a thin skin, is soft, sweet, smooth and pale brown in colour. When scooped out and stirred, the colour changes to chocolate brown.

Apart from being eaten fresh, the pulp may be made into a drink by blending with citrus, vanilla, or other flavours. It is also used in ice-cream, cakes and liqueurs.

In the Philippines, fruit is eaten in milk, cooked in pies (with lemon to counteract its mawkishness), or made into ice-cream.

The unripe fruits are inedible, caustic and bitter. These have also been used as fish poison in Philippines and the West Indies.

The wood is yellowish to deep-yellow with black markings near the heart of old trunks; it is compact and suitable for cabinetwork, but is little used.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used :Fruit, bark, leaves.

Folkloric

*In the Philippines, pounded bark and leaves are used as blistering plaster.
*In Yucatan, decoction of leaves used for fevers.
*Used as remedy for leprosy, ringworm and for itching.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Sapote.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diospyros_digyna
http://www.fruitipedia.com/black_sapote%20Diospuros%20digina.htm

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier alnifolia

Botanical Name : Amelanchier alnifolia
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Species: A. alnifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Synonyms Aronia alnifoliaNutt.
Common names: Western Service Berry, Shadbush and Saskatoon Serviceberry.

Other Names:Saskatoon, Saskatoon berry, serviceberry, sarvisberry or Juneberry

Habitat: Western and Central N. America – Saskatchewan and south to Colorado and Idaho. Thickets, woodland edges and banks of streams in moist well-drained soils. It grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 metres (8,530 ft) altitude in California and 3,400 metres (11,200 ft) in the Rocky MountainsSmall bushy forms grow on fairly dry hillsides .

Description:
It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that can grow to 1–8 m (rarely to 10 m) in height. Its growth form spans from suckering and forming colonies to clumped. The leaves are oval to nearly circular, 2–5 cm long and 1–4.5 cm broad, with margins dentate mostly above the middle and a 0.5–2 cm petiole. The flowers are white, about 2–3 cm across; they appear on racemes of 3–20 together in early spring while the new leaves are still expanding. The fruit is a small purple pome 5–15 mm diameter, ripening in early summer.

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There are three varieties:
1.Amelanchier alnifolia var. alnifolia. Northeastern part of the species’ range.
2.Amelanchier alnifolia var. pumila (Nutt.) A.Nelson. Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada.
3.Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintergrifolia (Hook.) C.L.Hitchc. Pacific coastal regions, Alaska to northwestern California

It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from June to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Plants are fairly lime tolerant, they also grow well in heavy clay soils. Hardy to about -20°c according to one report , whilst another suggests that this species is hardy to about -50°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. This species is particularly interesting because it is quite compact and produces an excellent quality quite large fruit. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A very variable species, ranging from a thicket-forming shrub to a small tree in the wild. It is occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are several named varieties. A stoloniferous species, spreading by suckers to form a thicket. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Tea.

Edible fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit ripens in mid summer (early July in southern Britain), it is soft and juicy with a few small seeds in the centre. A very nice sweet flavour that is enjoyed by almost everyone who tries it, there is a hint of apple in the taste. About the size of a blackcurrant, the fruit is produced in small clusters and the best wild forms can be 15mm in diameter. The fruit can also be dried and used as raisins or made into pemmican. The fruit is rich in iron and copper. The leaves are a tea substitute.

Saskatoon berries contain significant Daily Value amounts of total dietary fibre, vitamins B2 (riboflavin) and biotin, and the essential minerals, iron and manganese, a nutrient profile similar to the content of blueberries.

Notable for polyphenol antioxidants also similar in composition to blueberries, saskatoons have total phenolics of 452 mg per 100 g (average of Smoky and Northline cultivars), flavonols (61 mg) and anthocyanins (178 mg), although others have found the phenolic values to be either lower in the Smoky cultivar  or higher. Quercetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin were polyphenols present in saskatoon berries.

Particularly for saskatoon phenolics, inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase enzymes involved in mechanisms of inflammation and pain have been demonstrated in vitro.

Medicinal Action &  Uses
Appetizer; Birthing aid; Contraceptive; Diaphoretic; Febrifuge; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Stomachic.

Saskatoon was quite widely employed as a medicinal herb by the North American Indians, who used it to treat a wide range of minor complaints. It is little used in modern herbalism. An infusion of the inner bark is used as a treatment for snow-blindness. A decoction of the fruit juice is mildly laxative. It has been used in the treatment of upset stomachs, to restore the appetite in children, it is also applied externally as ear and eye drops. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of colds. It has also been used as a treatment for too frequent menstruation. A decoction of the stems, combined with the stems of snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp) is diaphoretic. It has been used to induce sweating in the treatment of fevers, flu etc and also in the treatment of chest pains and lung infections. A decoction of the plant, together with bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata) has been used as a contraceptive. Other recipes involving this plant have also been used as contraceptives including a decoction of the ashes of the plant combined with the ashes of pine branches or buds. A strong decoction of the bark was taken immediately after childbirth to hasten the dropping of the placenta. It was said to help clean out and help heal the woman’s insides and also to stop her menstrual periods after the birth, thus acting as a form of birth control.

Other Uses
Shelterbelt; Soil stabilization.

Plants have a spreading, suckering root system and are used in windbreaks for erosion control. Young branches can be twisted to make a rope. Wood – hard, straight grained, tough. Used for tool handles etc. The wood can be made even harder by heating it over a fire and it is easily moulded whilst still hot. The young stems are used to make rims, handles and as a stiffening in basket making.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Amelanchier+alnifolia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_alnifolia

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aegle Marmelos (Bilva or Bel)

Bael Aegle marmelos at Narendrapur near Kolkat...
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Botanical Name : Aegle marmelos
Family Name: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
vernacular Name:
: Sans: Bilva; Hind: Bel;; Eng- Bael tree.
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Tribe: Clauseneae
Genus: Aegle

Habitat:The Bilva tree grows in almost all parts of India, southern Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand.

Description:Tall and austere, with a stern aspect, gnarled trunk and sharp thorns, the Bilva is undoubtedly Lord Shiva’s tree.The fruit shell is heard, when ripen the shell becomes heard like wood so, it’s other name is also wood apple. The tree is 15 to 20 feet tall and bears lot of fruits. The tree is more or less evergreen  in all the seasons.In most of Hindu festive the leaves are used  and considered  sacred.

You may click to see the picture

As per Ayurveda, it is madhura, palatable, kashaya; pacifies deranged pitta; guru; be deranged kapha, fever, diarrhoea, appetizing and gastric stimulant. used for the restoration of normal functions of deranged tridosha: laghu, efficacious in rheumatism.

click to see the pictures.……….....(1)..…...(2).…….(3)
Fruit (unripe) is snigdha, guru, astrgastric stimulant. Ripe fruit is madhura, palatable, guru, katu-tikta ushna, astringent and used in the treatment of deranged tridosha.

Parts Used: Fruits, seeds, leaves, bark and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: (ripe) alterative, cooling, laxative and nutritive; useful in habitual constipation, chronic dysentery and dyspepsia; tonic; (unripe) antidiarrhoeal, astringent, demulcent, digestive and stomachic;

Seeds: laxative;

Flowers: antidiarrhoeal and antiemetic; leaves: expectorant, febrifuge; fresh ones used in dropsy; efficacious in bronchial asthma;

Bark (stem and root): beneficial in intermittent fever, melancholia and palpitation of heart; root: one of the ingredients of Dashamula, a common Ayurvedic formulation, particularly useful in loss of appetite and puerperal diseases

The root is sweet; cures fevers due to “tridosha “, pain in the abdomen, palpitations of the heart, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes” vata “, “pitta “, and” kapha”.

The leaves are astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; remove vata ” and” kapha “; useful in ophthalmia, deafness, and inflammations.-

You may click to see the research on antibiotic and anti-cancer drugs

The flowers allay thirst and vomiting; useful in dysentery.

The unripe fruit is oily, bitter, acrid, sour; tasty, but difficult to digest ;appetiser, binding; cures dysentery; removes pain.-

The oil is hot and cures” vata “.

The ripe fruit is acrid, bitter, sweet; appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness. and “tridosha”; removes” vata ” and” kapha”; good for the heart .

The ripe fruit is hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxa.tive; good for the heart and the brain; bad for the liver and the chest

The ‘unripe fruit is cut up and sun-dried, and in this form is sold in the markets  in dried whole or broken slices.It is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is prescribed in diarrhoea and dysentery, often proving effectual in chronic cases, after all other medicines have failed. It seems especially usefull in chronic diarrhoea; ‘a simple change of the hours of meals and an. alteration in the ordinary diet, combined “,with bael fruit, will almost universally succeed.

The small unripe fruit is given with funnel seeds and ginger, in decoction, for piles.

The ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling; and, made into a morning sherbet, cooled with ice, is pleasantly laxative and a good simple cure for dyspepsia.

The dried ripe pulp is astringent and used in dysentery.

The root bark is sometimes made into a decoction and used in the cure of intermittent fever. It .constitutes an ingredient. in the dasamol of ten roots. used in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation of the heart.”

The leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia, and the fresh juice diluted is praised in catarrhs and feverishness.

The fresh juice of the leaves is given, with the addition of b1ack pepper, in anasarca, with costiveness and jaundice. In external inflammations, the juice of the leaves is given internally to remove the supposed derangement of humours.

The expressed juice of the leaves is used in ophthalmia and other eye affections. decoction of the leaves is valued in asthmatic complaints. A hot poultice to the head is used in delirium of fevers.
A water, distilled from the flowers, is said to be aledipharmic.
A decoction of the root of Aegle Marmelos is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhrea and gastric irritability in infants.

Medicinal uses:
It is astringent, cooling, carminative, laxative, restorative, febrifuge and stomachic and is used in colitis, dysentery, diarrhoea, flatulence, difficulty in micturition, fever, vomiting and colic. The tender fruit is bitter, astringent, antilaxative, digestive and promotes digestion and strength, overcomes vata, colics and diarrhea.

Home remedies:
*Juice of mature fruit of Bilva, is so effective in the bowel disturbances like recurrent constipation.
*Pulp of unripe fruit of Bilva is so effective in the diarrhea, dysentery, and sprue.
*Powder of dry pulp of this unripe fruit is also effective in loose motions.
*In chronic dysenteric conditions, accompanied by loose stools alternating with occasional constipation, the ripe fruit is *widely used in different formulations

Click to learn more about Bilva ….(1) ….. (2) …..(3)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.chakrapaniayurveda.com/bilva.html
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#bhallataka
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bael