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Ailmemts & Remedies

Milia

Alternative Names: milk spots or an oil seeds

Definition:
Milia are small, white (or sometimes pale yellow) spots that usually appear around the eyes, on the cheeks and on the eyelids. They’re a type of cyst filled with a substance called keratin, a protein that provides strength to the skin..click & see

Milia are keratin-filled cyst that can appear just under the epidermis or on the roof of the mouth. Milia are commonly associated with newborn babies but can appear on people of all ages. They are usually found around the nose and eyes, and sometimes on the genitalia, often mistaken by those affected as warts or other STDs. Milia can also be confused with stubborn whiteheads.

In children milia often disappear within two to four weeks. In adults they may require removal by a physician or an esthetician.

Symptoms:
Milia are most commonly seen on a baby’s nose, chin or cheeks, though they may also occur in other areas, such as on the upper trunk and limbs.

Sometimes similar bumps appear on a baby’s gums or the roof of the mouth. These are known as Epstein pearls. Some babies also develop baby acne, often characterized by small red bumps and pustules on the cheeks, chin and forehead.

Causes:
No one really understands why they appear or why some people get them while others don’t. They don’t appear to be related to different lifestyles or diets and are certainly not infectious or caused by poor hygiene.

Diagnosis: The doctor can usually diagnose milia just by examining the skin. No specific testing is needed.

Treatment:
Milia typically disappear on their own within several weeks, and no medical treatment is recommended.

The following may help to get rid of milia:

•Hold a hot, wet face cloth over the skin for a few minutes – the temperature should feel comfortable, not painful. This simple facial sauna helps to loosen and remove dead skin cells and debris from the skin.

•Use an exfoliating facial scrub to remove the top layer of skin, which can enable the cysts to fall out. These scrubs are available from the pharmacist and are the kind of facial wash used for treating mild acne. Those containing salicylic acid work well, but always read the label or ask the pharmacist to make sure the one you select is suitable for you.

A qualified beautician may also be able to recommend possible  help.

Most importantly, resist the temptation to pick at them. This will hurt, damage and possibly scar the skin, and may introduce a nasty infection.
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Lifestyle & Homeremedies:
You may try these tips to help your baby’s skin look its best:

*Keep your baby’s face clean. Wash your baby’s face with warm water daily.

*Dry your baby’s face gently.Simply pat your baby’s skin dry.

*Avoid any other type of treatment. Don’t pinch or scrub the tiny bumps, and don’t use any type of lotions, oils or medicated creams on your baby’s skin.

Prognosis:
In babies & children, milia usually disappear after the first several weeks of life without treatment and without any lasting effects.

In adults, milia removal can usually be done without scarring.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/milia/DS01059
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001367.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/milia.shtml

http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/picture-of-white-bumps-milia

http://www.bion-research.com/whiteheads_(milia).htm
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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Rosacea

Definition:
Rosacea has been defined as a persistent redness of the central part of the face lasting for at least three months, and often including features such as flushing, red lumps and pustules, and small dilated blood vessels. Exactly which symptoms develop defines which particular subtype of rosacea is present.

It primarily affects Caucasians of mainly northwestern European descent and has been nicknamed the ‘curse of the Celts’ by some in Britain and Ireland, but can also affect people of other ethnicities. Rosacea affects both sexes, but is almost three times more common in women. It has a peak age of onset between 30 and 60.

Rosacea typically begins as redness on the central face across the cheeks, nose, or forehead, but can also less commonly affect the neck, chest, ears, and scalp. In some cases, additional symptoms, such as semi-permanent redness, telangiectasia (dilation of superficial blood vessels on the face), red domed papules (small bumps) and pustules, red gritty eyes, burning and stinging sensations, and in some advanced cases, a red lobulated nose (rhinophyma), may develop.

Clasifications:
There are four identified rosacea subtypes  and patients may have more than one subtype present :176:

1.Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: Permanent redness (erythema) with a tendency to flush and blush easily. It is also common to have small blood vessels visible near the surface of the skin (telangiectasias) and possibly burning or itching sensations.

2.Papulopustular rosacea: Some permanent redness with red bumps (papules) with some pus filled (pustules) (which typically last 1–4 days); this subtype can be easily confused with acne.

3.Phymatous rosacea: This subtype is most commonly associated with rhinophyma, an enlargement of the nose. Symptoms include thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement. Phymatous rosacea can also affect the chin (gnathophyma), forehead (metophyma), cheeks, eyelids (blepharophyma), and ears (otophyma).   Small blood vessels visible near the surface of the skin (telangiectasias) may be present.

4.Ocular rosacea: Red, dry and irritated eyes and eyelids. Some other symptoms include foreign body sensations, itching and burning.
There are a number of variants of rosacea including:689

*Rosacea conglobata…....click & see
*Rosacea fulminans…...click & see
*Phymas in rosacea…….click & see

Symptoms:
Signs and symptoms of rosacea i.nclude:

*Red areas on your face

*Small, red bumps or pustules on your nose, cheeks, forehead and chin (but not the same as whiteheads or blackheads)

*Red, bulbous nose (rhinophyma)

*Visible small blood vessels on your nose and cheeks (telangiectasia)

*Burning or gritty sensation in your eyes (ocular rosacea)

*Tendency to flush or blush easily
click to see the pictures.>….(01).….(1)…..…(2).…...(3)....(4)…...(5)
Rosacea usually appears in phases:

*Pre-rosacea. Rosacea may begin as a simple tendency to flush or blush easily, and then progress to a persistent redness in the central portion of your face, particularly your nose. This redness results from the dilation of blood vessels close to your skin’s surface. This phase may sometimes be referred to as pre-rosacea.Vascular rosacea. As signs and symptoms worsen, vascular rosacea may develop — small blood vessels on your nose and cheeks swell and become visible (telangiectasia). Your skin may become overly sensitive.

* Vascular rosacea may also be accompanied by oily skin and dandruff.

*Inflammatory rosacea. Small, red bumps or pustules may appear and persist, spreading across your nose, cheeks, forehead and chin. This is sometimes known as inflammatory rosacea.

In addition, about 1 in 2 people with rosacea also experience ocular rosacea — a burning and gritty sensation in the eyes. Rosacea may cause the inner skin of the eyelids to become inflamed or appear scaly, a condition known as conjunctivitis.

Late in the course of rosacea, some people, mainly middle-aged men, may develop red, round, raised bumps (papules) and a bulbous nose, a condition known as rhinophyma.

Causes:
Although the cause isn’t known, a number of factors which may play a part have been identified.
CauseTriggers that cause episodes of flushing and blushing play a part in the development of rosacea. Exposure to temperature extremes can cause the face to become flushed as well as strenuous exercise, heat from sunlight, severe sunburn, stress, anxiety, cold wind, and moving to a warm or hot environment from a cold one such as heated shops and offices during the winter. There are also some food and drinks that can trigger flushing, including alcohol, food and beverages containing caffeine (especially, hot tea and coffee), foods high in histamines and spicy food. Foods high in histamine (red wine, aged cheeses, yogurt, beer, cured pork products such as bacon, etc.) can even cause persistent facial flushing in those individuals without rosacea due to a separate condition, histamine intolerance.

Certain medications and topical irritants can quickly trigger rosacea. Some acne and wrinkle treatments that have been reported to cause rosacea include microdermabrasion and chemical peels, as well as high dosages of isotretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin. Steroid induced rosacea is the term given to rosacea caused by the use of topical or nasal steroids. These steroids are often prescribed for seborrheic dermatitis. Dosage should be slowly decreased and not immediately stopped to avoid a flare up.

A survey by the National Rosacea Society of 1,066 rosacea patients showed which factors affect the most people:

*Sun exposure 81%
*Emotional stress 79%
*Hot weather 75%
*Wind 57%
*Heavy exercise 56%
*Alcohol consumption 52%
*Hot baths 51%
*Cold weather 46%
*Spicy foods 45%
*Humidity 44%
*Indoor heat 41%
*Certain skin-care products 41%
*Heated beverages 36%
*Certain cosmetics 27%
*Medications (specifically stimulants) 15%
*Medical conditions 15%
*Certain fruits 13%
*Marinated meats 10%
*Certain vegetables 9%
*Dairy products 8%

Cathelicidins
Richard L. Gallo and colleagues recently noticed that patients with rosacea had elevated levels of the peptide cathelicidin   and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Antibiotics have been used in the past to treat rosacea but they may only work because they inhibit some SCTEs.

Intestinal bacteria
Intestinal bacteria may play a role in causing the disease. A recent study subjected patients to a hydrogen breath test to detect the occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). It was found that significantly more patients were hydrogen-positive than controls indicating the presence of bacterial overgrowth (47% v. 5%, p<0.001).

Hydrogen-positive patients were then given a 10-day course of rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic that does not leave the digestive tract and therefore does not enter the circulation or reach the skin. 96% of patients experienced a complete remission of rosacea symptoms that lasted beyond 9 months. These patients were also negative when retested for bacterial overgrowth. In the 4% of patients that experienced relapse, it was found that bacterial overgrowth had returned. These patients were given a second course of rifaximin which again cleared rosacea symptoms and normalized hydrogen excretion.

In another study, it was found that some rosacea patients that tested hydrogen-negative were still positive for bacterial overgrowth when using a methane breath test instead. These patients showed little improvement with rifaximin, as found in the previous study, but experienced clearance of rosacea symptoms and normalization of methane excretion following administration of the antibiotic metronidazole, which is effective at targeting methanogenic intestinal bacteria.

These results suggest that optimal antibiotic therapy may vary between patients and that diverse species of intestinal bacteria appear to be capable of mediating rosacea symptoms.

This may also explain the improvement in symptoms experienced by some patients when given a reduced carbohydrate diet.  Such a diet would restrict the available material necessary for bacterial fermentation and thereby reduce intestinal bacterial populations.

Demodex mites:
Studies of rosacea and demodex mites have revealed that some people with Rosacea have increased numbers of the mite, especially those with steroid induced rosacea.  When large numbers are present they may play a role along with other triggers. On other occasions demodicidosis (mange) is a separate condition that may have “rosacea-like” appearances.
Risk Factors:
Although anyone can develop rosacea, you may be more likely to develop rosacea if you:

*Have fair skin and light hair and eye color
*Are between the ages of 30 and 60, especially if you’re going through menopause
*Experience frequent flushing or blushing
*Have a family history of rosacea

Complications:
In severe and rare cases, the oil glands (sebaceous glands) in your nose and sometimes your cheeks become enlarged, resulting in a buildup of tissue on and around your nose — a condition called rhinophyma (ri-no-FI-muh). This complication is much more common in men and develops slowly over a period of years.

Diagnosis:
Most people with rosacea have only mild redness and are never formally diagnosed or treated. There is no single, specific test for rosacea.

In many cases, simple visual inspection by a trained person is sufficient for diagnosis. In other cases, particularly when pimples or redness on less-common parts of the face are present, a trial of common treatments is useful for confirming a suspected diagnosis.

The disorder can be confused with, and co-exist with acne vulgaris and/or seborrhoeic dermatitis. The presence of rash on the scalp or ears suggests a different or co-existing diagnosis as rosacea is primarily a facial diagnosis, although it may occasionally appear in these other areas.

Treatments:
Treating rosacea varies depending on severity and subtypes. A subtype-directed approach to treating rosacea patients is recommended to dermatologists.  Mild cases are often not treated at all, or are simply covered up with normal cosmetics. Therapy for the treatment of rosacea is not curative, and is best measured in terms of reduction in the amount of erythema and inflammatory lesions, decrease in the number, duration, and intensity of flares, and concomitant symptoms of itching, burning, and tenderness. The two primary modalities of rosacea treatment are topical and oral antibiotic agents.   While medications often produce a temporary remission of redness within a few weeks, the redness typically returns shortly after treatment is suspended. Long-term treatment, usually one to two years, may result in permanent control of the condition for some patients.  Lifelong treatment is often necessary, although some cases resolve after a while and go into a permanent remission.

Behaviour
Trigger avoidance can help reduce the onset of rosacea but alone will not normally cause remission for all but mild cases. It is sometimes recommended that a journal be kept to help identify and reduce food and beverage triggers..

Because sunlight is a common trigger, avoiding excessive exposure to sun is widely recommended. Some people with rosacea benefit from daily use of a sunscreen; others opt for wearing hats with broad brims.

People who develop infections of the eyelids must practice frequent eyelid hygiene. Daily, gentle cleansing of the eyelids with diluted baby shampoo or an over-the-counter eyelid cleaner and applying warm (but not hot) compresses several times a day is recommended.

A recent publication discusses how managing pre-trigger events such as prolonged exposure to cool environments can directly influence warm room flushing.

Medications:
Oral tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline) and topical antibiotics such as metronidazole are usually the first line of defense prescribed by doctors to relieve papules, pustules, inflammation and some redness.  Topical azelaic acid such as Finacea (15%) or Skinoren (20%) may help reduce inflammatory lesions, bumps and papules. Using alpha-hydroxy acid peels may help relieve redness caused by irritation, and reduce papules and pustules associated with rosacea.  Oral antibiotics may help to relieve symptoms of ocular rosacea. If papules and pustules persist, then sometimes isotretinoin can be prescribed.  Isotretinoin has many side effects and is normally used to treat severe acne but in low dosages is proven to be effective against papulopustular and phymatous rosacea.

The treatment of flushing and blushing has been attempted by means of the centrally acting ?-2 agonist clonidine, but this is of limited benefit on just this one aspect of the disorder.  The same is true of the beta-blockers nadolol and propranolol. If flushing occurs with red wine consumption, then complete avoidance helps. There is no evidence at all that antihistamines are of any benefit in rosacea. However: people with underlying allergies and who respond strongly to foods that are high in histamine or that release a lot of histamine in the body do find sometimes that their flushing symptoms diminish with oral antihistamines (for instance loratadine). Another medication that can help some people with facial flushing and burning is mirtazapine (remeron).

Recently, a clinically-trialled product range combining plant-sourced methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and silymarin has been used to treat rosacea, skin redness and flushing.

Laser:
Dermatological vascular laser (single wavelength) or intense pulsed light (broad spectrum) machines offer one of the best treatments for rosacea, in particular the erythema (redness) of the skin.   They use light to penetrate the epidermis to target the capillaries in the dermis layer of the skin. The light is absorbed by oxy-hemoglobin which heat up causing the capillary walls to heat up to 70 °C (158 °F) , damaging them, causing them to be absorbed by the body’s natural defense mechanism. With a sufficient number of treatments, this method may even eliminate the redness altogether, though additional periodic treatments will likely be necessary to remove newly-formed capillaries.

CO2 lasers can be used to remove excess tissue caused by phymatous rosacea. CO2 lasers emit a wavelength that is absorbed directly by the skin. The laser beam can be focused into a thin beam and used as a scalpel or defocused and used to vaporise tissue. Low level light therapies have also been used to treat rosacea. Photorejuvenation can also be used to improve the appearance of rosacea and reduce the redness associated with it
Lifestyle & Homeremedies:
One of the most important things you can do if you have rosacea is to minimize your exposure to anything that causes a flare-up. Find out what factors affect you so that you can avoid them. Keep a list of things that trigger your flare-ups, and try to avoid your triggers.

Here are other suggestions for preventing flare-ups:

*Wear broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher to protect your face from the sun.

*Protect your face in the winter with a scarf or ski mask.

*Avoid irritating your facial skin by rubbing or touching it too much.

*Wash problem areas with a gentle cleanser (Dove, Cetaphil).

*Avoid facial products that contain alcohol or other skin irritants.

*When using moisturizer and a topical medication, apply the moisturizer after the medication has dried.

*Use products that are labeled noncomedogenic. These won’t clog your oil and sweat gland openings (pores) as much.

*Avoid overheating.

*If you wear makeup, consider using green- or yellow-tinted pre-foundation creams and powders, because they’re designed to counter skin redness.

*Avoid drinking alcohol.

Alternative medicine:

Many alternative therapies — including colloidal silver, emu oil, laurelwood, oregano oil and vitamin K — have been touted as possible ways to treat rosacea. However, there’s no conclusive evidence that any of these alternative therapies are effective.

If you’re considering dietary supplements or other alternative therapies to treat rosacea, consult your doctor. He or she can help you weigh the pros and cons of specific alternative therapies.
Prognosis:
Rosacea tends to wax and wane over time but eventually, with the use of treatment, most people reach a fairly stable state of relative control of their condition.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/rosacea/DS00308
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/rosacea1.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosacea
http://www.rosacea.org/patients/allaboutrosacea.php
http://wegoodinfo.com/rosacea-symptoms/

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Blepharitis

Other Names: Granulated eyelids.

Definition:
Blepharitis is a common condition that causes inflammation of the eyelids. The condition can be difficult to manage because it tends to recur.It is characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margins. Blepharitis usually causes redness of the eyes and itching and irritation of the eyelids in both eyes. Its appearance is often confused with conjunctivitis and due to its recurring nature it is the most common cause of “recurrent conjunctivitis” in older people. It is also often treated as ‘dry eye‘ by patients due to the gritty sensation it may give the eyes – although lubricating drops do little to improve the condition.

CLICK & SEE

Causes:-

There are two types of Bepharitis:
1.Anterior blepharitis affects the front of the eyelids near the eyelashes. The causes are seborrheic dermatitis (similar to dandruff) and occasional infection by Staphylococcus bacteria and scalp dandruff.

It is a type of external eye inflammation. As with dandruff, it is usually asymptomatic until the disease progresses. As it progresses, the sufferer begins to notice a foreign body sensation, matting of the lashes, and burning. Usually, the primary care physician will prescribe topical antibiotics for staphylococcal blepharitis. Unfortunately this is not an effective treatment.This ailment can sometimes lead to a chalazion or a stye.
2.Posterior blepharitis or Rosacea associated blepharitisaffects the back of the eyelids, the part that makes contact with the eyes. This is caused by the oil glands present in this region. It is by far, the most common type of blepharitis.

Posterior blepharitis affects the inner eyelid (the moist part that makes contact with the eye) and is caused by problems with the oil (meibomian) glands in this part of the eyelid. Two skin disorders can cause this form of blepharitis: acne rosacea, which leads to red and inflamed skin, and scalp dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis).It is the most common type of blepharitis, is usually one part of the spectrum of seborrheic dermatitis seborrhea which involves the scalp, lashes, eyebrows, nasolabial folds and ears. Treatment is best accomplished by a dermatologist.

This most common type of blepharitis is often found in people with a rosacea skin type. The oil glands in the lid (meibomian glands) secrete a modified oil which leads to inflammation at the gland openings which are found at the edge of the lid.

Symptoms:
Symptoms of either form of blepharitis include a foreign body or burning sensation, excessive tearing, itching, sensitivity to light (photophobia), red and swollen eyelids, redness of the eye, blurred vision, frothy tears, dry eye, or crusting of the eyelashes on awakening.

Other conditions associated with blepharitis:

Complications from blepharitis include:

Stye: A red tender bump on the eyelid that is caused by an acute infection of the oil glands of the eyelid.

Chalazion: This condition can follow the development of a stye. It is a usually painless firm lump caused by inflammation of the oil glands of the eyelid. Chalazion can be painful and red if there is also an infection.

Problems with the tear film: Abnormal or decreased oil secretions that are part of the tear film can result in excess tearing or dry eye. Because tears are necessary to keep the cornea healthy, tear film problems can make people more at risk for corneal infections.

Treatment and management:
The single most important treatment principle is a daily routine of lid margin hygiene as described below. Such a routine needs to be convenient enough to be continued lifelong to avoid relapses as blepharitis is a lifelong condition.

A typical lid margin hygiene routine consists of 3 steps:
1. Softening of lid margin debris and oils:
Apply a warm wet compress to the lids – such as a washcloth with hot water – for about 2 minutes.

2. Mechanical removal of lid margin debris:
At end of shower routine, wash your face with a wash cloth. Use facial soap or non-burning baby shampoo (make sure to dilute the soap solution 1/10 with water first). Gently and repeatedly rub along the lid margins while eyes are closed.

3. Antibiotic reduction of lid margin bacteria (at the discretion of your physician):
After lid margin cleaning, spread small amount of prescription antibiotic ophthalmic ointment with finger tip along lid fissure while eyes closed. Use prior to bed time as opposed to in the morning to avoid blurry vision.

The following guide is very common but is more challenging to perform by visually disabled or frail patients as it requires good motor skills and a mirror. Compared to above it does not bear any advantages:

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1. Apply hot compresses to both eyes for 5 minutes once to twice per day.

2. After hot compresses, in front of a mirror, use a moist Q-tip soaked in a cup of water with a drop of baby shampoo. Rub along the lid margins while tilting the lid outward with the other hand.

3. In front of mirror, place small drop of antibiotic ophthalmic ointment (e.g. erythromycin) in lower conjunctival sack while pulling lid away from eye with other hand.

Often the above is advised together with mild massage to mechanically empty glands located at the lid margin (Meibomian glands, Zeiss glands, Moll glands).

Depending on the degree of inflammation of the lid margin, a combination of topical antibiotic and steroid drops or ointments can be prescribed to provide instant relief. However, this harbors significant risks such as increased intraocular pressure and posterior subcapsular cataract formation. Since cataract formation is irreversible and even intraocular hypertension might be (harboring the risk of glaucoma with permanent visual loss), both need to be checked for monthly. Steroid-induced cataracts and ocular hypertension can affect all ages.

If acne rosacea coexists, treatment should be focused on this skin disorder as the underlying cause together with the above lid margin hygiene routine. Typically, 100 mg doxycycline by mouth twice per day is prescribed for four to six weeks which can be tapered to 50 mg once daily for several years. Some physicians use a lower starting dose. Patients are instructed to continue use for at least two months before symptoms improve significantly. Contrary to common belief, use of tetracycline-type antibiotics is not primarily to treat bacterial infection but rather to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases resulting in thinning of oil gland secretions and change of the characteristic prominent capillary pattern.

Dermatologists treat blepharitis similarly to seborrheic dermatitis by using safe topical anti-inflammatory medication like sulfacetamide or brief courses of a mild topical steroid. Although anti-fungals like ketoconazole (Nizoral) are commonly prescribed for seborrheic dermatitis, dermatologists and optometrists usually do not prescribe anti-fungals for seborrheic blepharitis.

4. Ocular Antihistamines and allergy treatments:
If these conventional treatments for blepharitis do not bring relief, patients should consider allergy testing. Allergic responses to dust mite feces and other allergens can cause lid inflammation, ocular irritation, and dry eyes. Prescription optical antihistamines like Patanol, Optivar, Elestat, and over the counter optical antihistamines like Zaditor are very safe and can bring almost immediate relief to patients whose lid inflammation is caused by allergies.

Click to learn more about Belpharitis:->.……………………………..(1)...(2)...(3)

Herbal Remedies of Bepharitis

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blepharitis
http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/blepharitis/index.asp

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