Categories
Herbs & Plants

Palicourea densiflora

[amazon_link asins=’B076P869RC,B01EVOKITS,B075S1JM73,8476455364,B005TARDK6,B06Y4L1NDP,B0068TSJU0,B00DJUIBG8,B076WM77HZ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’1f6f10a3-f2ee-11e7-938b-1b9cda60a17d’]

Botanical Name: Palicourea densiflora
Family :   Lauracea /Rubiaceae
Genus :   Charpentiera
Kingdom :   Plantae
Phylum:    Tracheophyta
Class :   Magnoliopsida
Order :    Rubiales

syn:  Aniba coto, Colladonia, Novatilia, Oribasia, Rhodostoma, Stephanium

Common Name :Coto (in Brazil sometimes it is called Coto-cota)
A bark bearing this name came into the London drug market about 1893. The bark of a rubiaceous plant (Palicourea densiflors), known as Coto, is employed in Brazil for rheumatism, but it is not known if this is the true Bolivian plant; the outer surface is irregular, of a cinnamon brown colour. It is sold in pieces of 4 to 6 inches long, 3 inches wide and about 1 inch thick, and is sometimes covered with an adherent corry surface, free from lichens. The inner cross-sections of the bark are covered with yellowish spots, the odour is aromatic and much stronger if bruised, taste hot and biting; in powdered form the smell is very pungent. This description conforms with the barks sold in the American markets, but other barks are used under the same name, the chief being Paracote bark; this has an agreeable spicy taste, but is not so strong-smelling or tasting, and has deep white furrows on the surface.

Habitat :Palicourea densiflora is native to Bolivia.(The bark known as Coto bark is exported from the interior of Bolivia, but the tree from which it is derived is unknown.)

Description:
Coto bark reaches us in pieces of from 4 to 12 inches in length, 2 to 4 inches in width, and from 1/2 to 3/4 inch in thickness; the outer or corky portion is about 1/16 of an inch in thickness, dark-brown internally, rusty upon the inner surface, and externally grayish-brown or blotched with spots of white. The surface is somewhat rough. Beneath the thin cork it is of a dark-cinnamon color; fibrous upon its inner surface and intermixed with some granular matter; but, toward the outer part the granular matter increases in proportion until the reverse is true. Its fracture presents very numerous points of a golden yellow. The odor of the bark is aromatic, especially when freshly broken, reminding one of mace or of a mixture of mace and cinnamon. The taste is intermediate between that of mace and allspice, finally becoming acrid and biting. The dust is irritating when inhaled.

CLICK & SEE

CLICK TO SEE

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used:  The bark.

Chemical Constituents: Coto bark contains a volatile alkaloid, a pungent aromatic volatile oil, a light brown soft resin, and a hard brown resin, starch, gum, sugar, tannin, Cal. Oxalate and three acids, acetic, butyric and formic.

Coto bark is antiseptic and astringent. It is irritating to the skin applied externally. If taken internally it gives constant violent pain and vomiting. Its chief use is in diarrhoea, but it has a tendency to produce inflammation, so must be used with great caution, it is said to lessen peristaltic action. Paracota bark resembles it in action, but is much less powerful. In Japan, paracota bark has been successfully employed for cholera by hypodermic injection of 3 grains of paracotoin. The value of cotoin in diarrhcea is established, and it is also used for catarrhal diarrhoea and for diarrhcea in tubercular ulceration of typhoid fever. Has also a specific action on the alimentary canal, dilating the abdominal vessels and hastening absorption.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/coto-108.html
http://www.plantsystematics.org/cgi-bin/dol/dol_terminal.pl?genus=Palicourea
http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/coto.html

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Mitchella repens

[amazon_link asins=’B0171GJ14Q,B01M64P7KD,B00Z8ANNKG,B00MBM9592,B0014AUK1E,B01M3YC1R2,B00J1LZAHM,B000H4LE3G,B00WQ7E3QM’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’bba8d978-44f9-11e7-acad-d74a9021ec58′]

Botanical Name :Mitchella repens
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Mitchella
Species: M. repens
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Name :Mitchella repens , Partridge Berry, or Squaw Vine.  The species is dispersed throughout eastern North America, from south Eastern Canada south to Florida and Texas, and to Guatemala. It is found growing in dry or moist woods, along stream banks and on sandy slopes.

Habitat :Mitchella repens is occurring in North America and Japan, and belonging to the madder family (Rubiaceae).

Description:
Partridge Berry is an evergreen plant growing as a non-climbing vine, no taller than 6 cm tall with creeping stems 15 to 30 cm long. The evergreen, dark green, shiny leaves are ovate to cordate in shape. The leaves have a pale yellow midrib. The petioles are short, and the leaves are paired oppositely on the stems. Adventitious roots may grow at the nodes; and rooting stems may branch and root repeatedly, producing loose spreading mats.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES.
The small, trumpet-shaped, axillary flowers are produced in pairs, and each flower pair arises from one common calyx which is covered with fine hairs. Each flower has four white petals, one pistil, and four stamens. Partridge Berry is a distylous taxa. The plants have either flowers with long pistils and short stamens (long-styled flowers, called the pin), or have short pistils and long stamens (short-styled flowers, called the thrum). The two style morphs are genetically determined, so the pollen from one morph does not fertilize the other morph, resulting in a form of heteromorphic self-incompatibility.

Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens)
Foliage, inflorescence, and unopened blossom
BerriesThe ovaries of the twin flowers fuse, so that there were two flowers for each berry. The two bright red spots on each berry are vestiges of this process. The fruit ripens between July and October, and may persist through the winter. The fruit is a drupe containing up to eight seeds. The fruits are never abundant. They may be part of the diets of several birds, such as Ruffed Grouse, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Northern Bobwhite, and Wild turkey. They are also consumed by foxes, White-footed mice, and skunks. The foliage is occasionally consumed by White-tailed deer.

The common reproduction is vegetative, with plants forming spreading colonies.

Cultivation and uses:
Mitchella repens is cultivated for its ornamental red berries and shiny, bright green foliage. It is grown as a creeping ground cover in shady locations. It is rarely propagated for garden use by way of seeds but cuttings are easy.The plants have been widely collected for Christmas decorations, and over collecting has impacted some local populations negatively. American Indian woman made a tea from the leaves and berries that was consumed during childbirth. The plants are sometimes grown in terrariums. The scarlet berries are edible but rather tasteless, with a faint flavour of wintergreen, resembling cranberries (to which they are not closely related).

Medicinal Uses:
The Indians ate the berries and dined on a medicinal jelly when experiencing fever.  It has been used to promote easy labor and prevent miscarriage.  It is a nourishing and safe remedy for women from puberty through menopause, including during pregnancy and lactation, especially where there is a history of difficult pregnancy or a weak reproductive system.  In cases of chronic weakness or disease, it needs to be taken for 4-8 weeks before results may be seen.  It is a specific treatment for uterine hemorrhage and therefore it is indicated in menopausal flooding as well as heavy uterine blood loss of any kind after diagnosis by a health-care provider.  Partridge berry may also relieve painful periods.  The dose is limited to one cup of tea of the single herb per day or up to one-fourth part of a formula by weight, three standard cups per day.  Partridge berry herb does apparently contradictory things: it relaxes pregnant women while it tones up the uterine and pelvic muscles and it soothes nervous “jumpiness.” Its actions are astringent (for weak uterine tone, but it is not drying or constipating), diuretic, emmenagogue and parturient taken during the few weeks before birth.  A well-known early 20th century preparation, called Mother’s Cordial, combined it with cram bark, unicorn root, sassafras oil, brandy, and sugar.  It appeared in the US National Formulary from 1926 to 1947 for treating uterine problems.  It improves digestion and calms the nervous system.  At times it has been substituted for pipsissewa as a treatment for urinary tract infections.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitchella_repens
http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=147
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Gillenia stipulata

[amazon_link asins=’B01M8NC90B,B00WNPEB1O’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’b97db543-fa5b-11e6-addf-357bc69a955a’]

Botanical Name : Gillenia stipulata
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Gillenia
Species: G. stipulata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym(s): Porteranthus stipulatus; spiraea stipulata, Porteranthus stipulatus. (Muhl. ex Willd.)Britt.

Common Name : American Ipecacuanna, American ipecac

Habitat : Gillenia stipulata   is native to  Eastern N. America – New York to Indiana and Kansas, south to Georgia, Louisiana and Oklahoma. It grows in woods, thickets and rocky slopes.

Description:
Gillenia stipulata is a  herbaceous, perennial  plant   growing to 1.2 m (4ft).  It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from May to June.  The stem  is erect, glabrous to pubescent, branching, multiple from base, sub-hollow, greenish to red above, from caudex, rhizomatous.. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

Leaves – Alternate, stipulate, short-petiolate, trifoliolate. Stipules large, foliaceous, serrate, ovate, +/-2.5cm long and broad, pubescent below, glabrous ir sparse pubescent above. Leaflets sessile, linear-lanceolate, to 9cm long, 2cm broad, serrate, pubescent below, sparse pubescent above, central leaflet slightly larger than lateral leaflets. Leaflets of lowest leaves pinnatifid.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Inflorescence – Axillary and terminal loose few-flowered panicles. Each divisions of inflorescence subtended by reduced foliaceous bract.

Flowers – Petals 5, white, acute to acuminate, 1.2cm long, 3-4mm broad, glabrous, oblong, clawed. Claw to 3mm long. Stamens 20, borne at edge of hypanthium, in two sets. Filaments white, glabrous, 2mm long. Anthers tan, 1mm in diameter. Pistils 5, distinct. Styles white, 3mm long, glabrous. Ovaries yellow-green, 1.9mm long. Hypanthium tube 5-6mm long, 3-4mm in diameter, greenish-white to reddish, truncate at base, glabrous. Sepals 5, acute, 1.1mm long, with some pubescence internally near apex. Follicles to 8mm long, glabrous, with +/-3 seeds.

A common name for this plant is “American Ipecac” because the plant had been used by natives as a laxative and emetic. This is not, however, the common Ipecac of modern medicine. Today’s Ipecac comes from Cephaelis ipecacuanha, a member of the Rubiaceae from South America.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a rather moist but well-drained lime-free peaty soil in semi-shade. Succeeds in a sunny position but requires shade at the hottest part of the day.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on for the first year in a lightly shaded area of the greenhouse or cold frame. Plant out in late spring and protect from slugs until well established. Division in spring or autumn.
Medicinal Uses:
The dried powered root bark is cathatric, slightly diaphoretic,a mild and efficient  emetic,expectorant and tonic. Minute dosesare used internally in the treatment of colds, chronic diarrhea, constipation, asthma and other bronchial complications. The root have been used externally in the treatment of rhematism. A cold infution of the roots has been given , or the root   chewed  in the treatment of bee and insects stings.The roots are harvested in the autumn, the bark is removed and dried for later use. A tea made from the whole plant is strong laxative and emitic.Minute doses are used internally in the treatment of colds, indigestion, asthma and hepatitis.A poultice or wash is used in the treatment of rhematism,bee stings and swellings.A decoction or strong infution of the whole plant has been taken a pint at a time as an emitic.A poultice of the plant  has been used to treat leg swellings. The plant has been used in the treatment of toothaches.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/cornell_herbaceous/plant_pages/Gilleniastipulata.html

http://www.robsplants.com/plants/GilleStipu

http://www.missouriplants.com/Whitealt/Gillenia_stipulata_page.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gillenia_stipulata

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

http://www.thealpinegarden.com/woodlandusa.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gillenia+stipulata

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Borreria hispida

[amazon_link asins=’0895772213,B01MQZ013U,B01537K6TO,B016ENLGU4,B009JQVKRI,B005C2UK9W,B01IQNSO6Y’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’da227b01-fdcb-11e6-bfa7-433deedb73f3′]

Botanical Name :Borreria hispida
Family : Rubiaceae
Synonyms: Spermacoce hispida Linn.
Spermacoce muriculata Blanco
Spermacoce mutilata Blanco
Spermacoce scaberrima F.-Vill.
Local names: Landrina (Tag.); ligad-ligad (Sul.); shaggy button weed (Engl.).
Common Name : Thaarthaaval

Habitat : The plant  is found from the Batan Islands to Batangas and Laguna in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Panay, and Basilan, in open, dry places at low and medium altitudes. It occurs also in India to China and Malaya.

Description:
Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed  is a procumbent, branched, hairy or rough herb 10 to 14 centimeters in length. The branches are greenish or purplish, ascending, stout, 4-angled. The leaves are ovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 1 to 3.5 centimeters long, 0.8 to 1.7 centimeters wide, and pointed or rounded at the tip. The flowers are 4 to 6, and occur in a whorl in the axils of the leaves. The calyx-teeth are linear-lanceolate. The corolla is pale blue or white, and is 5 to 10 millimeters in length. The fruit is a hairy capsule about 5 millimeters in length. The seeds are oblong, granulate, opaque, usually variable, and 3 millimeters or less in length.

Click to see the picture…...(01).(1)..(2)

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines Guerrero reports that the leaves brewed in decoction are used as an astringent in haemorrhoids.
Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that in the Konkan the plant is eaten with other herbs as a vegetable. It is used as a tonic and stimulant in Martinique. The plant is also prescribed to cure haemorrhoids.
According to Drury and Dymock the roots possess properties similar to those of sarsaparilla. They are prescribed in decoction as an alternative.
Ridley reports that the leaves are applied to the head in cases of headache. They appear to merely cool off the head and so allay the pain somewhat.
Nadkarni says that the seeds, as a confection, are cooling and demulcent, and are given in diarrhea and dysentery. The seeds have been recommended as a substitute for coffee. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that the seeds are thought to be aphrodisiac.

Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed of Rubiaceae family, is being used from time immemorial as an alternative therapy for diabetes. To evaluate the scientific background of using BHE as therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk, a group of rats were given BHE for a period of 30 days, whereas control animals were given the vehicle only. The animals were sacrificed, the hearts were isolated, and perfused with buffer. All the hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, BHE-treated rat hearts showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and exhibited reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activation was also reduced. BHE elevated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 and stimulated the phosphorylation of survival protein Akt simultaneously decreasing the apoptotic proteins Bax and Src. In addition, BHE enhanced the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta, and Glut-4, probably revealing the antiobese and antidiabetic potential of BHE. These results indicate that treatment with BHE improves cardiac function and ameliorates various risk factors associated with cardiac disease, suggesting that BHE can be considered as a potential plant-based nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for the management of cardiovascular diseases.

Click to see :

*Activity of various extracts of Borreria hispida

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Click to access landrina.pdf


http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/194550http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_PAO8841

[amazon_link asins=’B00PCE1SW8′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’da581ca8-ef48-11e6-a16f-f13357cce7cf’]

 

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Manjishtha (Indian Madder)

[amazon_link asins=’B01L0H1HEY,B01DJKD446′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’495aa0ff-f998-11e6-ac01-619665a0885c’]

Botanical Name : Rubia cardifolia
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Tribe: Rubieae
Genus: Rubia
vernacular Name: Sans-Mnajistha ,Hind – Manjith , Eng-indian madder

Habitat:Native to the Old World, Africa, temperate Asia and America.

Description:Rubia is a genus of the madder family Rubiaceae, which contains about 60 species of perennial scrambling or climbing herbs and sub-shrubs. It is prickly creeper or climber with a wide range of morphological characters.

click to see the pictures
The Common Madder can grow to 1.5 m in height. The evergreen leaves are 5-10 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, produced in whorls of 4-7 starlike around the central stem. It climbs with tiny hooks at the leaves and stems. The flowers are small (3-5 mm across), with five pale yellow petals, in dense racemes, and appear from June to August, followed by small (4-6 mm diameter) red to black berries. The roots can be over a metre long, up to 12 mm thick and the source of a red dye known as rose madder. It prefers loamy soils with a constant level of moisture. Madders are used as food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hummingbird hawk moth.

Species
Rubia akane
Rubia alaica Pachom.
Rubia angustifolia L.
Rubia chinensis Regel & Maack
Rubia chitralensis Ehrend.
Rubia cordata Thunb
Rubia cordifolia L. : Indian Madder
Rubia cretacea Pojark.
Rubia deserticola Pojark.
Rubia dolichophylla Schrenk
Rubia florida Boiss.
Rubia fruticosa
Rubia jesoensis (Miq.) Miyabe & Miyake
Rubia komarovii Pojark.
Rubia krascheninnikovii Pojark.
Rubia laevissima Tscherneva
Rubia laxiflora Gontsch.
Rubia pavlovii Bajtenov & Myrz.
Rubia peregrina L. : Wild Madder
Rubia rechingeri Ehrend.
Rubia regelii Pojark.
Rubia rezniczenkoana Litv.
Rubia rigidifolia Pojark.
Rubia schugnanica B.Fedtsch. ex Pojark.
Rubia sikkimensis Kurz
Rubia syrticola Miq.
Rubia tatarica (Trevir.) F.Schmidt
Rubia tibetica Hook.f.
Rubia tinctorum L. : Common Madder
Rubia transcaucasica Grossh.
Rubia yunnanensis (Franch. ex Diels) Diels
Poultice of Rubia ( Rinias in Kurdish) and yolk of eggs is used to treat of bone fraction in Traditional Kurdish Medicine in Iran (Ref. Kurdish Ethnopharmacology Group; Mohammad Amirian).

Constituents:
The roots contain a mixture of purpurin (trihydroxy anthraquinone) and munjistin (xanthopurpurin-2-carboxylic acid), and small amounts of xanthopurpurin or purpuroxanthin and pseudopurpurin (purpurin-3-carboxylic acid). Several substituted naphthoquinones and hydroxy anhraquinones and their glycosides have been isolated from the roots. Aldehyde aceate, dihydromollugin and rubimallin showed antibacterial activities.

The roots contain the acid ruberthyrin. By drying, fermenting or a treatment with acids, this is changed to sugar, alizarin and purpurin. Purpurin is normally not coloured, but is red when dissolved in alcalic solutions. Mixed with clay and treated with alum and ammonia, it gives a brilliant red colourant (madder lake).

History
Early evidence of dyeing comes from India where a piece of cotton dyed with madder has been recovered from the archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro (3rd millennium BCE).[1] Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder (De Re Natura) mention the plant (Rubia passiva). In Viking age levels of York, remains of both woad and madder have been excavated. The oldest textiles dyed with madder come from the grave of the Merovingian queen Arnegundis in St. Denis near Paris (between 565 and 570 AD). In the “Capitulare de villis” of Charlemagne, madder is mentioned as “warentiam”. The herbal of Hildegard of Bingen mentions the plant as well. The red coats of the British Redcoats were dyed with madder.

According to Culpeper’s herbal, the plant is ruled by Mars and has an opening quality, and will bind and strengthen afterwards. It was used in the treatment of jaundice, obstruction of the spleen, melancholy, palsy, haemorrhoids, sciatica, and of bruises. The root should be boiled in wine, and sugar or honey added. The seed of madder, drunk with vinegar and honey is used for the swelling of the spleen. Leaves and stems are used when the monthly female menstrual bleeding is late. Leaves and roots are squashed and put on freckles and other discolorations of the skin.

Uses:
It has been used since ancient times as a vegetable red dye for leather, wool, cotton and silk. For dye production, the roots are harvested in the first year. The outer brown layer gives the common variety of the dye, the lower yellow layer the refined variety. The dye is fixed to the cloth with help of a mordant, most commonly alum. Madder can be fermented for dyeing as well (Fleurs de garance). In France, the remains were used to produce a spirit as well.

The roots contain the acid ruberthyrin. By drying, fermenting or a treatment with acids, this is changed to sugar, alizarin and purpurin. Purpurin is normally not coloured, but is red when dissolved in alcalic solutions. Mixed with clay and treated with alum and ammonia, it gives a brilliant red colourant (madder lake).

The pulverised roots can be dissolved in sulfuric acid, which leaves a dye called garance (the French name for madder) after drying. Another method of increasing the yield consisted of dissolving the roots in sulfuric acid after they had been used for dyeing. This produces a dye called garanceux. By treating the pulverized roots with alcohol, colorin was produced. It contained 40-50 times the amount of alizarin of the roots.

The chemical name for the pigment is alizarin, of the anthraquinone-group. In 1869, the German chemists Graebe and Liebermann synthesised artificial alizarin, which was produced industrially from 1871 onwards, which effectively put an end to the cultivation of madder. In the 20th century, madder was only grown in some areas of France.

Medicinal Uses:A spreading plant with wines. Paste made of root in honey is applied over freckles, skin discoloration, leucoderma, inflammation, swellings, scaly skin disease, skin ulcers etc. Paste made of roots should be applied on insect bites. On inflammation and swellings due to fractures roots of Rubia cordifolia and glycyrrhiza glabra mixed with rice vinegar is applied.

Ayurvedic Uses:
Parts used – roots

Properties and uses
The roots are sweet, bitter, astringent, thermogenic, anti inflammatory, antiseptic, digestive, carminative, antidysentric, diuretic, galacto-purifier, ophthalmic, rejuvenating and tonic.

Useful in vitiated kapha and pitta, rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, cephalalgia, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, lepsory, skin diseases, leucoderma, pruritus, wounds, ulcers, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, opthalmopathy, intermattent fever, pharyngitis, cough, diabetes, discolouration of skin, sloe healing of broken bones, tubercular conditions of skin, jaundice, hepatopathy, splenopathy, leucorrhoea, pectoral diseases and general debility.

Click to see for more Ayurvedic Uses

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madder

http://www.indiavideo.org/text/indian-madder-936.php

http://www.drugdelivery.ca/s33632-s-MANJISHTHA.aspx
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#kanchanara

.

Enhanced by Zemanta