Tag Archives: Russian Far East

Allium sacculiferum

Botanical Name : Allium sacculiferum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. sacculiferum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium deltoidefistulosum S.O.Yu, S.Lee & W.T.Lee
*Allium japonicum Regel 1875, illegitimate homonym not (Thunb.) Steud. 1840
*Allium komarovianum Vved.
*Allium ophiopogon H.Lév.
*Allium sacculiferum var. viviparum Satake
*Allium yuchuanii Y.Z.Zhao & J.Y.Chao

Common Names: Northern plain chive, Triangular chive

Habitat: Allium sacculiferum is native to Japan, Korea, eastern Russia (Amur Oblast, Khabarovsk, Primorye), and northeastern China (Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning). It is found along the banks of lakes and rivers at elevations less than 500 m.

Description:

Allium sacculiferum makes one or two egg-shaped bulbs up to 20 mm across. Scapes are up to 70 cm tall, round in cross-section. Leaves are flat, shorter than the scape, up to 5 mm across. Umbels are spherical, with many flowers crowded together. Tepals are lilac to reddish-violet with darker midveins.

Bulbs 2-3 cm in diameter, narrowly ovoid; outer tunic membranous, reddish- brown. Stem 60-100 cm, terete. Leaves 6-10, up to 35 cm x 20 mm, sheathing the lower 1/2 of the stem, linear, ascending, canaliculate. Spathe 1-valved, persistent, shorter than pedicels. Umbel 3.5-4 cm in diameter, spherical or hemispherical, dense, many-flowered; pedicels 10-20 mm, unequal. Perianth broadly cupshaped or subglobose; segments 4-5 x 2.5 mm, pale yellowish-green very concave, the outer broadly ovate-elliptical, the inner ovate acute. Stamens exserted; filaments 7-8 mm. Capsule 3 mm.

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 It is in flower from Aug to September.  The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Bulb – raw or cooked. Added to soups. The bulb is up to 15mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Added to soups. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:….Repellent.…….The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_sacculiferum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+sacculiferum

Allium nutans

Botanical Name : Allium nutans
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. nutans
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium tataricum Schult. & Schult.f.
*Allium undulatum Schousb. ex Trev.
*Porrum nutans (L.) Raf.

Common Names: Siberian chives, Blue chives

Habitat : Allium nutans is native to European Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, and Asiatic Russia (Altay Krai, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, Western Siberia, Amur Oblast). It grows in wet meadows and other damp locations.
Description:
Allium nutans is a BULB growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It has one or two bulbs up to 20 mm in diameter. Scapes are winged and 2-angled, up to 60 cm tall. Leaves are flat, tapering at both ends, up to 15 mm wide at the widest spot, about half as long as the scapes. Umbels are spherical, with many pink to pale purple flowers. It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant for a sunny position in a well-drained soil. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy, pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle easily and plant out in the following spring. Division can be carried out at almost any time of the year but is probably best done in spring. The clumps should be divided at least every 3 or 4 years in order to maintain vigour, the divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions

Edible Uses: Leaves – eaten  raw or cooked. ( A mild, chive-like flavour.)
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:…..Repellent…..The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_nutans
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+nutans

Commelina communis

Botanical Name : Commelina communis
Family: Commelinaceae
Subfamily: Commelinoideae
Tribe: Commelineae
Genus: Commelina
Species: C. communis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Commelinales

Common Names :Asiatic dayflower,Chinese name :Yazhicao,in Japan it is called: Tsuyukusa (means dew herb”)

Habitat :
The plant’s native distribution includes much of East Asia and Southeast Asia. Country by country, it is found in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Within China it is found in all provinces except Qinghai, Hainan, Xinjiang, and Tibet. In Japan the plant is found throughout the bulk of the country from Hokkaido south to Ky?sh?. In Russia the Asiatic dayflower is found naturally on Sakhalin as well as in the Far East in areas surrounding the Ussuri River.

The species has been introduced to much of Europe and eastern North America. On the former continent it is now found from Central Europe well into western Russia. Specifically it is known from Italy north to Switzerland, east through the region encompassing the former Yugoslavia, east into the regions around the Black Sea including Romania, the Moldavia Region, and the Ukraine but excluding Crimea, north through the Dnieper Basin into Belarus and Russia, continuing east into the regions surrounding the Don River and the Volga River south to their intersection at the Volga-Don Canal and north to the regions around Lake Ladoga and Lake Ilmen, and farther east to the regions of the Ural River and the Kama River. It is also found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It is present in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, and in most of the eastern and central American states from Massachusetts and New York in the northeast, west to Minnesota and south through the Great Plains to Texas and east to extreme northern Florida in the United States.

Within its native distribution, the plant is most typical of moist, open places, including shady forest edges and wet areas of crop fields, orchards, ditches, and roadsides. In Taiwan, it can be found from 350 to 2400 m (1000–7500 ft) elevation. In areas where the Asiatic dayflower is an introduced weed it is most common in waste places, but also along the edges of fields, woods, and marshes, and occasionally penetrating into woods

Description:
Commelina communis is an herbaceous annual flowering  plant .The flowers emerge from summer through fall and are distinctive with two relatively large blue petals and one very reduced white petal.

The Asiatic dayflower is an annual herb with stems that are typically decumbent, meaning that they are prostrate at the base but become erect towards the tips, but some individuals may be simply erect. The diffusely branched stems tend to root at the basal nodes. The pubescence on the stems is variable, but common patterns include a line of hair continuous with the leaf sheath, or they may be glabrous basally, meaning hairless, and puberulent towards the extremities, that is covered with fine hairs. The leaves are sessile: they lack a leaf stalk, also known as a petiole; or they may be subpetiolate, meaning they have very small petioles.The leaf sheaths are cylindrical, sometimes striped with red, and typically glabrous, but usually have margins that are puberulent or pilose, meaning lined with fine, soft hairs. The leaf blades range from narrowly lanceolate, or lance-shaped, to ovate-elliptic, between egg-shaped and ellipse-shaped. They measure 3–12 cm (1–4½ in) by 1–4 cm (½–1½ in) wide. The blades range from glabrous to puberulent and have scabrescent, or slightly rough, margins.   Their tips are acute, meaning they come to a point quickly, to acuminate, meaning the point develops gradually. The leaf bases are oblique, or uneven.
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The flowers are arranged on inflorescences called cincinni (singular: cincinnus), which are also called scorpioid cymes. This is a form of a monochasium where the lateral branches arise alternately. The cincinni are subtended by a spathe, a modified leaf. The solitary spathes usually measure 1.2–3 cm long (½–1¼ in), but some may be up to 3.5 cm (1½ in) in length, while they are 0.8–1.3 cm (¼–½ in) tall, but sometimes up to 1.8 cm (¾ in). The uncurved spathes typically have a cordate, or heart-shaped, whitish base, which contrasts with its dark green veins. Their margins lack hairs, are somewhat scabrous, or rough, and are unfused, meaning they are distinct to the base. Their apices are acute to acuminate while the surfaces are glabrous, puberulent, or hirsute-ciliate, meaning with longer, shaggier hairs. The spathes are borne on peduncles, or stalks, that measure 0.8–3.5 cm (¼–1½ in) and sometimes up to 5 cm (2 in) long

There are often two cincinni present, though the upper, or distal, cincinnus may be vestigial.  The lower, or proximal, cincinnus bears 1 to 4 bisexual flowers and is nearly included in the spathe, while the upper cincinnus has 1 to 2 male flowers and is about 8 mm (0.3 in) long. The individual flowers are subtended by bracteoles that fall off early in development. The pedicels supporting single flowers, and later the fruits, are erect initially but curve when in fruit. They measure about 3–4 mm (0.11–0.16 in) The 3 concave, membranous sepals are inconspicuous, but persist after the fruit develops; the lateral pair are fused basally, measure only 4.5–5 mm (0.18–0.2 in) long by 3–3.7 mm (0.11–0.15 in) wide, and are elliptic and glabrous. The lower sepal is lanceolate and about 4.5 mm (0.18 in) long by about 2.2 mm (0.09 in) wide.   The 2 upper petals are blue to indigo in colour, while the much smaller lower petal is white. The upper two petals measure 9–10 mm (0.35–0.39 in) long by 8–10 mm (0.31–0.39 in) wide, while the lower petal is 5–6 mm (0.2–0.24 in) long by about 6 mm (0.24 in) wide.  The 2 upper petals are composed of a claw about 3 mm (0.11 in) long and a broadly ovate limb with an acute apex and a cuneate-cordate base.

There are three anticous fertile stamens, meaning they are on the lower part of the flower, and three posticous infertile stamens, meaning they are on the upper part of the flower. These infertile stamens are termed staminodes. The fertile stamens are dimorphic: the lateral pair have maroon to indigo anthers that measure about 2 mm (0.8 in) long and are elliptic with a base that is sagittate or arrowhead-shaped. Their filaments are about 10–12 mm (0.39–0.47 in) long. The central fertile stamen has a yellow, elliptic anther with a maroon connective and a base that is hastate or spearhead-shaped, but with the lobes at right angles. The anther measures about 2.5 mm (0.1 in) long while its filament is about 5–6 mm (0.2–0.24 in) long.  The three staminodes are all alike with yellow, cruciform, or cross-shaped, antherodes that are about 2 mm (0.08 in) long on filaments about 3 mm (0.12 in) long. Sometimes the antherodes will have a central maroon spot.  Each antherode has two abortive lateral pollen sacks. The ovary is ellipsoid, about 2 mm (0.08 in) long and has a style that is about 1.3 cm (0.51 in) long.

The fruit is a dehiscent, ellipsoid capsule with two locules each containing two seeds. The capsule is glabrous, brown, measures 4.5–8 mm (0.18–0.31 in) long, and dehisces into two valves. The seeds are brown or brownish yellow in colour and deltoid, or roughly triangular in outline. They are dorsiventral, meaning they have distinct upper and lower surfaces, with the ventral, or lower, surface being planar and the dorsal, or upper, surface being convex. Seeds range in length from 2.5–4.2 mm (0.1–0.16 in), but seeds as short as 2 cm (0.08 in) can occur, while they are 2.2–3 mm (0.09–0.12 in) across. The surfaces are rugose pitted-reticulate and are densely covered with smaller farinose granules with sparse larger farinose granules

Cultivation:
Prefers a light well-drained loam with added leafmold     . Requires a sheltered position. This species is commonly cultivated as a vegetable in China. The plant can be invasive, the stems sprawling along the ground and rooting as they go.

Propagation :
Seed – sow March in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 4 – 5 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in early spring. Make sure that each portion has at least one growing bud. Cuttings during the growing season. Very eas

Edible Uses:
In China and India the plant is also used as a vegetable.

Mediconal Uses:
In China it is used as a medicinal herb with febrifugal, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic effects. Additionally, it is also used for treating sore throats and tonsillitis. Recent pharmacological investigations have revealed that the Asiatic dayflower contains at least five active compounds. One of these, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, shows antibacterial activity, while another, D-mannitol, has an antitussive effect.

The leaves are used as a throat gargle to relieve sore throats and tonsilitis. A decoction of the dried plant is used to treat bleeding, diarrhea, fever etc.  Extracts of the plant show antibacterial activity.  An extract of Commelina communis  after decoction in water has been traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Korea.

Other Uses:
In China and India the plant is used as fodder crop

In Japan there is a sizeable dye industry devoted to the plant. The purported variety Commelina communis var. hortensis, which is apparently a cultivated form of another putative variety, namely Commelina communis var. ludens, is grown for its larger petals which yield a blue juice used in manufacturing a paper called boshigami or aigami  which is the famous product of the Yamada village in the Shiga prefecture.  The paper is usually resoaked, allowing the pigment to be reabsorbed in water for use as a dye. The dye, also referred to as aigami, but also as aobanagami  or tsuyukusairo , is composed primarily of malonyl awobanin and was used extensively as a colorant in 18th and 19th century woodblock prints in Japan, especially during the early Ukiyo-e era. The colorant is known to have been used by several famous Ukiyo-e artists such as Torii Kiyonaga. However, aigami fades to a greenish yellow in a matter of months when exposed to sunlight. As a result, the color was eventually replaced by imported Prussian blue , a much more stable colour with its first commercial appearance in 1829 in the work of Keisai Eisen. The plant is also grown for its dye in northern China. Additional uses of the colourant include making preparatory designs on cloth before dyeing with other pigments.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commelina_communis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_DE.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Commelina+communis

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Niu Xi (Achyranthes Bidentata)

Botanical Name: Achyranthes bidentata
Family : Amaranthaceae
Common Name:  Oxknee
Other Common Names: Niu Hsi, Niu Hsi Chiu, Pig’s Knee, Soei In Soei
Genus: Achyranthes

Habitat : Native:
•AFRICA: West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea
West Tropical Africa: Nigeria
•ASIA-TEMPERATE :Russian Far East: Russian Federation – Primorye
China: China – Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Zhejiang
Eastern Asia: Japan – Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku; Korea; Taiwan
•ASIA-TROPICAL :  Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka Indo-China: Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines

Mostly available at the Forest edges, the sides of streams and shrubberies. Moist shady places at elevations of 1200 – 3000 metres in Nepal

Description:
ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA (Niu xi, Achyranthes) Traditional Chinese perinial herb.Height: 60-90 cm. It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from August to September, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).  Achyranthes is an erect perennial with slender rambling branches, elliptical leaves, and greenish white flowers on terminal spikes. Grows up to 1m tall.
click to see the pictures>..(01)...(1).…….(2).………………….

Cultivation :
Prefers a rich, sandy, slightly acid soil in partial shade . This species is probably not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to at least -5 °c. When grown in a rich soil the roots can be up to 1.2 metres long. Widely cultivated in China, especially in Henan Province, as a medicinal plant  and as a food plant.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late spring in a greenhouse. Germination should be fairly rapid, prick out the seedlings into individual pots of fairly rich soil when they are large enough to handle. It is probably wise to grow this plant on in the greenhouse for its first winter, planting it out into its permanent position in late spring after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.
Seed – cooked. A good substitute for cereal grains in bread-making, they have often been used for this purpose in famine years . The light brown oblong seed is about 1mm long. Leaves – cooked. Used as a vegetable in the same manner as spinach.

Medicinal  Actions & Uses:
Anodyne; Antiasthmatic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Bitter; Digestive; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Odontalgic; Vasodilator.
The roots, leaves and stems are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. The roots contain triterpenoid saponins, sitosterol and sigmastero. They are anodyne, antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, bitter, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and vasodilator. They act predominantly on the lower half of  the body and are used in the treatment of aching back and knees and asthenia of the lower limbs. Research suggests that they can cause dilation of the cervix and so this herb should not be used when pregnant. The herb is taken internally to treat hypertension, back pains, urine in the blood, menstrual pain, bleeding etc. It lowers blood cholesterol levrels and so is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis . The root juice is used in Nepal in the treatment of toothache . This juice is also used in the treatment of indigestion and is considered to be a good treatment for asthma . The stem of the plant is used as a toothbrush that is said to be good for the teeth and is also a treatment for pyorrhoea  . The plant can be used fresh or dried. The leaves and stems are harvested in the summer and are usually crushed for their juice or used in tinctures . The roots are harvested from 1 or 2 year old plants in the autumn or winter and usually dried and ground into a powder or used in decoctions.

Mostly used to nourish the kidney and liver, drain ‘dampness’ and promote circulation. Prescribed for difficult urination, painful urethritis, suppressed menstruation. Commonly used to treat traumatic injuries, stiffness and pain of the lower back and loins and for weakness in the legs and feet. Do not use during pregnancy.

Other Uses
Insecticide; Teeth.
Two insect-moulting hormones are found in the roots[174]. Can this have a practical application as an insecticide? The stem of the plant is used as a toothbrush that is said to be good for the teeth and is also a treatment for pyorrhoea.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Achyranthes+bidentata
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Achyranthes_bidentata
http://www.sandmountainherbs.com/oxknee.html

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/herbs/achyra.htm#des

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