Tag Archives: Sakhalin

Rhododendron aureum

 

Botanical Name : Rhododendron aureum
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Ericoideae
Tribe: Rhodoreae
Genus: Rhododendron
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms : R. chrysanthum. Pall.

Common Mane :Rosebay, Yellow-flowered rhododendron,Snow rose.

Habitat :
Rhododendron aureum is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on the thickets in high mountain areas, both alpine and sub-alpine. Grasslands or liverwort-mosses strata in the alpine region at elevations of 1000 – 2500 metres.

Description:
It is a small evergreen  compact or prostrate shrub.This is a small bush, with the stem from 1 to 1 1/2 feet high, spreading, very much branched, often almost hidden among moss, from which the tips only of its shoots are protruded. The leaves are alternate, of the texture of a laurel leaf, ovate, somewhat acute, tapering into the stalk, reticulated and very rough above, and paler and smoother underneath. The flowers are large, showy, nodding, and borne on clustered, terminal, loose peduncles, emerging from among large downy scales. Corolla campanulate, 5-cleft, with rounded segments, of which the three upper are rather the largest, and streaked with livid dots next the tube, the lower unspotted. Stamens 10, unequal, and deflexed; the anthers oblong, incumbent, and without appendages, opening by two terminal pores. Capsule ovate, rather angular, 5-celled, 5-valved, and septicidal; seeds numerous and minute (L.). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or claye. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit[200], it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Closely related to R. caucasicum. This species is very rare and difficult to cultivate. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult.

Medicinal Uses:
It has been much used in folk medicine in Siberia for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, and urinary tract infections.  It has been used in homeopathic medicine in the treatment of urinary calculi and inflammation of the prostate gland. Caution should be exercised when using the flowers because they are toxic. Hemostatic, they are used in the treatment of spreading pus and blood in the thoracic region, especially the lungs.  Much used in Siberia as a remedy for rheumatism. Also useful in gout and syphilis.  The flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to have a bitter taste and a neutral potency. Caution should be exercised when using the flowers because they are toxic. Hemostatic, they are used in the treatment of spreading pus and blood in the thoracic region, especially the lungs.

Known Hazards:  Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.rosebay.org/chapterweb/specaur.htm
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rhododendron_aureum_Georgi.jpg
http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/rhododendron.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Rhododendron_aureum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm?Voucher2=Connect+to+Internet

Abies Sachalinensis – (F.Schmidt.)Mast.

Botanical Name : Abies sachalinensis – (F.Schmidt.)Mast.
Other Scientific NamesAbies gracilis Kom. ,Abies akotodo Miyabe ex Sargent ,Abies mayriana (Miyabe & Kudo) Miyabe & Kudo ,Abies nemorensis (Mayr) Miyabe & Kudo ,Abies wilsonii Miyabe & Kudo

Family : Pinaceae
Synonyms: Abies veitchii sachalinensis – F.Schmidt.
Common Names : Sachalin fir (Vidakovic 1991).

English : Todo fir ,Saghalien fir ,Sakhalin fir
Russian : pikhta sakhalinskaya
Germany : Sachalin Tanne
Japan : todomatsu

Genus  : Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. sachalinensis

Habitat : It is found in Japan and Russia. E. Asia – northern Japan.  Forests on moist mountain slopes in Sakhalin Island. In subalpine forests from near the sea level to 1600 metres.Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description :
An evergreen Tree growing to 30m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

You may click to see the pictures of  Abies Sachalinensis – (F.Schmidt.)Mast.

The first “discovery” by a European was by Carl Friedrich Schmidt (1811 – 1890), the German botanist on the Russian island of Sakhalin in 1866, but he did not introduce it to Europe. The plant was re-discovered by the English plant-collector, Charles Maries in 1877 near Aomori on the main Japanese island of Honsh?, who initially thought it to be a variety of Abies veitchii.

Cultivation :-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Trees come into growth very early in the year and are then susceptible to damage by late frosts but they still do well in Britain[11]. However, young trees are very slow to establish, many trees being less than 90cm after 5 years. Trees grow best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and other areas with cool wet summers. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. The flowers are produced in axils of the previous year’s shoots. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Uses. None known

Other Uses:-
Wood.

Wood – light, soft, not very durable. Used for pulp, construction, boxes, ship building, water works, etc.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+sachalinensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_sachalinensis
http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/FC/Full/ABI_SA.htm