Tag Archives: Salvia

Clary sage

Botanical Name :Salvia sclarea
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. sclarea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name : Clary sage

Habitat :Clary sage  is native to the northern Mediterranean, along with some areas in north Africa and Central Asia.

Description:
clary sage  is a biennial or short-lived herbaceous perennial herb. It grows to a height of  1 to 1.3 ft (0.30 to 0.40 m) , with square stems that are covered in hairs. The leaves are approximately 1 ft (0.30 m) long at the base, .5 ft (0.15 m) long higher on the plant. The upper leaf surface is rugose, and covered with glandular hairs. The flowers are in verticils, with 2-6 flowers in each verticil, and are held in large colorful bracts that range in color from pale mauve to lilac or white to pink with a pink mark on the edge. The lilac or pale blue corolla is approximately 1 in (2.5 cm), with the lips held wide open. The cultivar S. sclarea ‘Turkestanica’ bears pink stems, petiolate leaves, and white, pink-flecked blossoms on spikes to 30 inches tall (75 cm).
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Medicinal Uses:
The plant has a lengthy history as a medicinal herb, and is currently grown for its essential oil.
Like its relative sage, clary tea, the leaf juice in ale or beer, was recommended for many types of women’s problems, including delayed or painful menstruation.  It was once used to stop night sweating in tuberculosis patients.  An astringent is gargled, douched and poured over skin wounds.  It is combined with other herbs for kidney problems.  The clary seeds form a thick mucilage when soaked for a few minutes and placed in the eye, helps to removed, small irritating particles.  A tea of the leaves is also used as an eyewash.  Clary is also used to reduce muscle spasms.

It is used today mainly to treat digestive problems such as gas and indigestion.  It is also regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps relieve premenstrual problems.  Because of its estrogen-stimulating action, clary sage is most effective when levels of this hormone are low.  The plant can therefore be a valuable remedy for complaints associated with menopause, particularly hot flashes.

It is also used in aromatherapy for relieving anxiety and fear, menstrual-related problems such as PMS and cramping, and helping with insomnia

Other Uses:
The distilled essential oil is used widely in perfumes and as a muscatel flavoring for vermouths, wines, and liqueurs.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_sclarea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.gapphotos.com/imagedetails.asp?imageno=222286

Salvia plebeia

Botanical Name : Salvia plebeia R. Brown
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. plebeia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Scientific names :Salvia plebeia R. Brown ,Salvia brachiata Roxb. ,Salvia parviflora Roxb.
Common names:Mizo-kouiju (Japanese), Li zhi cao (Chin.),Sage weed (Engl.)

Habitat :Salvia plebeia is native to a wide region of Asia. It grows on hillsides, streamsides, and wet fields from sea level to 2,800 m (9,200 ft) As a weed in and about towns in various provinces at low altitudes.

Description:
Salvia plebeia is an annual, hairy herb. Stems are stout, erect, hoary, and 15 to 45 cms in height. Leaves are oblong ovate, 2.5 to 7.5 cms long, and narrowed and pointed at both ends. Spikes are panicled, often fastigiate. Flowers are hardly 6 mm long, lilac or nearly white, occurring in small, very numerous whorls in numerous, slender, panicled, glandular racemes. Calyx is stalked, bell-shaped, and 10 to 12 mm long; the upper calyx-lip is entire, and the lower one obtusely 2-toothed. Corolla-tube is very short, and the included upper lip is short, nearly straight, slightly flattened, and concave. Nutlets are very minute and ellipsoid.
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You may click to see pictures of Salvia plebeia plant :
Constituents:
* Study yielded six compounds: hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ß-sitosterol, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A and coniferyl aldehyde.

*Study of whole plant yielded: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin.

Edible Uses:  Flowers and leaves used as condiment.

Properties:-
*Considered astringent, diuretic, vermifuge.
*Antihepatotoxic, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, analgesic.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts used: Seeds, leaves.

Folkloric
*Seeds are used in gonorrhea and menorrhage.
*In Bombay, used to increase sexual powers.
*In China, used as anti-inflammatory and for treating urinary tract infections.

Studies :-
• Antioxidant: Study yielded six compounds. (See:Constituents) Compounds 3, 4 and 5 ( 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ?-sitosterol, 2?-hydroxy-5?-methoxybiochanin A) showed strong antioxidant activities.
Pharmacologic Activities: Study on pharmacologic activities of Compound Salvia Plebeia Granules (CSPG) long used for treating UTIs showed a dose-related diuretic effect, antipyretic, antiblastic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Results support its folkloric use on treating urinary tract infections.
• Chemical Constituents: Study on whole plant of Salvia plebeia yielded nine compounds: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin. 8 and 9 were reported for Salvia genus for the first time and 3-7 from S. plebeia for the first time.
New Phenylfutanone Glucoside: Study yielded a new phenylbutanone glucoside, salviaplebeiaside, along with two known phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside.
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of “Chhit-Chan-Than,” a Taiwan herbal remedy believed to have anti-inflammatory and detoxification activities, and used in the treatment of hepatitis. The crude extracts of the three herbal components – Salvia plebeia, O gratissimum and O basilicum – were studied. Results showed that S. plebeia was the most potent of the three crude extracts, protecting the liver against CCl4-intoxication and D-GaIN-induced hepatotoxicity.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/SageWeed.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_plebeia
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/520091/Salvia
http://www.asianflora.com/Lamiaceae/Salvia-plebeia.htm

Lyre-Leaved Sage

Botanical Name:Salvia lyrata
Family: Lamiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. lyrata
Common Names: Cancer Root, Lyreleaf Sage, Wild sage,Cancerweed,

Habitat:Lyre-leaved Sage is found in sandy soiled woods and clearings.Dry, open woods and dry thickets, barrens, roadsides, lawns and waste places. Eastern N. America – Pennsylvania to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois.

Description:It is a herbaceous perennial plant with low growing leaves and flowering stems growing to 50 cm tall. The leaves are arranged in a basal rosette of large leaves, and smaller leaves in opposite pairs on the erect flowering stem. The basal leaves are up to 15 cm long and 5 cm broad, with several lobes, some approximating to the shape of a lyre, from which the species is named. The flowers are pale blue, up to 25 mm long. The species is often a lawn weed that self seeds into lawns and is tolerant of being mowed. It has square, slightly hairy, stem and produce whorls of blue or violet tubular flowers. The leaves form a basal rosette, are up to 8″ long, and often have dark red or purple areas along the main veins, are irregularly cleft and some times lobed. Gather fresh young edible leaves in spring. Gather entire plant as flowers bloom, dry for later herb use.
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Flower size: 1 inch long , Flower color: pale blue-purple. Flowering time: May to June

Identification: Flowers tubular, violet to blue-violet. Lower petals lobes fused into a three-lobed hanging banner. Upper petal lobe narrow, folded, containing the stamens. Sepals fused forming a spiny capsule containing the corolla. Stem square, weakly hairy. Upper leaves blade-shaped, with slightly irregular outer margins. Lower leaves forming a rosette with outer margins irregularly lobed. Plant 1 to 3 feet in height.

Cultivation and uses: It requires a very well-drained light sandy soil in a sunny position.It is sometimes grown in gardens for its attractive foliage and flowers. Several cultivars have been developed with purple leaves. Two readily available seed raised cultivars include:

‘Purple Prince’ – Grows about 35 cm tall with reddish purple colored veins and dark purple spikes with small lilac colored flowers in dark purple calyces.
‘Purple Volcano’ – Grows about 35 cm tall with dark purple leaves that have a shiny sheen to them. The flowers are light blue in color.

Medicinal Properties:
Medicinal and edible herb, as an alternative medicine it is carminative, diaphoretic, laxative, and salve. Lyre-leaved sage has some of the same medicinal properties of the other sages but is very week. It is used mainly as a gargle in the treatment of sore throat and mouth infections. Medicinal salve made from root is applied to sores. Warm infusion of herb is taken as a laxative or for colds, coughs and nervous debility. This sage is not very strong tasting, and has a rather pleasent minty flavor, fresh young leaves are edible in salads, or cooked as pot herb.

Folklore
Lyre-leaved sage is also a folk remedy for cancer (as the plant grows like a cancer upon the earth) it is therefore said to cure it. The fresh leaves are said to remove warts.

Recipe
Medicinal tea: To 1 cup water add 1 tbsp. dried herb, bring to boil, steep 10 min. strain, sweeten to taste, drink warm at bed time.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/salvialyra.html
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALY2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_lyrata
http://www.nearctica.com/flowers/lamia/Slyrata.htm

Sage, Clary

Botanical Name : Salvia sclarea
Family: N.O. Labiatae
Synonyms: Clary. Horminum. Gallitricum. Clear Eye. See Bright.
(German) Muskateller Salbei.
Parts Used: Herb, leaves, seeds.Parts Used—The herb and leaves, used both fresh and dry, dried in the same manner as the Garden Sage. Formerly the root was used, dry, in domestic medicine, and also the seeds.
Habitat: The Common Clary, like the Garden Sage, is not a native of Great Britain, having first been introduced into English cultivation in the year 1562. It is a native of Syria, Italy, southern France and Switzerland, but will thrive well upon almost any soil that is not too wet, though it will frequently rot upon moist ground in the winter.
Gerard describes and figures several varieties of Clary, under the names of Horminum and Gallitricum. He describes it as growing ‘in divers barren places almost in every country, especially in the fields of Holborne neare unto Grayes Inne . . . and at the end of Chelsea.’

Salmon, in 1710, in The English Herbal, gives a number of varieties of the Garden Clary, which he calls Horminum hortense, in distinction to H. Sylvestre, the Wild Clary, subdividing it into the Common Clary (H. commune), the True Garden Clary of Dioscorides (H. sativum verum Dioscorides), the Yellow Clary (Calus Jovis), and the Small or German Clary (H. humile Germanicum or Gallitricum alterum Gerardi). This last variety being termed Gerardi, indicates that Gerard classified this species when it was first brought over from the Continent, evidently taking great pains to trace its history, giving in his Herbal its Greek name and its various Latin ones. That the Clary was known in ancient times is shown by the second variety, the True Garden Clary, being termed Dioscoridis.

Another variety of Horminum is given in The Treasury of Botany, called H. pyrenaicum, and described as ‘a tufted perennial herb, with numerous root-leaves, simple almost leafless stems and purplish-blue flowers which grow in whorls of six, all turned the same way. It is a native of the temperate parts of Europe, on the mountains.’

Description: The Common Garden Clary, is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb in the genus Salvia, native to Europe east to central Asia. It grows to 1 m tall, with opposite leaves 10-20 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, with a thick woolly texture. The flowers are white to pink or pale purple. Its strong and unusual odour is considered unpleasant by some, while others find it very attractive.its square, brownish stems growing 2 to 3 feet high, hairy and with few branches. The leaves are arranged in pairs, almost stalkless and are almost as large as the hand, oblong and heart-shaped, wrinkled, irregularly toothed at the margins and covered with velvety hairs. The flowers are in a long, loose, terminal spike, on which they are set in whorls. The lipped corollas, similar to the Garden Sage, but smaller, are of a pale blue or white. The flowers are interspersed with large coloured, membraneous bracts, longer than the spiny calyx. Both corollas and bracts are generally variegated with pale purple and yellowish-white. The seeds are blackish brown, ‘contained in long, toothed husks,’ as an old writer describes the calyx. The whole plant possesses a very strong, aromatic scent, somewhat resembling that of Tolu while thck to see the picturee taste is also aromatic, warm and sightly bitter.

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According to Ettmueller, this herb was first brought into use by the wine merchants of Germany, who employed it as an adulterant, infusing it with Elder flowers, and then adding the liquid to the Rhenish wine, which converted it into the likeness of Muscatel. It is still called in Germany Muskateller Salbei (Muscatel Sage).

Waller (1822) states it was also employed in this country as a substitute for Hops, for sophisticating beer, communicating considerable bitterness and intoxicating property, which produced an effect of insane exhilaration of spirits, succeeded by severe headache. Lobel says:
‘Some brewers of Ale and Beere doe put it into their drinke to make it more heady, fit to please drunkards, who thereby, according to their several dispositions, become either dead drunke, or foolish drunke, or madde drunke.’
In some parts of the country a wine has been made from the herb in flower, boiled with sugar, which has a flavour not unlike Frontiniac.
The English name Clary originates in the Latin name sclarea, a word derived from clarus (clear). Clary was gradually modified into ‘Clear Eye,’ one of its popular names, and from the fact that the seeds have been used for clearing the sight.

Sometimes we find the plant not only called ‘Clear Eye,’ but also ‘See Bright’ and even ‘Eyebright,’ though this name belongs to another plant – Euphrasia officinalis.

Cultivation: Clary is propagated by seed, which should be sown in spring. When fit to move, the seedlings should be transplanted to an open spot of ground, a foot apart each way, if required in large quantities. After the plants have taken root, they will require no further care but to keep them free of weeds. The winter and spring following, the leaves will be in perfection. As the plant is a biennial only, dying off the second summer, after it has ripened seeds, there should be young plants annually raised for use.

Constituents—Salvia sclarea yields an oil with a highly aromatic odour, resembling that of ambergris. It is known commercially as Clary oil, or Muscatel Sage, and is largely used as a fixer of perfumes. Pinene, cineol and linalol have been isolated from this oil.

French oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.895 to 0.930, and is soluble in two volumes of 80 per cent alcohol. German oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.910 to 0.960, and is soluble in two volumes of 90 per cent alcohol.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, balsamic, carminative, tonic, aromatic, aperitive, astringent, and pectoral.
The plant has been used, both fresh and dry, either alone or with other herbs, as an infusion or a tincture. It has mostly been employed in disordered states of the digestion, as a stomachic, and has also proved useful in kidney diseases.

For violent cases of hysteria or wind colic, a spirituous tincture has been found of use, made by macerating in warm water for 14 days, 2 OZ. of dried Clary leaves and flowers, 1 OZ. of Chamomile flowers, 1/2 ox. bruised Avens root, 2 drachms of bruised Caraway and Coriander seeds, and 3 drachms of bruised Burdock seeds, adding 2 pints of proof spirit, then filtering and diluting with double quantity of water – a wineglassful being the dose.

Culpepper says:

‘For tumours, swellings, etc., make a mucilage of the seeds and apply to the spot. This will also draw splinters and thorns out of the flesh…. For hot inflammation and boils before they rupture, use a salve made of the leaves boiled with hot vinegar, honey being added later till the required consistency is obtained.’ He recommends a powder of the dry roots taken as snuff to relieve headache, and ‘the fresh leaves, fried in butter, first dipped in a batter of flour, egges, and a little milke, serve as a dish to the table that is not unpleasant to any and exceedingly profitable.’
The juice of the herb drunk in ale and beer, as well as the ordinary infusion, has been recommended as very helpful in all women’s diseases and ailments.
In Jamaica, where the plant is found, it was much in use among the negroes, who considered it cooling and cleansing for ulcers, and also used it for inflammations of the eyes. A decoction of the leaves boiled in coco-nut oil was used by them to cure the stings of scorpions. Clary and a Jamaican species of Vervain form two of the ingredients of an aromatic warm bath sometimes prescribed there with benefit.

The distilled essential oil is occasionally found in specialty stores such as natural food stores and “scent shops”. The odour is sometimes described as “sweaty”, spicy or “hay-like”. Clary seeds have a mucilaginous coat, and so old herbals recommended putting a seed into the eye of someone with a foreign object in it, to adhere to the object and make it easy to remove.

The leaves have been used as a vegetable in cookery. Clary was used as a flavouring in ales before the use of hops became common, and also in wine, notably muscatel. It is also used as a flavouring in some tobacco products. Clary can be used as a tea or in aromatherapy, and is supposed to have a calming effect.

It is also the primary ingredient in Norambrolide, an ingredient claimed by the herbal-supplement industry to promote fat catabolism and therefore weight loss.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sages-05.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_sclarea

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Common Sage

Botanical Name: Salvia officinalis
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. officinalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms-: (Old English) Sawge. Garden Sage. Red Sage. Broad-leaved White Sage

Narrow-leaved White Sage. Salvia salvatrix.


Parts Used-
–Leaves, whole herb.

Indian Name: Salvia or Sefakuss

Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region.

The name of the genus, Salvia, is derived from the Latin salvere, to be saved, in reference to the curative properties of the plant, which was in olden times celebrated as a medicinal herb. This name was corrupted popularly to Sauja and Sauge (the French form), in Old English, ‘Sawge,’ which has become our present-day name of Sage.

The Common Sage, the familiar plant of the kitchen garden, is an evergreen undershrub, not a native of these islands, its natural habitat being the northern shores of the Mediterranean. It has been cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes for many centuries in England, France and Germany, being sufficiently hardy to stand any ordinary winter outside. Gerard mentions it as being in 1597 a well-known herb in English gardens, several varieties growing in his own garden at Holborn.It is much cultivated as a kitchen and medicinal herb, and is also called Garden sage, Kitchen sage, and Dalmatian sage. In southern Europe related species are sometimes cultivated for the same purpose, and may be confused with the common sage. Although this plant was the one originally called by this name sage, a number of related species are now also called by it, and are described in more detail in the article on sage.

Description-Sage generally grows about a foot or more high, with wiry stems. The leaves are set in pairs on the stem and are 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, stalked, oblong, rounded at the ends, finely wrinkled by a strongly-marked network of veins on both sides, greyish-green in colour, softly hairy and beneath glandular. The flowers are in whorls, purplish and the corollas lipped. They blossom in August. All parts of the plant have a strong, scented odour and a warm, bitter, somewhat astringent taste, due to the volatile oil contained in the tissues.

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Sage Flowers

It is a hardy plant, but though a perennial, does not last above three or four years without degenerating, so that the plantation should be renewed at least every four years. It is propagated occasionally by seed, but more frequently by cuttings. New plantations are readily made by pulling off the young shoots from three-year-old plants in spring, generally in the latter end of April, as soon as they attain a sufficiency of hardness to enable them to maintain themselves on the moisture of the ground and atmosphere, while the lower extremities are preparing roots. If advantage be taken of any showery weather that may occur, there is little trouble in obtaining any number of plants, which may either be struck in the bed where they are to grow, inserting a foot apart each way, or in some other shady spot whence they may be removed to permanent quarters when rooted. The latter plan is the best when the weather is too bright and sunny to expect Sage to strike well in its ordinary quarters. See the young plants do not suffer from want of water during their first summer, and hoe the rows regularly to induce a bushy growth, nipping off the growing tips if shooting up too tall. Treat the ground with soot and mulch in winter with old manure. Cuttings may also be taken in the autumn, as soon as the plants have ceased flowering.

Habitat: Sage is found in its natural wild condition from Spain along the Mediterranean coast up to and including the east side of the Adriatic; it grows in profusion on the mountains and hills in Croatia and Dalmatia, and on the islands of Veglia and Cherso in Quarnero Gulf, being found mostly where there is a limestone formation with very little soil. When wild it is much like the common garden Sage, though more shrubby in appearance and has a more penetrating odour, being more spicy and astringent than the cultivated plant. The best kind, it is stated, grows on the islands of Veglia and Cherso, near Fiume, where the surrounding district is known as the Sage region. The collection of Sage forms an important cottage industry in Dalmatia. During its blooming season, moreover, the bees gather the nectar and genuine Sage honey commands there the highest price, owing to its flavour.

Cultivation-:
The Garden Sage succeeds best in a warm and rather dry border, but will grow well almost anywhere in ordinary garden soil; it thrives in a situation somewhat shaded from sunshine, but not strictly under trees.
In cultivation, Sage is a very variable species, and in gardens varieties may be found with narrower leaves, crisped, red, or variegated leaves and smaller or white flowers. The form of the calyx teeth also varies, and the tube of the corolla is sometimes much longer. The two usually absent upper stamens are sometimes present in very small-sterile hooks. The Red Sage and the Broad-leaved variety of the White (or Green) Sage – both of which are used and have been proved to be the best for medical purposes – and the narrow-leaved White Sage, which is best for culinary purposes as a seasoning, are classed merely as varieties of Salvza officinalis, not as separate species. There is a variety called Spanish, or Lavender-leaved Sage and another called Wormwood Sage, which is very frequent.

The uses and benefits ascribed to it are many and varied, and are often shared with related species. Uses of common sage include:

infusions, which are considered to have a calming effect, to soothe a sore throat and as a digestive agent preservative flavourings, for instance of cheese as a cooking flavouring, such as in sage and onion stuffing.

Culinary uses
Painting from Koehler’s Medicinal Plants (1887)As an herb, sage is considered to have a slight peppery flavour. In Western cooking, it is used for flavouring fatty meats (especially as a marinade), cheeses (Sage Derby), and some drinks. In Britain and Flanders, sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. In French cuisine, sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Germans often use it in sausage dishes, and sage forms the dominant flavouring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. In the Balkans and the Middle East, it is used when roasting mutton.

The Latin name for sage: salvia, means “to heal”. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is often open to debate, it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. Modern evidence supports its effects as an antihydrotic, antibiotic, antifungal, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, hypoglycemic, and tonic.. In a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Active Constituents
The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil, which contains cineole, borneol, and thujone. Sage leaf contains tannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid, ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, flavones, flavone glycosides, and estrogenic substances.

Chemical Constituents–:-The chief constituent of Sage and its active principle is a yellow or greenish-yellow volatile oil (sp. gr. 0.910 to 0.930) with a penetrating odour. Tannin and resin are also present in the leaves, 0.5 to 1.0 per cent of the oil is yielded from the leaves and twigs when fresh, and about three times this quantity when dry.

The Sage oil of commerce is obtained from the herb S. officinalis, and distilled to a considerable extent in Dalmatia and recently in Spain, but from a different species of Salvia. A certain amount of oil is also distilled in Germany. The oil distilled in Dalmatia and in Germany is of typically Sage odour, and is used for flavouring purposes. The botanical origin of Spanish Sage oil is now identified as S. triloba, closely allied to S. officinalis, though probably other species may also be employed. The odour of the Spanish oil more closely resembles that of Spike Lavender than the Sage oil distilled in Germany for flavouring purposes, and is as a rule derived from the wild Dalmatian herb, S. officinalis. The resemblance of the Spanish oil to Spike Lavender oil suggests the possibility of its use for adulterative purposes, and it is an open secret that admixture of the Spanish Sage oil with Spanish Spike Lavender oil does take place to a considerable extent, though this can be detected by chemical analysis. It is closer in character to the oil of S. sclarea, Clary oil, which has a decided lavender odour, although in the oil of S. triloba, the ester percentage does not appear to be as high as in the oil of the S. sclarea variety.

Pure Dalmatian or German Sage oil is soluble in two volumes of 80 per cent alcohol, Spanish Sage oil is soluble in six volumes of 70 per cent alcohol.

Sage oil contains a hydrocarbon called Salvene; pinene and cineol are probably present in small amount, together with borneol, a small quantity of esters, and the ketone thujone, the active principle which confers the power of resisting putrefaction in animal substances. Dextro-camphor is also present in traces. A body has been isolated by certain chemists called Salviol, which is now known to be identical with Thujone.

English distilled Sage oil has been said to contain Cedrene.

S. cypria, a native of the island of Cyprus, yields an essential oil, having a camphoraceous odour and containing about 75 per cent of Eucalyptol.

S. mellifer (syn. Ramona stachyoides) is a labiate plant found in South California, known as BLACK SAGE, with similar constituents, and also traces of formic acid.

Medicinal actions uses:
Stimulant, as tringent, tonic and carminative. Has beenused in dyspepsia, but is now mostly employed as a condiment. In the United States, where it is still an official medicine, it is in some repute, especially in the form of an infusion, the principal and most valued application of which is as a wash for the cure of affections of the mouth and as a gargle in inflamed sore throat, being excellent for relaxed throat and tonsils, and also for ulcerated throat. The gargle is useful for bleeding gums and to prevent an excessive flow of saliva.

When a more stimulating effect to the throat is desirable, the gargle may be made of equal quantities of vinegar and water, 1/2 pint of hot malt vinegar being poured on 1 OZ. of leaves, adding 1/2 pint of cold water.

The infusion when made for internal use is termed Sage Tea, and can be made simply by pouring 1 pint of boiling water on to 1 OZ. of the dried herb, the dose being from a wineglassful to half a teacupful, as often as required, but the old-fashioned way of making it is more elaborate and the result is a pleasant drink, cooling in fevers, and also a cleanser and purifier of the blood. Half an ounce of fresh Sage leaves, 1 OZ. of sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, or 1/4 OZ. of grated rind, are infused in a quart of boiling water and strained off after half an hour. (In Jamaica the negroes sweeten Sage Tea with lime-juice instead of lemon.)

Sage Tea or infusion of Sage is a valuable agent in the delirium of fevers and in the nervous excitement frequently accompanying brain and nervous diseases and has considerable reputation as a remedy, given in small and oft-repeated doses. It is highly serviceable as a stimulant tonic in debility of the stomach and nervous system and weakness of digestion generally. It was for this reason that the Chinese valued it, giving it the preference to their own tea. It is considered a useful medicine in typhoid fever and beneficial in biliousness and liver complaints, kidney troubles, haemorrhage from the lungs or stomach, for colds in the head as well as sore throat and quinsy and measles, for pains in the joints, lethargy and palsy. It will check excessive perspiration in phthisis cases, and is useful as an emmenagogue. A cup of the strong infusion will be found good to relieve nervous headache.

The infusion made strong, without the lemons and sugar, is an excellent lotion for ulcers and to heal raw abrasions of the skin. It has also been popularly used as an application to the scalp, to darken the hair.

The fresh leaves, rubbed on the teeth, will cleanse them and strengthen the gums. Sage is a common ingredient in tooth-powders.

The volatile oil is said to be a violent epileptiform convulsant, resembling the essential oils of absinthe and nutmeg. When smelt for some time it is said to cause a sort of intoxication and giddiness. It is sometimes prescribed in doses of 1 to 3 drops, and used for removing heavy collections of mucus from the respiratory organs. It is a useful ingredient in embrocations for rheumatism.

In cases where heat is required, Sage has been considered valuable when applied externally in bags, as a poultice and fomentation.

In Sussex, at one time, to munch Sage leaves on nine consecutive mornings, whilst fasting, was a country cure for ague, and the dried leaves have been smoked in pipes as a remedy for asthma.

In the region where Sage grows wild, its leaves are boiled in vinegar and used as a tonic.

Among many uses of the herb, Culpepper says that it is:

‘Good for diseases of the liver and to make blood. A decoction of the leaves and branches of Sage made and drunk, saith Dioscorides, provokes urine and causeth the hair to become black. It stayeth the bleeding of wounds and cleaneth ulcers and sores. Three spoonsful of the juice of Sage taken fasting with a little honey arrests spitting or vomiting of blood in consumption. It is profitable for all pains in the head coming of cold rheumatic humours, as also for all pains in the joints, whether inwardly or outwardly. The juice of Sage in warm water cureth hoarseness and cough. Pliny saith it cureth stinging and biting serpents. Sage is of excellent use to help the memory, warming and quickening the senses. The juice of Sage drunk with vinegar hath been of use in the time of the plague at all times. Gargles are made with Sage, Rosemary, Honeysuckles and Plantains, boiled in wine or water with some honey or alum put thereto, to wash sore mouths and throats, as need requireth. It is very good for stitch or pains in the sides coming of wind, if the place be fomented warm with the decoction in wine and the herb also, after boiling, be laid warm thereto.’

Internally for indigestion, gas, liver complaints, excessive lactation, excessive perspiration, excessive salivation, anxiety, depression, female sterility, menopausal problems.

Externally for insect bites, throat, mouth, gum, skin infections, vaginal discharge.

Source: The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses, Deni Bown (New York: DK, 2001)

Health Precautions

Toxic in excess or over long periods. Contraindicated during pregnancy and for epilepsy.

For Drug Interactions: click appliedhealth.com

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sages-05.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_officinalis#Culinary_uses