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Ailmemts & Remedies

SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)

Description:
SARS, or Severe acute respiratory syndrome, is the disease caused by SARS coronavirus. It causes an often severe illness marked initially by systemic symptoms of muscle pain, headache, and fever, followed in 2–10 days by the onset of respiratory symptoms,[3] mainly cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Another common finding in SARS patients is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood.

You may click to see the picture: ....(01 )   (1)…….(2)

Virus classification:-

Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)

Order: Nidovirales

Family: Coronaviridae

Genus: Coronavirus

Species: SARS coronavirus

SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome is about 29.7kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The SARS virus has 13 known genes and 14 known proteins. There are 265bp in the 5’UTR and 342bp in the 3’UTR. SARS is similar to other coronaviruses in that its genome expression starts with translation of two large ORFs 1a and 1b, which are two polyproteins.

The functions of several of these proteins are known:  ORFs 1a and 1b encode the replicase and there are four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid, spike, membrane and envelope. It also encodes for eight unique proteins, known as the accessory proteins, with no known homologues. The function of these accessory proteins remains unknown.
In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Coronaviruses usually express pp1a (the ORF1a polyprotein) and the PP1ab polyprotein with joins ORF1a and ORF1b. The polyproteins are then processed by enzymes that are encoded by ORF1a. Product proteins from the processing includes various replicative enzymes such as RNA dependent polymerase, RNA helicase, and proteinase. The replication complex in coronavirus is also responsible for the synthesis of various mRNAs downstream of ORF 1b, which are structural and accessory proteins. Two different proteins, 3CLpro and PL2pro, cleave the large polyproteins into 16 smaller subunits.

SARS-Coronavirus follows the replication strategy typical of the Coronavirus genus.

In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Causes:
SARS is caused by a strain of coronavirus, the same family of viruses that causes the common cold. Until now, these viruses have never been particularly dangerous in humans, although they can cause severe disease in animals. For that reason, scientists originally thought that the SARS virus might have crossed from animals to humans. It now seems likely that it evolved from one or more animal viruses into a completely new strain.
 
How do SARS spread:
Most respiratory illnesses, including SARS, spread through droplets that enter the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or talks. Most experts think SARS spreads mainly through face-to-face contact, but the virus also may be spread on contaminated objects — such as doorknobs, telephones and elevator buttons.

Symptoms:
Once a person has contracted SARS, the first symptom that they present with is a fever of at least 38°C (100.4°F) or higher. The early symptoms last about 2–7 days and include non-specific flu-like symptoms, including chills/rigor, muscle aches, headaches, diarrhea, sore throat, runny nose, malaise, and myalgia (muscle pain). Next, they develop a dry cough, shortness of breath, and an upper respiratory tract infection.

SARS typically begins with flu-like signs and symptoms — signs and symptoms include:

*Fever of 100.4 F (38 C) or higher
* Dry cough
*Shortness of breath

Complications:
The main complication of SERS  is that most people develop pneumonia. Breathing problems can become so severe that a mechanical respirator is required. SARS is fatal in some cases, often due to respiratory failure. Other possible complications include heart and liver failure.

People older than the age of 60 — especially those with underlying conditions such as diabetes or hepatitis — are at highest risk of serious complications.

Risk Factors:
In general, people at greatest risk of SARS have had direct, close contact with someone who’s infected, such as family members and health care workers.

Diagnosis:
At that time, a chest x-ray is ordered to confirm pneumonia. If the chest appears clear and SARS is still suspected, a HRCT scan will be ordered, because it is visible earlier on this scan. In severe cases, it develops into respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and in 70-90% of the cases, they develop lymphopenia (low count of lymphocyte white blood cells).

The incubation period for SARS-CoV is from 2–10 days, sometimes lasting up to 13 days, with a mean of 5 days.  So symptoms usually develop between 2–10 days following infection by the virus. As part of the immune response, IgM antibody to the SARS-CoV is produced. This peaks during the acute or early convalescent phase (week 3) and declines by week 12. IgG antibody is produced later and peaks at week 12.

Tests:
When SARS first surfaced, no specific tests were available to help doctors diagnose the disease. Now several laboratory tests can help detect the virus. But no known transmission of SARS has occurred anywhere in the world since 2004.

Treatment:
Although global efforts are still on, scientists have not yet found out any effective treatment for SARS. Antibiotic drugs don’t work against viruses and antiviral drugs haven’t shown much benefit.

Prevention:
Researchers are working on several types of vaccines for SARS, but none has been tested in humans.Engineering of SARS virus has been done. In a paper published in 2006, a new transcription circuit was engineered to make recombinant SARS viruses. The recombination allowed for efficient expression of viral transcripts and proteins. The engineering of this transcription circuit reduces the RNA recombinant progeny viruses. The TRS (transcription regulatory sequences) circuit regulates efficient expression of SARS-CoV subgenomic mRNAs. The wild type TRS is ACGAAC.

A double mutation results in TRS-1 (ACGGAT) and a triple mutation results in TRS-2 (CCGGAT). When the remodeled TRS circuit containing viruses are genetically recombined with wild type TRS circuits, the result is a circuit reduced in production of subgenomic mRNA. The goal of modifying the SARS virus with this approach is to produce chimeric progeny that have reduced viability due to the incompatibility of the WT and engineered TRS circuits.

Novel subunit vaccine constructs for an S protein SARS vaccine based on the receptor binding domain (RBD) are being developed by the New York Blood Center. The re-emergence of SARS is possible, and the need remains for commercial vaccine and therapeutic development. However, the cost and length of time for product development, and the uncertain future demand, result in unfavorable economic conditions to accomplish this task. In the development of therapeutics and next-generation vaccines, more work is required to determine the structure/ function relationships of critical enzymes and structural proteins.

If SARS infections resume, follow these safety guidelines if you’re caring for an infected person:

 *Wash your hands. Clean your hands frequently with soap and hot water or use an alcohol-based hand rub containing at least 60 percent alcohol.

* Wear disposable gloves. If you have contact with the person’s body fluids or feces, wear disposable gloves. Throw the gloves away immediately after use and wash your hands thoroughly.

* Wear a surgical mask. When you’re in the same room as a person with SARS, cover your mouth and nose with a surgical mask. Wearing eye glasses also may offer some protection.

* Wash personal items. Use soap and hot water to wash the utensils, towels, bedding and clothing of someone with SARS.

* Disinfect surfaces. Use a household disinfectant to clean any surfaces that may have been contaminated with sweat, saliva, mucus, vomit, stool or urine. Wear disposable gloves while you clean and throw the gloves away when you’re done.

Follow all precautions for at least 10 days after the person’s signs and symptoms have disappeared. Keep children home from school if they develop a fever or respiratory symptoms within 10 days of being exposed to someone with SARS. Children can return to school if signs and symptoms go away after three days.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SARS_coronavirus
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sars/DS00501/DSECTION=prevention

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Herbs & Plants

Desmostachya bipinnata

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Botanical Name : Desmostachya bipinnata
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Desmostachya
Species: D. bipinnata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names: Halfa grass, Big cordgrass, and Salt reed-grass.  In India it is known by many names, including: Daabh, Dharba, Kusha, etc

Habitat : Desmostachya bipinnata is native to northeast and west tropical, and northern Africa (in Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, and Tunisia); and countries in the Middle East, and temperate and tropical Asia (in Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Thailand

Description:
A perennial grass grows up to 50 cm in height. Leaves many, long, acute, linear, with hispid margins, panicle erect, clothed with sessile spikelets; grains small, ovoid, trigonos and laterally compressed.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Medicinal Uses:
In Ayurveda  Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, diarrhea, dysentery, menorrhagia, jaundice, skin diseases, burning sensation and excessive perspiration

Ayurvedic Applications: Root-dysentery, menorrhagia, other bleeding disorders like hemorrhoids, purpura, etc.  Used as an infusion

In folk medicine, Desmostachya bipinnata has been used variously to treat dysentery and menorrhagia, and as a diuretic.

Other Uses:
Religious Uses:
Desmostachya bipinnata has long been used in various traditions as a sacred plant. According to early Buddhist accounts, it was the material used by Buddha for his meditation seat when he attained enlightenment.[8] The plant was mentioned in the Rig Veda for use in sacred ceremonies and also as a seat for priests and the Gods.[9] Kusha grass is specifically recommended by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita as part of the ideal seat for meditation.[10]

OtherIn arid regions, Desmostachya bipinnata has been used as fodder for domesticed livestock

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://enchantingkerala.org/ayurveda/ayurvedic-medicinal-plants/darbha.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmostachya_bipinnata
http://www.wildflowers.co.il/english/plant.asp?ID=664
http://www.flowersinisrael.com/Desmostachyabipinnata_page.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm?Voucher2=Connect+to+Internet

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Herbs & Plants

Aerva lanata

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Botanical Name :Aerva lanata Linn
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Amaranthoideae
Genus: Aerva
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales
Species: A. lanata
Common Names:Cheroola, Chaya, Gorakha ganja, Kapurijadi, Cherupula, Kapur-madhura, Paunsia, Buikallan, Poolai, Pindiconda.

Vernacular Names:-
Bengali: Chaya.
Duk.: Kul -ke -jar, Khul.
Hindi:Gorakhbuti or Kapuri jadi.
Kannada: Bilesuli.
Malayalam: Cherula.
Marathi: Kapuri-madhura.
Punjabi: Bui-kaltan (flowers as sold in bazaars).
Rajasthani: Bhui.
Sanskrit: Astmabayda
Sindhi: Bhui, Jari.
Sinhalese-Pol pala.
Tamil: Sirru -pulay -vayr.
Telugu: Pinde-conda, Pindi-chetter.
Trans-Indus: Asmei, Spirke, Sasai.
Swahili: Kinongo
Akan-Asante bameha
Abure n-tanfa
Akye: munongbe
Baule akopinolé
Guere (Chiehn) ura ore, wore oré (K&B) wulo wulé (B&D)

Habitat :- Native to
Afrotropic:
Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia, Somalia
East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Rwanda, Zaire
West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo
South Tropical Africa: Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe
Southern Africa: South Africa – Natal, Transvaal
Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
Indomalaya:
Indian Subcontinent: India, Sri Lanka
Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines
Australasia: Queensland

Description:
A semi erect many branched under shrub grows up to 50 cm in height. Leaves are simple, alternate, short petioled, tomentose, and become smaller in the flowering twigs. Flowers are small sessile, greenish or whitish, often found in spikes. Fruits are greenish round compressed utricle, seeds kidney shaped and small.

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Aerva lanata  is a common weed which grows wild everywhere in plains of India. The root has a camphor like aroma. The dried flowers which look like soft spikes, are sold under the commercial name as Buikallan or Boor.

Edible Uses:
The whole plant, especially the leaves, is edible. The leaves are put into soup or eaten as a spinach or as a vegetable. The plant provides grazing for stock, game in and chickens.

Medicinal Uses:

The plant is said to be diuretic and demulcent. Its diuretic action is said to be very effective in the treatment of urethral discharges and gonorrhoea and is of value in cases of lithiasis and as an anthelmintic. A trace of alkaloid has been detected.

As per Ayurveda
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, urinry infection, vesical calculi, cough, and boils.

Leaves
A leaf-decoction is prepared as a gargle for treating sore-throat and used in various complex treatments against guinea-worm. to wash Babies that have become unconscious during an attack of malaria or of some other disease are washed with a leaf decoction at the same time smoke from the burning plant is inhaled. The leaf-sap is also used for eye-complaints. An infusion is given to cure diarrhoea and in an unspecified manner at childbirth, and on sores.

Decoction of the flowers is said to cure stones in any part of the stomach and that of the root is diuretic and cure for kidney stones

Root
The root is used in snake-bite treatment.

Flowers
For pains in the lower part of the back leaves and flowers are reduced to ash which is rubbed into cuts on the back.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:

Spiritual
It gives protection against evil spirits, is a good-luck talisman for hunters, and safeguards the well-being of widows.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerva_lanata
http://enchantingkerala.org/ayurveda/ayurvedic-medicinal-plants/cherula.php
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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Herbs & Plants

Ephedra (genus)

Botanical Name :Ephedra distachya
Family: Ephedraceae
Genus: Ephedra
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Gnetophyta
Class: Gnetopsida
Order: Ephedrales
Common Names: Joint-pine, Jointfir, Mormon-tea or Brigham Tea. Mormon-tea,, cañatilla, popotillo, tepopote (Stevenson 1993), Sea Grape

The Chinese name is , má huáng (Fu et al. 1999)., which means “yellow hemp”. Ephedra is also sometimes called sea grape (from the French raisin de mer), although that is also a common name for Coccoloba uvifera.

Habitat :
Semiarid and arid areas in North America, Mexico, South America  south to Patagonia. , Europe, Asia, and N and E Africa (including Canary Islands) (Stevenson 1993, Fu et al. 1999).

The 35 species in this treatment are distributed as follows:

Their habitats are all described as dry, rocky and/or sandy. A few species occur in grasslands, and for a few species, habitat is not specified.

One species occurs in Argentina and Chile, from Tierra del Fuego to 42° S.

Two species occur in North Africa, one of which also occurs in SW Asia (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Israel) and Cyprus.

Twelve species are in the USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Wyoming) of which 5 species also occur in Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sonora).

The remaining 21 species are Eurasian, with focal areas in central Asia (18 species) and around the Mediterreanean (4 species, plus the North African ones). These break out according to country as follows:

•China: 14 species (in Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, and Yunnan)
•Pakistan: 9 species
•Kazakhstan and Mongolia: 8 species each
•Afghanistan: 7 species
•Tajikistan: 6 species
•Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Uzbekistan: 4 species each
•Greece, India, Iran, Nepal, Sikkim, Turkmenistan: 2 species each
•Armenia, Bhutan, France, Germany, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Turkey, Ukraine: 1 species each
The New World species mostly occur at elevations of below 2000 m, with a few species reaching as high as 2300 m. The Eurasian species show a much greater elevation range, from sea level to 5300 m (E. gerardiana, the highest gymnosperm species). E. intermedia probably has the greatest elevational range of any single gymnosperm species, ranging from 100 to 4600 m elevation across its vast range.

It grows on the semi-desert and desert regions and on gritty slopes on the Russian steppes. Grasslands, sandy places and rocky mountain slopes below 900 metres in China.


Description:

Shrubs or vines, dioecious (rarely monoecious), with erect, procumbent or climbing stems,  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). Branches jointed, much branched, photosynthetic, yellowish green to olive-green when young. Branchlets opposite or whorled, green, terete, longitudinally grooved. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, scalelike, generally ephemeral, mostly not photosynthetic; resin canals absent. Cotyledons 2. Cones terminal or axillary, ovoid to elliptic. Pollen cones solitary or clustered at nodes, each composed of 2-8 descussate pairs or 3-part whorls of membranous bracts, proximal bracts empty; each distal bract subtending a male flower composed of 2 basally fused, orbicular or obovate scales (false perianth); anthers sessile or stipitate on staminal column. Seed cones opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4 at nodes, each cone composed of overlapping bracts; bracts arranged in 2-10 decussate pairs or whorls of 3, red and fleshy at maturity (rarely brown and membranous), proximal bracts empty, most distal bracts subtending an axillary female flower composed of a pair of fused, leathery scales (false perianth) enclosing ovule with a single membranous integument prolonged into a slender, tubular micropyle. Seeds 1-3 per cone, ellipsoid to globose, yellow to dark brown, smooth to scabrous or furrowed (Stevenson 1993, Fu et al. 1999).

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Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained loamy soil and a sunny position. Established plants are drought resistant and are also lime tolerant. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. This species does not flower or fruit well in Britai. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a greenhouse. It can also be sown in spring in a greenhouse in a sandy compost. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on for at least their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in the spring or early summer after the last expected frosts and give some protection in their first winter. Division in spring or autumn. Layering.

 Edible Uses :  Fruit  is eaten raw. A sweet but rather insipid flavour. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses:

Plants of the Ephedra genus, including E. sinica and others, have traditionally been used by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal purposes, including treatment of asthma, hay fever, and the common cold. They have also been proposed as a candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion. The alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are active constituents of E. sinica and other members of the genus. These compounds are sympathomimetics with stimulant and decongestant qualities and are related chemically to the amphetamines. Ephedra nevadensis contains ephedrine in its roots, stems and branches. Ephedra distachya contains up to 3% ephedrine in the entire plant. Ephedra sinica contains approximately 2.2% ephedrine.

Members of this genus contain various medicinally active alkaloids (but notably ephedrine) and they are widely used in preparations for the treatment of asthma and catarrh. The whole plant can be used at much lower concentrations than the isolated constituents – unlike using the isolated ephedrine, using the whole plant rarely gives rise to side-effects. The plant also has antiviral effects, particularly against influenza. Ephedrine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system dilating the coronary vessels. It has a powerful and rapid antiallergic action. Indicated to combat coughs, asthma, hay fever, nettle-rash, some edema and eczema conditions. A tincture and an extract are used. It is used to relieve acute muscular and rheumatic pains (when it is called teamsters’ tea), as a stimulant, and in the cardio tonics in Ayurveda. It is sometimes identified with the legendary drug soma, as described in the Avesta and the Rig Veda, the respective ancient sacred texts of the Zoroastrian and Hindu faiths. Valued in Chinese medicine almost as much as Ephedra sinica. The branches and root are used in Siberia as a remedy in gout and syphilis.
The stems are a pungent, bitter, warm herb that dilates the bronchial vessels while stimulating the heart and central nervous system. They are used internally in the treatment of asthma, hay fever and allergic complaints. They are also combined with a number of other herbs and used in treating a wide range of complaints.

CLICK & READ ABOUT EPHEDRA

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Discussions on Ephedra (genus)

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.conifers.org/ep/ep/index.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephedra_sinica

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_DE.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ephedra+distachya

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Herbs & Plants

Eruca Sativa

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Botanical Name:Eruca Sativa
Family:Brassicaceae

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales
Genus: Eruca
Species: E. sativa
syn. :   E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L

Common Names:Rocket or Arugula, Roquette
Vernacular Names : Garden Rocket, Rocket (British English), Eruca, Rocketsalad, jarj?r (Arabic), Arugula (American English), Rucola (Italian), Rukola (Serbian, Slovenian, Polish), Rugola (Italian), Rauke (German), Roquette (French), Rokka (Greek), Roka (Turkish), Ruca (Catalan), Beharki (Basque), Voinicic (Romanian) Rúcula, Oruga and Arúgula (Spanish), Rúcula (Portuguese), Ruchetta (Italian)  and Rughetta (Italian). The term arugula (variations of Italian dialects) is used by the Italian diaspora in Australia and North America and from there picked up as a loan word to a varying degree in American and Australian English, particularly in culinary usage. The names ultimately all derive from the Latin word eruca, a name for an unspecified plant in the family Brassicaceae, probably a type of cabbage.

Habitat : Arugula is native to western Asia and the Mediterranean region. It is standard table fare in Italy, the South of France, Greece and Little Italy in New York City. In recent years Californians and other Americans have discovered this tangy salad green and it can now be found in upscale supermarkets throughout most of the United States. Arugula has naturalized in waste places, road shoulders and fallow fields in northern and western Europe, well beyond its original range.


DESCRIPTION:

Arugula is an annual salad green that has leaves similar in taste and appearance to its relative, the radish (Raphanus sativus). The leaves are 3-7 in (7.6-18 cm) long and deeply lobed, like those of dandelions. Arugula is best used as a salad green when it’s young, just 1 ft (0.3 m) or so tall. It will eventually produce stems 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) in height, topped with white cross shaped flowers that are very similar to those of radish. Several cultivars are offered in the specialty seed catalogs.
click  to see the pictures..>..(01)....(1).…(2)....(3)..…...(4)...
CULTIVATION:
Light: Full sun. If grown in summer, provide shade from midday sun.
Moisture: Arugula appreciates regular watering.
Hardiness: Arugula can be grown in all zones. It is an annual that can tolerate temperatures down to 25ºF (-3.9 C). It goes quickly to seed in hot weather.

It is now cultivated in various places, especially in Veneto, Italy, but is available throughout the world. It is also locally naturalised away from its native range in temperate regions around the world, including northern Europe and North America. In India, the mature seeds are known as Gargeer.

PROPAGATION :
From seed. Plant seeds thickly in rows, bands or patches in early spring and again in autumn. Summer plantings go quickly to flower and seed, and the leaves are tougher and more bitter than those from plants grown in cool weather. Arugula will self seed in the garden if allowed.

USES:
Arugula is one of the new darlings among “in” salad lovers in America, but it has been a popular salad green and “seasoning leaf” in southern Europe for centuries. It’s stronger tasting than most leafy greens, but not quite strong enough to be called an herb. The flavor of arugula has been likened to mustard greens (Brassica juncea), radish (Raphanus sativus) and cress. It adds a pleasant peppery “bite” to fresh green salads. Larger, more mature leaves, and those grown in the hot summer, are stronger tasting, almost bitter, and used in salads with discretion. The small younger leaves may be used freely. Toss arugula with radicchio and a mild lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Arugula is a standard component in mesclun, a toss of young leaves of various lettuces, chicories (Cichorum intybus), endives (Cichorium endivia) and mild herbs. It adds a nice tangy bite to potato salads. Arugula can be cooked like spinach (Spinacea oleracea) or wilted in hot olive oil and garlic and served with pasta or potatoes. Use the older, more tangy leaves in soups and sauces. Add arugula to leek and potato soup near the end of the simmering. Use arugula in vegetable stir fry. The seeds of arugula are sometimes used as a flavoring substitute for mustard, and they are pressed to yield an edible oil known as jamba oil. The seeds are also sprouted for use in salads.

It is used as a leaf vegetable, which looks like a longer leaved and open lettuce. It is rich in vitamin C and potassium[9]. It is frequently cultivated, although domestication cannot be considered complete. It has been grown in the Mediterranean area since Roman times, and is considered an aphrodisiac. Before the 1990s it was usually collected in the wild and was not cultivated on a large scale or researched scientifically. In addition to the leaves, the flowers (often used in salads as an edible garnish), young seed pods and mature seeds are all edible.

On the island of Ischia in the Gulf of Naples, a digestive alcohol called rucolino is made from the plant, a drink often enjoyed in small quantities following a meal. The liquor is a local specialty enjoyed in the same way as a limoncello or grappa and has a sweet peppery taste that washes down easily.

Grow arugula in the fall and early spring garden. Usable leaves should be ready in 4-6 weeks. The best leaves are from plants grown fast in cool weather. Use nitrogen fertilizer to insure rapid growth. Pick off leaves as needed, leaving the plant to grow more.

Features:

According to ancient traditions, eating arugula will bring you good luck. The oil extracted from the seeds was considered to be an aphrodisiac. Since it also tastes good, it seems like everyone might want to grow this talented green.

MEDICINAL USES:
Herbal medicine : Medicinal notes  It is sharp, spicy and pungent. Eruca sativa is most often used cooked or fresh.

RECENT RESEARCH study conducted by Saudi Arabian researchers has confirmed that the herb  Rocket “Eruca sativa L.” (EER), a member of the   Brassicacae family, has potential anti-ulcer medicinal properties.
Click to see:->Herb Medicine ‘Rocket’ has Gastric Anti-ulcer Properties :

Traditional uses:
Parts used  Traditional uses  Contemporary uses  Fragrance  Fragrance parts  Fragrance intensity    Fragrance category    Dye parts  Dye color .

Other Uses: The seed yields a semi-drying oil which is a substitute for rapeseed oil[46]. It can also be used for lighting, burning with very little soot.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eruca_sativa
http://www.floridata.com/ref/E/eruc_sat.cfm

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