Ailmemts & Remedies

Epididymo-Orchitis and Orchitis

Epididymo-orchitis occurs when the testicle (or testis) and epididymis (the coiled tube that lies above and behind the testicle and stores and carries sperm) become infected. Bacteria are usually to blame although the infection may be due to a virus or rarely a parasite such as schistosomiasis, or a fungus.
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When infection develops, these two structures become inflamed and swollen, the scrotum feels tender and is red on the side affected. The symptoms usually start after a few hours, and when severe can cause fever and great pain.


Epididymo-orchitis symptoms may develop suddenly  it  includes:

*Testicular swelling on one or both sides

*Pain ranging from mild to severe

*Tenderness in one or both testicles, which may last for weeks



*Discharge from penis

*Blood in the ejaculate

The terms “testicle pain” and “groin pain” are sometimes used interchangeably. But groin pain occurs in the fold of skin between the thigh and abdomen — not in the testicle. The causes of groin pain are different from the causes of testicle pain.

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A number of conditions can cause testicular pain, and some of the conditions require immediate treatment. One such condition involves twisting of the spermatic cord (testicular torsion), which may cause pain similar to that caused by orchitis. Your doctor can perform tests to determine which condition is causing your pain.

The bacteria that cause epididymo-orchitis may get to the testis and epididymis in different ways. In younger men, the bacteria have usually travelled from the penis, having been passed on during sex.

In older men, prostatitis (infection of the prostate gland) or urinary infection is usually to blame. Epididymo-orchitis can also follow any medical procedure involving the urinary tract, such as catheterisation of the bladder or a cystoscopy.

Rarely, the infection arrives from the bloodstream, such as when the micro-organism responsible is tuberculosis (TB) which travels from a source of infection elsewhere in the body. Years ago, before the introduction of immunisation, infection with the mumps virus was a common cause of epididymo-orchitis.

Orchitis can be either bacterial or viral.

Bacterial orchitis
Most often, bacterial orchitis is the result of epididymitis, an inflammation of the coiled tube that connects the vas deferens and the testicle. The vas deferens carries sperm from your testicles. When inflammation in the epididymis spreads to the testicle, the resulting condition is known as epididymo-orchitis.

Epididymitis usually is caused by an infection of the urethra or bladder that spreads to the epididymis. Often the cause of the infection is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), particularly gonorrhea or chlamydia. Other causes of infection may be related to having been born with abnormalities in your urinary tract or having had a catheter or medical instruments inserted into your penis.

Viral orchitis:
Most cases of viral orchitis are the result of mumps. About one-third of males who contract the mumps after puberty develop orchitis during their course of the mumps, usually four to six days after onset.

Risk Factors:
Several factors may contribute to developing orchitis. For nonsexually transmitted orchitis, they include:

#Not being immunized against mumps

#Being older than 45

#Having recurring urinary tract infections

#Having surgery that involves the genitals or urinary tract, because of the risk of infection

#Being born with an abnormality in the urinary tract (congenital)

High-risk sexual behaviors that can lead to STDs also put you at risk of sexually transmitted orchitis. They include having:

#Multiple sexual partners

#Sex with a partner who has an STD

#Sex without a condom

#A personal history of an STD

Complications of orchitis may include:

#Testicular atrophy. Orchitis may eventually cause the affected testicle to shrink.

#Scrotal abscess. The infected tissue fills with pus.

#Repeated epididymitis. Orchitis can lead to recurrent episodes of epididymitis.

#Infertility. In a small number of cases, orchitis can reduce fertility; however, if orchitis affects only one testicle, sterility is less likely.

A physical examination may reveal enlarged lymph nodes in your groin and an enlarged testicle on the affected side; both may be tender to the touch. Your doctor may do a rectal examination to check for prostate enlargement or tenderness and order blood and urine tests to check for infection and other abnormalities.

Other tests many times  required to determine the presence of an STD and to rule out the possibility of testicular torsion, which requires immediate treatment, include:

#STD screening. This involves obtaining a sample of discharge from your urethra. Your doctor may insert a narrow swab into the end of your penis to obtain the sample, which will be viewed under a microscope or cultured to check for gonorrhea and chlamydia.

#Urinalysis. A sample of your urine, collected either at home first thing in the morning or at your doctor’s office, is analyzed in a lab for abnormalities in appearance, concentration or content.Ultrasound imaging. This test, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create precise images of structures inside your body, may be used to rule out twisting of the spermatic cord (testicular torsion).

#Ultrasound with color Doppler can determine if the blood flow to your testicle is reduced or increased, which helps confirm the diagnosis of orchitis.

#Nuclear scan of the testicles. Also used to rule out testicular torsion, this test involves injecting tiny amounts of radioactive material into your bloodstream. Special cameras can then detect areas in your testicles that receive less blood flow, indicating torsion, or more blood flow, confirming the diagnosis of orchitis.

Treatment :
Treatment depends on the cause of orchitis.

Treating viral orchitis
Treatment for viral orchitis, the type associated with mumps, is aimed at relieving symptoms. Your doctor may prescribe pain medication, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others), and recommend bed rest, elevating your scrotum and applying cold packs.

Treating bacterial orchitis
In addition to steps to relieve discomfort, bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis require antibiotic treatment. If the cause of the infection is an STD, your sexual partner also needs treatment.

Antibiotic drugs most commonly used to treat bacterial orchitis include ceftriaxone (Rocephin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Vibramycin, Doryx), azithromycin (Zithromax), and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole combined (Bactrim, Septra). Make sure your doctor is aware of any other medications you’re taking or any allergies you have. This information, as well as whether your infection is sexually transmitted and what type of STD you have, will help your doctor select the best treatment.

Be sure to take the entire course of antibiotics recommended by your doctor. Even if your symptoms clear up sooner, take all your antibiotics to ensure that the infection is gone.

Prognosis is very good.If the diseases is properly diagnosed in time it is cured with proper  drug and rest.

Life Style & Home Remedies:
To ease your discomfort, try these suggestions:

*Rest in bed.

*Lie down so that your scrotum is elevated.

*Apply cold packs to your scrotum as tolerated.

*Practicing safer sex, such as having just one sex partner and using a condom, helps protect against STDs, which helps prevent
*STD-related bacterial orchitis.

*Getting immunized against mumps is your best protection against viral, mumps-related orchitis.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


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Ailmemts & Remedies


A hydrocele is an accumulation of clear fluid in the tunica vaginalis, the most internal of
membranes containing a testicle. A primary hydrocele causes a painless enlargement in the scrotum on the affected side and is thought to be due to the defective absorption of fluid secreted between the two layers of the tunica vaginalis (investing membrane). A secondary hydrocele is secondary to either inflammation or a neoplasm in the testis.

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A hydrocele usually occurs on one side. The accumulation can be a marker of physical trauma, infection or tumor, but the cause is generally unknown.

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A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle that results in swelling of the
scrotum, the loose bag of skin underneath the penis. About one in 10 male infants has a
hydrocele at birth, but most hydroceles disappear without treatment within the first year of life. Additionally, men  usually older than 40 can develop a hydrocele due to
inflammation or injury within the scrotum.

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Hydroceles usually aren’t painful. Typically not harmful, hydroceles may require no
treatment. However, if you have scrotal swelling, see your doctor to rule out other causes, such as testicular cancer or other conditions

A hydrocele feels like a small fluid filled balloon inside the scrotum. It is smooth, and is
mainly in front of one of the testes. Hydroceles vary greatly in size. Hydroceles are
normally painless and harmless. Large hydroceles cause discomfort because of their size. As the fluid of a hydrocele is transparent, light shone through a hydrocelic region will be
visible from the other side.

Symptoms of a hydrocele can easily be distinguished from testicular cancer, as a hydrocele is soft and fluidy, where a testicular cancer feels hard and rough.
Through diagnostic ultrasound the accumulation of fluids can be diagnosed correctly.

For baby boys, a hydrocele can develop in the womb. At about 28 weeks of gestation, the
testicles descend from the developing baby’s abdominal cavity into the scrotum. A sac
(processus vaginalis) accompanies each testicle, allowing fluid to surround them.

In most cases, the sac closes and the fluid is absorbed. However, if the fluid remains after
the sac closes, the condition is known as a noncommunicating hydrocele. Because the sac is closed, fluid can’t flow back into the abdomen. Usually the fluid gets absorbed within a

In some cases, however, the sac remains open. With this condition, known as communicating hydrocele, the sac can change size or, if the scrotal sac is compressed, fluid can flow back into the abdomen.

In older males, a hydrocele can develop as a result of inflammation or injury within the
scrotum. Inflammation may be the result of infection of the small coiled tube at the back of each testicle (epididymitis) or of the testicle (orchitis).

Risk factors
Most hydroceles are present at birth (congenital). Otherwise, the condition generally
affects men 40 or older. Risk factors include:

*Scrotal injury
*Radiation therapy

Possible Complications

Complications may occur from hydrocele treatment.

Risks related to hydrocele surgery may include:

  • Blood clots
  • Infection
  • Injury to the scrotal tissue or structures

Risks related to aspiration and sclerosing may include:

  • Infection
  • Fibrosis
  • Mild-to-moderate pain in the scrotal area
  • Return of the hydrocele

When to seek medical advice
For yourself
See your doctor if you experience scrotal swelling. It’s important to rule out other
possible causes for the swelling, such as a tumor. Sometimes a hydrocele is associated with an inguinal hernia, in which a weak point in the abdominal wall allows a loop of intestine to extend into the scrotum and which may require treatment.

For your child
In infants, a hydrocele typically disappears on its own. However, if your baby’s hydrocele
doesn’t disappear after a year or if it enlarges, you may need to have it evaluated.

Screening and diagnosis entails a physical exam, which may reveal an enlarged scrotum that isn’t tender to the touch. Pressure to the abdomen or scrotum may enlarge or shrink the
fluid-filled sac, which may indicate an associated inguinal hernia.

Because the fluid in a hydrocele usually is clear, your doctor may shine a light through the scrotum (transillumination). With a hydrocele, the light will outline the testicle,
indicating that clear fluid surrounds it. If your doctor suspects your hydrocele is caused by inflammation, blood and urine tests may help determine whether you have an infection, such as epididymitis.

The fluid surrounding the testicle may keep the testicle from being felt. In that case,
further study may be needed. Possible tests include:

Ultrasound imaging. This test, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures inside your body, may be used to rule out a testicular tumor or other cause of
scrotal swelling.
Abdominal X-ray. A basic X-ray uses electromagnetic radiation to make images of your bones, teeth and internal organs. An X-ray may distinguish a hydrocele from an inguinal hernia.

Other Complications
A hydrocele typically isn’t dangerous and usually doesn’t affect fertility. However, it may be associated with an underlying testicular condition that may cause serious complications:

*Infection or tumor. Either may impair sperm production or function.

*Inguinal hernia. A loop of intestine could become trapped in the weak point in the

abdominal wall (strangulated), a life-threatening condition.

For baby boys, hydroceles typically disappear on their own within a year. If a hydrocele
doesn’t disappear after a year or if it continues to enlarge, it may need to be surgically

For adult males as well, hydroceles often go away on their own. A hydrocele requires
treatment only if it gets large enough to cause discomfort or disfigurement. Then it may
need to be removed.

Surgical excision (hydrocelectomy). . The procedure is called hydrocelectomy, the tunica vaginalis is excised, the fluid drained, and the edges of the tunica are sutured to prevent the reaccumulation of fluid.

If the hydrocele is not surgically removed, it may continue to grow. The hydrocele fluid can be aspirated, the procedure is less invasive but recurrence rates are high. Sclerotherapy, the injection of a solution following aspiration of the hydrocele fluid may increase success rates. In many patients, the procedure of aspiration and sclerotherapy is repeated as the hydrocele recurrs.

Needle aspiration. Another option is to remove the fluid in the scrotum with a needle. This treatment isn’t widely used because it’s common for the fluid to return. The injection of a
thickening or hardening (sclerosing) drug after the aspiration may help prevent the fluid
from reaccumulating. Aspiration and injection may be an option for men who have risk factors that make surgery more dangerous. Risks of this procedure include infection and scrotal pain.

Sometimes, a hydrocele may recur after treatment.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Generally, a simple hydrocele goes away without surgery. If surgery is necessary, it is a simple procedure for a skilled surgeon, and usually has an excellent outcome.

Homeopathic Treatment & Medicines of Hydrocoele –
Following homeopathic medicines are known to help in cases of hydrocoele – Apis, Aurum-met, Calc-c, Con, Flour-acid, Graph, Iod, Kali-iod, Puls, Rhod, Selen, Sil, Spong.

Hydrocele treatment: alternative therapy

Herbal Remedies of Hydrocele

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


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