Tag Archives: Scutellaria

Scutellaria galericulata

Botanical Name :Scutellaria galericulata
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus:     Scutellaria
Species: S. galericulata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Lamiales

Synonyms:  Greater Scullcap. Helmet Flower. Hoodwort.
(French) Toque.

Common Names: Common skullcap, Marsh skullcap or Hooded skullcap,

Habitat :Scutellaria galericulata is  native to northern areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and much of North America.It grows on moist acid or calcareous soils on the edges of streams, in water meadows and fens, ascending to 360 metres in Britain.

Description:
Scutellaria galericulata is a hardy perennial herb. It is a member of the mint family. The form is upright and is usually 20 to 45 centimeters in height, sometimes reaching up to 80. It is a wetland-loving species and grows along fens and shorelines. The blue flowers are 1 to 2 centimeters long. The flowers are in pairs and are all on the same side of the stem. The flowers do not appear at the top of the stem.
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The plant is native to many parts of the world and, as such, is known by a variety of names. The Latin galericulata means “hooded”, relating to the length of the flower’s tube being much longer than the calyx. The variation epilobiifolia translates as leaves like willow-herb, and refers to the slightly serrated long thin leaves which look similar to those of the genus Epilobium.

The root-stock is perennial and creeping. The square stems, 6 to 18 inches high, are somewhat slender, either paniculately branched, or, in small specimens, nearly simple, with opposite downy leaves, oblong and tapering, heart-shaped at the base, 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, notched and shortly petioled.

The flowers are in pairs, each growing from the axils of the upper, leaf-like bracts, which are quite indistinguishable from the true leaves, and are all turned one way, the pedicels being very short. The corollas are bright blue, variegated with white inside, the tube long and curved, three or four times as long as the calyx, the lips short, the lower lip having three shallow lobes.

Soon after the corolla has fallen off, the upper lip of the calyx, which bulges outward about the middle, closes on the lower as if on a hinge, and gives it the appearance of a capsule with a lid. When the seed is ripe, the cup being dry, divides into two distinct parts, and the seeds, already detached from the receptacle, fall to the ground.

The plant is in flower from July to September. It is subglabrous, with the angles of the stem, the leaves and flowering calyx finely pubescent.

Cultivation:  
Succeeds in a sunny position in any ordinary garden soil that does not dry out during the growing season.

 Propagation :    
Seed – sow in situ outdoors in late spring. If there is only a small quantity of seed it is better to sow it in a pot in a cold frame in early spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the spring. Division in spring just before new growth begins. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer. Basal cuttings in early summer in a frame. Very easy. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 – 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiinflammatory;  Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Febrifuge;  Nervine;  Tonic.

The herb is anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, slightly astringent, febrifuge, nervine and strongly tonic. In the home an infusion is sometimes used in the treatment of throat infections. The plant is harvested in the summer as it comes into flower and can be dried for later use. This plant is rarely if ever used in herbal medicine, though it is said to have the same applications as S. lateriflora. These applications are:- Skullcap was traditionally used in the treatment of a wide range of nervous conditions including epilepsy, insomnia, anxiety, delirium tremens, withdrawal from barbiturates and tranquillisers, and neuralgia. An infusion of the plant has been used to promote suppressed menstruation, it should not be given to pregnant women since it can induce a miscarriage. This plant should be used with some caution since in excess it causes giddiness, stupor, confusion and twitching.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/scullc34.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scutellaria_galericulata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scutellaria+galericulata

Scutellaria baicalensis

Botanical Name :Scutellaria baicalensis
Family: Lamiaceae/Labiatae
Genus: Scutellaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Species: S. baicalensis
Synonyms : S. macrantha. Fisch.
Common Name : Baikal Skullcap,  Scutellaria lateriflora,  Skullcap

Etymology confusion:
It is important to note the Latin name of the Skullcap being used as there are over 200 varieties, some used for various ailments, each with varying degrees of effectiveness. Sometimes Scutellaria lateriflora (North American Skullcap) is mistaken for Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal Skullcap). This confusion can result in the intake of the lateriflora variety which is often processed and contaminated with other plants with high enough levels of toxicity to be of concern.

Habitat :Native to North America.Grows in E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia. Sandy and rocky places near the sea shore. Sunny, grassy slopes and waste ground from 100 – 2,000 metres above sea level.

Description:
Scutellaria baicalensis is a perennial herb ,growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is a  species of flowering plant.
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in any ordinary garden soil that does not dry out during the growing season. Prefers a light well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. This species requires sharp drainage and, once established, is drought tolerant. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. A very ornamental plant.

Propagation :
Seed – sow outdoors in situ in late spring If there is only a small quantity of seed it is better to sow it in a pot in a cold frame in early spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring just before new growth begins. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Young leaves – cooked as a vegetable. The whole plant is dried and used as a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne;  Antibacterial;  Anticholesterolemic;  Antipyretic;  Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Cholagogue;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  FebrifugeHaemostatic;
Laxative;  Nervine;  Sedative;  Stomachic;  TB;  Tonic.

Baikal skullcap is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs and is used primarily in treating “hot and damp” conditions such as dysentery and diarrhoea. It has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years and recent research has found that the roots contain flavonoids that greatly enhance liver function and also have anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic effects. The root is anodyne, antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, haemostatic, laxative, nervine, mildly sedative, stomachic and tonic (for TB). It reputedly calms the foetus in pregnant women. The root is used internally in the treatment of enteritis, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, chronic hepatitis, urinary tract infections, hypertension, threatened miscarriage, nosebleed and haemorrhage from the lungs or bowel. It is one of the ingredients of the Chinese drug ‘injection of three yellow herbs’. The root is harvested in the autumn or spring from plants 3 – 4 years old and is dried for later use. The seed is used to cleanse the bowels of blood and pus.

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi contains wogonin, a flavone which was found in one study to have anxiolytic properties in mice at doses of 7.5 to 30 mg/kg, without exhibiting the sedative and muscle-relaxing properties of benzodiazepines.

It also contains baicalin, another flavone.

You may click to see :
Anticancer Activity of Scutellaria baicalensis and Its Potential Mechanism :
What Are the Medical Uses of Scutellaria Baicalensis?

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scutellaria+baicalensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scutellaria_baicalensis
http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2007/12/scutellaria_baicalensis_1.php