Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Syphillis

Other names:
Other names that people use for syphilis include:
*Pox
*Bad blood
*The great imitator
*Siff.

Description:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infective diseas caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum), and bejel (subspecies endemicum)……....click & see the pictures

Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages :primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary.

Primary stage of Syphilis:
The primary stage of syphilis typically begins with a sore (called a “chancre”) on the skin that’s initially exposed to the infection — usually the genitals, rectum or mouth. The sore has been described as feeling like a button: firm, round, usually measuring half an inch across, and not tender to the touch. Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin may occur, but the nodes are not usually tender.

Infected individuals do not usually feel ill in the primary stage of syphilis, and the chancre heals spontaneously after 4 to 6 weeks. This is a problem because the syphilis has not gone away: syphilis continues to spread throughout the body.

Secondary stage of syphilis:
From the primary stage, the disease moves into the secondary stage of syphilis. Secondary syphilis can often occur several weeks after the chancre heals, once the bacteria have spread through the body. An individual may feel sick; common symptoms include headache, achiness, loss of appetite and maybe rash.

The rash in secondary syphilis is usually reddish-brown in color, not itchy and widespread. But the appearance of the rash’s individual lesions can vary dramatically: they may be flat or raised, they may or may not be scaly, and pustules may or may not be present. It’s partially due to the variability of this rash that led to syphilis being called “the great imitator,” because it can resemble many other conditions. The rash can last for a few weeks or months.

Other symptoms of secondary syphilis include sores in the mouth, nose, throat, and on the genitals or folds of the skin. Lymph node swelling is common, and patchy hair loss can occur. All signs and symptoms of the second stage of syphilis will disappear without treatment in 3 weeks to 9 months, but the infection will still be present in the body.

Latent stage of Syphilis:
The latent stage of syphilis, which occurs after the symptoms of secondary syphilis have disappeared, can last from a few years to up to 50 years! There are no symptoms in this stage, and after about two years, an infected man may cease to be contagious. However, a man in the latent stage of syphilis is still infected, and the disease can be diagnosed by a blood test. During the latent stage, a pregnant woman can transmit syphilis to her fetus.

Tertiary stage of Syphillis:
The final stage of syphilis, which occurs in about one third of those who are not treated, is known as the tertiary stage. Many organs may be affected. Common symptoms include fever; painful, non-healing skin ulcers; bone pain; liver disease; and anemia. Tertiary syphilis can also affect the nervous system (resulting in the loss of mental functioning) and the aorta (resulting in heart disease)…….click & see : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Tertiary_syphilis_head.JPG

Congenita syphilis:
Congenital syphilis is that which is transmitted during pregnancy or during birth. Two-thirds of syphilitic infants are born without symptoms. Common symptoms that develop over the first couple years of life include: hepatosplenomegaly (70%), rash (70%), fever (40%), neurosyphilis (20%), and pneumonitis (20%). If untreated, late congenital syphilis may occur in 40%, including: saddle nose deformation, Higoumenakis sign, saber shin, or Clutton’s joints among others.

Causes:
The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The most common route of transmission is through contact with an infected person’s sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period.

Syphilis is transmitted primarily by sexual contact or during pregnancy from a mother to her fetus; the spirochaete is able to pass through intact mucous membranes or compromised skin. It is thus transmissible by kissing near a lesion, as well as oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Approximately 30 to 60% of those exposed to primary or secondary syphilis will get the disease. Its infectivity is exemplified by the fact that an individual inoculated with only 57 organisms has a 50% chance of being infected. Most (60%) of new cases in the United States occur in men who have sex with men. It can be transmitted via blood products. However, it is tested for in many countries and thus the risk is low. The risk of transmission from sharing needles appears limited. Syphilis cannot be contracted through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.Once cured, syphilis doesn’t recur. However, you can become reinfected if you have contact with someone’s syphilis sore.

Risk Factors:
One may face an increased risk of acquiring syphilis if he or she:

*Engage in unprotected sex
*Have sex with multiple partners
*Are a man who has sex with men
*Are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

Complications:
Without treatment, syphilis can lead to damage throughout your body. Syphilis also increases the risk of HIV infection and, for women, can cause problems during pregnancy. Treatment can help prevent future damage but can’t repair or reverse damage that’s already occurred.

Small bumps or tumors:
Called gummas, these bumps can develop on your skin, bones, liver or any other organ in the late stage of syphilis. Gummas usually disappear after treatment with antibiotics.

Neurological problems:
Syphilis can cause a number of problems with your nervous system, including:

*Stroke
*Meningitis
*Deafness
*Visual problems
*Dementia
*Cardiovascular problems

These may include bulging (aneurysm) and inflammation of the aorta —  body’s major artery — and of other blood vessels. Syphilis may also damage heart valves.

HIV infection:
Adults with sexually transmitted syphilis or other genital ulcers have an estimated two- to fivefold increased risk of contracting HIV. A syphilis sore can bleed easily, providing an easy way for HIV to enter your bloodstream during sexual activity.

Pregnancy and childbirth complications:
Pregnent woman  may pass syphilis to her unborn baby. Congenital syphilis greatly increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth or her newborn’s death within a few days after birth.

Diagnosis:
Syphilis can be diagnosed by testing samples of:

*Blood. Blood tests can confirm the presence of antibodies that the body produces to fight infection. The antibodies to the bacteria that cause syphilis remain in your body for years, so the test can be used to determine a current or past infection.

*Fluid from sores. Your doctor may scrape a small sample of cells from a sore to be analyzed by microscope in a lab. This test can be done only during primary or secondary syphilis, when sores are present. The scraping can reveal the presence of bacteria that cause syphilis.

*Cerebral spinal fluid. If it’s suspected that you have nervous system complications of syphilis, your doctor may also suggest collecting a sample of cerebrospinal fluid through a procedure called a lumbar puncture (spinal tap).

Treatment:
Early infections:
The first-choice treatment for uncomplicated syphilis remains a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G or a single dose of oral azithromycin. Doxycycline and tetracycline are alternative choices; however, due to the risk of birth defects these are not recommended for pregnant women. Antibiotic resistance has developed to a number of agents, including macrolides, clindamycin, and rifampin. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment.
Late infections

For neurosyphilis, due to the poor penetration of penicillin G into the central nervous system, those affected are recommended to be given large doses of intravenous penicillin for a minimum of 10 days. If a person is allergic, ceftriaxone may be used or penicillin desensitization attempted. Other late presentations may be treated with once-weekly intramuscular penicillin G for three weeks. If allergic, as in the case of early disease, doxycycline or tetracycline may be used, albeit for a longer duration. Treatment at this stage limits further progression, but has only slight effect on damage which has already occurred.

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction:
One of the potential side effects of treatment is the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It frequently starts within one hour and lasts for 24 hours, with symptoms of fever, muscles pains, headache, and tachycardia. It is caused by cytokines released by the immune system in response to lipoproteins released from rupturing syphilis bacteria

Prevention:
As of 2010, there is no vaccine effective for prevention.Abstinence from intimate physical contact with an infected person is effective at reducing the transmission of syphilis, as is the proper use of a latex condom. Condom use, however, does not completely eliminate the risk. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner and the avoidance of substances such as alcohol and other drugs that increase risky sexual behavior.

Congenital syphilis in the newborn can be prevented by screening mothers during early pregnancy and treating those who are infected. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends universal screening of all pregnant women,[18] while the World Health Organization recommends all women be tested at their first antenatal visit and again in the third trimester. If they are positive, they recommend their partners also be treated. Congenital syphilis is, however, still common in the developing world, as many women do not receive antenatal care at all, and the antenatal care others do receive does not include screening, and it still occasionally occurs in the developed world, as those most likely to acquire syphilis (through drug use, etc.) are least likely to receive care during pregnancy. A number of measures to increase access to testing appear effective at reducing rates of congenital syphilis in low- to middle-income countries.

Syphilis is a notifiable disease in many countries, including Canada the European Union, and the United States. This means health care providers are required to notify public health authorities, which will then ideally provide partner notification to the person’s partners. Physicians may also encourage patients to send their partners to seek care. The CDC recommends sexually active men who have sex with men are tested at least yearly.

Research:
There is no vaccine available for people; however, a vaccine has been developed that is effective in an animal model and research is ongoing.

Click & see:—>
Ayurvedic treatment ofSyphillis….(1).…..(2)..(3)

Homeopathic treatment of Syphillis:....(1)….(2)....(3)

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/causes/con-20021862
http://menshealth.about.com/od/sexualdiseasesstds/a/syphilis_signs.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20021862

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Symphoricarpos (Snowberry)

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Botanical Name : Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Genus: Symphoricarpos

Kingdom: Plantae

Order: Dipsacales

Common Names:Snowberry, Waxberry or Ghostberry

Habitat:  Symphoricarpos has 15 species of deciduous shrubs in the honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae. All species are natives of North and Central America, except one native to western China. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words (symphorein), meaning “to bear together,” and  (karpos), meaning “fruit.” It refers to the closely packed berries the species produce.

Description:

Symphoricarpos is a deciduous shrub. Its leaves are 1.5–5 cm long, rounded, entire or with one or two lobes at the base. The flowers are small, greenish-white to pink, in small clusters of 5–15 together in most species, solitary or in pairs in some (e.g. S. microphyllus). The fruit are conspicuous, 1–2 cm in diameter, soft, varying from white (e.g. S. albus) to pink (S. microphyllus) to red (S. orbiculatus) and in one species (S. sinensis), blackish purple. When the white berries are broken open, the fruit inside looks like fine, sparkling granular snow.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Medicinal Uses:

Snowberry was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for the saponins it contains. These saponins can be toxic, but when applied externally they have a gentle cleansing and healing effect upon the skin, killing body parasites and helping in the healing of wounds. The Native Americans used it to treat a variety of complaints but especially as an external wash on the skin. Any internal use of this plant should be carried out with care, and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. An infusion of the stems has been drunk to treat stomach problems and menstrual disorders. A decoction of the leaves has been used in the treatment of colds. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been applied, or an infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash, in the treatment of external injuries. A weak solution of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for children whilst a stronger solution is applied to sores. The fruit has been eaten, or used as an infusion, in the treatment of diarrhea. An infusion of the fruit has been used as an eye wash for sore eyes. The berries have been rubbed on the skin as a treatment for burns, rashes, itches and sores. The berries have also been rubbed on warts in order to get rid of them. A poultice of the crushed leaves, fruit and bark has been used in the treatment of burns, sores, cuts, chapped and injured skin.  An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of fevers (including childhood fevers), stomach aches and colds. A decoction of the root bark has been used in the treatment of venereal disease and to restore the flow of urine. An infusion of the root has been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. An infusion of the whole plant has been drunk and also applied externally in the treatment of skin rashes. A decoction of the roots and stems has been used in the treatment of the inability to urinate, venereal disease, tuberculosis and the fevers associated with teething sickness

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphoricarpos

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

Definition:
HPV, short for Human Papillomavirus, is a group of over 100 different kinds of viruses, some of which cause warts on the hands and feet and others which cause genital warts and cervical cancer. This health guide is about the sexually transmitted types of HPV. If you are sexually active, or thinking about becoming sexually active, your best protection is to learn the facts about how HPV is spread and how to prevent getting it.
Click to see the picture
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. There are many different types of HPV and more than 30 are sexually transmitted. Researchers keep track of the different types of HPV by identifying them with numbers, such as 6, 11, 16, and 18.

Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with “high-risk” HPV types—different from the ones that cause skin warts—may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. However, most infections with these types do not cause disease.

Some types (such as 6 and 11) cause genital warts, others (such as 16 and 18) cause pre-cancerous changes on the cervix that can later lead to cancer of the cervix. In rare cases, the virus can cause other types of cancers to the vulva, vagina, and anus in girls and the anus and penis in guys.

HPV is passed on through genital contact, usually during vaginal and anal sex, as well as during oral sex. People with weakened immune systems, such as those on chemotherapy or people with HIV are more susceptible to HPV infection.

At least 1 in every 2 sexually active young women has had a genital HPV infection. Any sexually active person—no matter what color, race, gender, or sexual orientation—can get HPV. HPV is mainly spread by sexual contact. Very rarely, a mother who is infected with the HPV virus can infect her newborn baby during the delivery.

Symptoms:
It’s estimated that by the age of 27, most sexually active people have been exposed to some strain of HPV, usually without them knowing, and very rarely do doctors know which strain.

Most people with HPV don’t develop symptoms or further health problems, as in around 90 per cent of cases the body’s immune system has naturally cleared it within two years.

However, certain types of HPV (most commonly strains 6, 11, 16 and 18) can cause genital warts in men and women, while other HPV strains (especially 16, 18 and 39) can cause cellular changes that lead to cancer of the cervix and possibly other less common but serious cancers including:

•vulval cancer
•cancer of the vagina
•cancer of the penis
•anal cancer
•head and neck (tongue, tonsils and throat) cancers
It’s possible to have HPV present years after sexual contact with an infected person, and it’s also possible to be exposed to more than one strain of HPV.

There is currently no easy way to spot which people affected by HPV exposure will go on to develop cancer or other serious health problems.

Very rarely, a pregnant woman can pass HPV to her baby during birth and the child can develop recurrent respiratory papillomatosis – a chronic lung condition where growths block the airways.

Causes:
*The infected area of your body remains totally normal (called latent or inactive infection). You may never know about it, but you may give the infection to others. Your body then usually clears the infection.

*Bumps, called genital warts, can be seen in your genital area. They almost never lead to cancer.

*Changes in the cells of your cervix can result in an abnormal Pap test. Most of the time, if you are a teenager, your body will clear the HPV and the Pap test will become normal again over several years. However, sometimes the HPV infection persists in your cervix which can lead to cervical cancer. This is why your doctor will want to see you for follow-up visits if you have had an abnormal Pap test.

Risk Factors:
*You had sexual contact at an early age.

*Either you or your sexual partners have had many different sexual partners at any time.

*You or any of your sexual partners have had a history of sexually transmitted diseases.

*Any of your sexual partners did not wear a condom.

HPV and cancer risks:
We don’t fully understand the way in which HPV affects cells. Both high-risk and low-risk strains of HPV can cause the growth of abnormal cells, but only the high-risk types of HPV appear to lead to cancer.

Several types of cancer (up to five per cent worldwide), while linked to other risk factors, are now also associated with HPV exposure:

•cervical cancer (the most common HPV-associated cancer)
•vulval and vaginal cancer (40 to 70 per cent linked to HPV)
•penile cancer (possibly 40 per cent linked)
•anal cancer (around 85 per cent linked)
•cancers of the head and neck (although most are linked to tobacco and alcohol use, it’s now thought about 25 per cent of mouth and 35 per cent of throat cancers may be linked to HPV exposure (in particular HPV strain 16)

Diagnosis:
Sometimes it’s hard to know if you have HPV. Although genital warts are usually seen on, around, or inside your vagina or anus, they may be small and hard to see. And you may not have any symptoms such as pain or bleeding.

In March 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a test manufactured by Qiagen, which is a “hybrid-capture” test, as the primary screening tool for detecting HPV cervical infection as an adjunct to Pap testing. The test may be performed during a routine Pap smear. It can detect the DNA of the 18 HPV types that most commonly affect the cervix and distinguish between “low” and “high-risk” HPV types, but it cannot determine the specific HPV types.

According to the National Cancer Institute, “testing samples of cervical cells is an effective way to identify high-risk types of HPV that may be present. The FDA has approved an HPV test as a follow-up for women who have an ambiguous Pap test and, for women over the age of 30, for general cervical cancer screening. This HPV test can identify at least 13 of the high-risk types of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer. The test can detect high-risk types of HPV even before there are any conclusive visible changes to the cervical cells.”

The recent outcomes in the identification of molecular pathways involved in cervical cancer provide helpful information about novel bio- or oncogenic markers that allow monitoring of these essential molecular events in cytological smears, histological or cytological specimens. These bio- or onco- markers are likely to improve the detection of lesions that have a high risk of progression in both primary screening and triage settings. E6 and E7 mRNA detection PreTect HPV-Proofer, (HPV OncoTect) or p16 cell-cycle protein levels are examples of these new molecular markers. According to published results these markers, which are highly sensitive and specific, allow to identify cells going through malignant transformation.

Other testing:
Although it is possible to test for HPV DNA in other kinds of infections, there are no FDA-approved tests for general screening in the United States or tests approved by the Canadian government, since the testing is inconclusive and considered medically unnecessary.

Genital warts are the only visible sign of low-risk genital HPV, and can be identified with a visual check. These visible growths, however, are the result of non-carcinogenic HPV types. 5% acetic acid (vinegar) is used to identify both warts and squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL) lesions with limited success by causing abnormal tissue to appear white, but most doctors have found this technique helpful only in moist areas, such as the female genital tract. At this time, HPV test for males are only used in research.

Treatment:
There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. However, the viral infection, more often than not, clears by itself. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years for 90% of cases. However, experts do not agree on whether the virus is completely eliminated or reduced to undetectable levels, and it is difficult to know when it is contagious.

Health management is based on prevention, by advising condom use and vaccination.

There is treatment for some of the diseases that HPV can cause, including:

•Genital warts, which can be cauterised or treated chemically.
•Abnormal cervical cells, which can be removed by various techniques.

Treatments for genital warts range from acid medicines, to creams, to laser therapy. The treatment will remove visible warts and unwanted symptoms such as itchiness. The type of treatment your doctor recommends will depend on the number, location and size of the warts and the cost and side effects of the different treatments. It’s important to talk with your health care provider about treatment choices and what type of follow-up you will need. Tell your health care provider if you think you are pregnant so that the right therapy is chosen.

Do NOT use over-the-counter “wart medicine” on genital warts. (These medicines are not meant for the very sensitive skin around your genital area).

Prevention:
Condoms offer some protection against genital infection,  but any exposed skin can transmit the virus. In short, condoms are not 100% effective in preventing HPV. Genital HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease in the world.

Vaccines:
Two vaccines are available to prevent infection by some HPV types: Gardasil, marketed by Merck, and Cervarix, marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. Both protect against initial infection with HPV types 16 and 18, which cause most of the HPV associated cancer cases. Gardasil also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts.

The vaccines provide little benefit to women who have already been infected with HPV types 16 and 18—which includes most sexually active females. For this reason the vaccine is recommended primarily for those women who have not yet been exposed to HPV during sex. The World Health Organization position paper on HPV vaccination clearly outlines appropriate, cost-effective strategies for using HPV vaccine in public sector programs.

Both vaccines are delivered in three shots over six months. In most countries they are approved only for female use, but are approved for male use in countries like USA and UK. The vaccine does not have any therapeutic effect on existing HPV infections or cervical lesions.

Women should continue to seek cervical screening, such as Pap smear testing, even after receiving the vaccine. Cervical cancer screening recommendations have not changed for females who receive HPV vaccine. Without continued screening, the number of cervical cancers preventable by vaccination alone is less than the number of cervical cancers prevented by regular screening alone.

Both men and women are carriers of HPV. Possible benefits and efficacy of vaccinating men are being studied. According to a study by Harvard University Medical School, to vaccinate boys may not be cost effective, especially if a widespread vaccination of girls continues.

No efficacy trials for children under 15 have been performed. Duration of vaccine efficacy is not yet answered by rigorous methodologic trials. Cervarix efficacy is proven for 7.4 years with published data through 6.4 years while Gardasil efficacy is proven for 5 years. Age of vaccination is less important than the duration of efficacy.

Condoms:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that male “condom use may reduce the risk for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection” but provides a lesser degree of protection compared with other sexual transmitted diseases “because HPV also may be transmitted by exposure to areas (e.g., infected skin or mucosal surfaces) that are not covered or protected by the condom.”

Studies have suggested that regular condom use can effectively limit the ongoing persistence and spread of HPV to additional genital sites in individuals who are already infected. Thus, condom use reduces the risk that already infected individuals will progress to cervical cancer or develop genital warts.

Microbicides:
Ongoing research has suggested that several inexpensive chemicals might serve to block HPV transmission if applied to the genitals prior to sexual contact. These candidate agents, known as topical microbicides, are currently undergoing clinical efficacy testing. A recent study indicates that some sexual lubricant brands that use a gelling agent called carrageenan prevent papillomavirus infection in animal model systems. Clinical trial results announced at the 2010 International Papillomavirus Conference indicate that a carrageenan-based personal lubricant called Carraguard is effective for preventing HPV infection in women. The results suggest that use of carrageenan-based personal lubricant products, such as Divine No 9, Bioglide and Oceanus Carrageenan may likewise be effective for preventing HPV infection.

Oral infection:
A review of scientific studies in healthy subjects has found carcinogenic HPV in 3.5% of the studies subjects and HPV16 in 1.3%. Men have higher prevalence of oral HPV than women.

Oral HPV infection is associated with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Odds of oral HPV infection increases with the number of recent oral sex partners or open-mouthed kissing partners. Nonsexual oral infection through salivary or cross transmission is also plausible

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/hpv.shtml
http://www.youngwomenshealth.org/hpv.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_papillomavirus

http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/recent/2009/060909_d.html

http://www.magazine.ayurvediccure.com/what-are-the-health-consequences-of-hpv/

http://w-cancer.com/anal-cancer/

http://e-cervicalcancer.com/human-papilloma-virus-cervical-cancer/

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Haemospermia (Blood in the Semen)

Definition:
When semen changes from its usual cream-white colour to white with ‘a hint of pink’, or is bloodstained, it’s called haemospermia, which simply means blood in the semen. The semen can also appear brownish-red in colour. Whatever the shade, it isn’t normal and means something is not right and should be checked out.

One problem with haemospermia is that it invariably causes men great anxiety. Another problem is that the cause often remains unknown.

Click to see the picture

click to see the pictures

Hematospermia (haematospermia), (or Hemospermia, haemospermia) or the presence of blood in semen, is most often a benign and idiopathic symptom, but can sometimes result from medical problems such as a urethral stricture, infection of the prostate, or a congenital bleeding disorder, and can occur transiently after surgical procedures such as a prostate biopsy. It is present in less than 2% of urology referrals, although prevalence in the overall population is unknown.

Patients with hematospermia should be evaluated by a urologist to identify or rule out medical causes. Idiopathic hematospermia is sometimes treated with tetracycline and prostatic massage.

Causes/Risk Factors
Haemospermia most commonly affects men in their 30s, although it’s by no means exclusive to this age group.

It’s not always possible to prevent it from occurring, but if the cause can be found then taking care to avoid such triggers can result in fewer sleepless nights.

Most commonly, haemospermia is a consequence of non-specific inflammation of the urethra (the tube urine passes through), prostate and/or seminal vesicles. That is, inflammation anywhere along the path semen follows when leaving the body.

Other possible causes include:
•Minor trauma – the result of vigorous sexual activity, for example, or a trouser-zip accident.
•Infections of the genital tract ­ this is usually accompanied by other symptoms, including pain on urination, scrotal tenderness or swelling, groin tenderness or aching, pain on ejaculation, low back pain, fever or chills.
•Biopsy of the prostate gland, where seminal fluid is manufactured.
•In rare instances, haemospermia is secondary to cancer.
For most men, haemospermia is a one-off event. For some, though, the problem is a recurrent one for which a cause cannot be identified, despite full and thorough investigation.

Diagnosis:
This disease generally affects men after their 30s though it can not be confirmed that men of other age group are not at risk. It cannot be prevented from happening always but if the cause is detected  preventive measures can be taken easily.

If the underline cause is found by the doctor,such as an inflamation or an infection,he can prescribe proper medicine

Treatment/Recovery
It may necessary to refer a man with haemospermia to the local hospital urology service where a number of tests such as laboratory examination of urine and semen, ultrasound or CT scans, or even a cystourethroscopy (a telescopic examination of the inside of the urinary tract under anaesthetic) may be recommended in order to check the diagnosis.

Fortunately, in the majority of cases haemospermia is benign and self-limiting, so no specific treatment is required other than a large dose of reassurance and advice about safer practices.

Where an underlying cause is identified – for example, infection or inflammation – specific treatment can be provided. This may involve a course of antibiotics or anti-inflammatory medication.

Advice :
The treatment is not always gaurantee  that the condition will not reappear.If the ailment is caused by some blood related problems then treating that may give better results. It is always advicible for men who have suffered from this disease  to monitor their semen  for any further occurance of bleeding.They should remember various factors as time of blood appear in their semen and they should keep count of times  they had sex  recently. They also need to be cautioned about STD and make their urine routine check.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematospermia
http://www.ayushveda.com/healthcare/haemospermia-blood-in-the-semen.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/haemospermia1.shtml

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Epididymo-Orchitis and Orchitis

Definition:
Epididymo-orchitis occurs when the testicle (or testis) and epididymis (the coiled tube that lies above and behind the testicle and stores and carries sperm) become infected. Bacteria are usually to blame although the infection may be due to a virus or rarely a parasite such as schistosomiasis, or a fungus.
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When infection develops, these two structures become inflamed and swollen, the scrotum feels tender and is red on the side affected. The symptoms usually start after a few hours, and when severe can cause fever and great pain.

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Symptoms:
Epididymo-orchitis symptoms may develop suddenly  it  includes:

*Testicular swelling on one or both sides

*Pain ranging from mild to severe

*Tenderness in one or both testicles, which may last for weeks

*Nausea

*Fever

*Discharge from penis

*Blood in the ejaculate

The terms “testicle pain” and “groin pain” are sometimes used interchangeably. But groin pain occurs in the fold of skin between the thigh and abdomen — not in the testicle. The causes of groin pain are different from the causes of testicle pain.

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A number of conditions can cause testicular pain, and some of the conditions require immediate treatment. One such condition involves twisting of the spermatic cord (testicular torsion), which may cause pain similar to that caused by orchitis. Your doctor can perform tests to determine which condition is causing your pain.

Causes:
The bacteria that cause epididymo-orchitis may get to the testis and epididymis in different ways. In younger men, the bacteria have usually travelled from the penis, having been passed on during sex.

In older men, prostatitis (infection of the prostate gland) or urinary infection is usually to blame. Epididymo-orchitis can also follow any medical procedure involving the urinary tract, such as catheterisation of the bladder or a cystoscopy.

Rarely, the infection arrives from the bloodstream, such as when the micro-organism responsible is tuberculosis (TB) which travels from a source of infection elsewhere in the body. Years ago, before the introduction of immunisation, infection with the mumps virus was a common cause of epididymo-orchitis.

Orchitis can be either bacterial or viral.

Bacterial orchitis
Most often, bacterial orchitis is the result of epididymitis, an inflammation of the coiled tube that connects the vas deferens and the testicle. The vas deferens carries sperm from your testicles. When inflammation in the epididymis spreads to the testicle, the resulting condition is known as epididymo-orchitis.

Epididymitis usually is caused by an infection of the urethra or bladder that spreads to the epididymis. Often the cause of the infection is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), particularly gonorrhea or chlamydia. Other causes of infection may be related to having been born with abnormalities in your urinary tract or having had a catheter or medical instruments inserted into your penis.

Viral orchitis:
Most cases of viral orchitis are the result of mumps. About one-third of males who contract the mumps after puberty develop orchitis during their course of the mumps, usually four to six days after onset.

Risk Factors:
Several factors may contribute to developing orchitis. For nonsexually transmitted orchitis, they include:

#Not being immunized against mumps

#Being older than 45

#Having recurring urinary tract infections

#Having surgery that involves the genitals or urinary tract, because of the risk of infection

#Being born with an abnormality in the urinary tract (congenital)

High-risk sexual behaviors that can lead to STDs also put you at risk of sexually transmitted orchitis. They include having:

#Multiple sexual partners

#Sex with a partner who has an STD

#Sex without a condom

#A personal history of an STD

Complications:
Complications of orchitis may include:

#Testicular atrophy. Orchitis may eventually cause the affected testicle to shrink.

#Scrotal abscess. The infected tissue fills with pus.

#Repeated epididymitis. Orchitis can lead to recurrent episodes of epididymitis.

#Infertility. In a small number of cases, orchitis can reduce fertility; however, if orchitis affects only one testicle, sterility is less likely.

Diagnosis:
A physical examination may reveal enlarged lymph nodes in your groin and an enlarged testicle on the affected side; both may be tender to the touch. Your doctor may do a rectal examination to check for prostate enlargement or tenderness and order blood and urine tests to check for infection and other abnormalities.

Other tests many times  required to determine the presence of an STD and to rule out the possibility of testicular torsion, which requires immediate treatment, include:

#STD screening. This involves obtaining a sample of discharge from your urethra. Your doctor may insert a narrow swab into the end of your penis to obtain the sample, which will be viewed under a microscope or cultured to check for gonorrhea and chlamydia.

#Urinalysis. A sample of your urine, collected either at home first thing in the morning or at your doctor’s office, is analyzed in a lab for abnormalities in appearance, concentration or content.Ultrasound imaging. This test, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create precise images of structures inside your body, may be used to rule out twisting of the spermatic cord (testicular torsion).

#Ultrasound with color Doppler can determine if the blood flow to your testicle is reduced or increased, which helps confirm the diagnosis of orchitis.

#Nuclear scan of the testicles. Also used to rule out testicular torsion, this test involves injecting tiny amounts of radioactive material into your bloodstream. Special cameras can then detect areas in your testicles that receive less blood flow, indicating torsion, or more blood flow, confirming the diagnosis of orchitis.

Treatment :
Treatment depends on the cause of orchitis.

Treating viral orchitis
Treatment for viral orchitis, the type associated with mumps, is aimed at relieving symptoms. Your doctor may prescribe pain medication, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others), and recommend bed rest, elevating your scrotum and applying cold packs.

Treating bacterial orchitis
In addition to steps to relieve discomfort, bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis require antibiotic treatment. If the cause of the infection is an STD, your sexual partner also needs treatment.

Antibiotic drugs most commonly used to treat bacterial orchitis include ceftriaxone (Rocephin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Vibramycin, Doryx), azithromycin (Zithromax), and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole combined (Bactrim, Septra). Make sure your doctor is aware of any other medications you’re taking or any allergies you have. This information, as well as whether your infection is sexually transmitted and what type of STD you have, will help your doctor select the best treatment.

Be sure to take the entire course of antibiotics recommended by your doctor. Even if your symptoms clear up sooner, take all your antibiotics to ensure that the infection is gone.

Prognosis:
Prognosis is very good.If the diseases is properly diagnosed in time it is cured with proper  drug and rest.

Life Style & Home Remedies:
To ease your discomfort, try these suggestions:

*Rest in bed.

*Lie down so that your scrotum is elevated.

*Apply cold packs to your scrotum as tolerated.

Prevention:
*Practicing safer sex, such as having just one sex partner and using a condom, helps protect against STDs, which helps prevent
*STD-related bacterial orchitis.

*Getting immunized against mumps is your best protection against viral, mumps-related orchitis.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/epididymalcyst.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/orchitis/DS00602
http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Epididymo-orchitis.htm
http://health.allrefer.com/health/orchitis-male-reproductive-system.html
http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=778650061

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