Tag Archives: Soft drink

Cola acuminata

Botanical Name : Cola acuminata
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Cola
Species: C. acuminata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names :Local name:
Cola is called differently by different tribes:

Tribe Ewondo call it Abeu and tribe Boulou call it Abel

Habitat :Cola acuminata is native to Democratic Republic of Congo.Grows in the forest areas.

Description:
Cola acuminata is an evergreen tree of about 20 meters in height. Its germination can reach 2 to 3 months at a fast rate, and has long and ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends that have a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds can be found in a white seed shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species.

click to see the pictures…>....(01)...(1).…….(2)..(3)....(4).

Cultivation:
Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Regular weeding is a must and this can either be done manually or by using herbicides. Some irrigation can be provided to the plants, but it is important to remove the water through an effective drainage system as excess water may prove to be detrimental for the growth of the plant. When not grown in adequate shade, the kola nut plant responds well to fertilizers. Usually, the plants need to be provided with windbreaks to protect them from strong gales.

Harvesting and storage: Kola nuts can be harvested by hand, by plucking it at the tree branch. Like in western countries and other countries of the world, it has been harvested by the use of harvesters. When kept in a cold and dry place, Kola nut can be stored for a long time.

Propagation: Usually by seed, although cuttings are sometimes used. Trees will bear in 7-10 years from seed.

Chemical constituents of kola nut:
*caffeine (2–3.5%)
*theobromine (1.0–2.5%)
*theophylline
*phenolics
*phlobaphens (kola red)
*epicatechin
*D-catechin
*tannic acid
*sugar
*cellulose
*water

Medicinal Uses:
Kola nut stimulates the central nervous system and the body as a whole.  It increases alertness and muscular strength, counters lethargy, and has been used extensively both in western African and Anglo-American herbal medicine as an antidepressant, particularly during recovery from chronic illness.  Like coffee, kola is used to treat headaches and migraine.  It is diuretic and astringent and may be taken for diarrhea and dysentery.  It will aid in states of depression and may in some people give rise to euphoric states.  Through the stimulation it will be a valuable part of the treatment for anorexia.  It can be viewed as specific in cases of depression associated with weakness and debility.

Other Uses:
In addition to its medicinal value, Cola plays a significant social role in Cameroon. Among Moslems from the north, Cola is sacred. In other communities, in particular the Bamiléké, Cola is a sign of love and friendship. Furthermore, Cola is consumed in ceremonies in particular dowry ceremonies, ‘tontines’, funerals, wake-keepings, etc. Some people consume Cola to reduce tiredness, hunger and to stay awake. Others consume it for its stimulant effect. Cola from the north is also used to tint clothing. Cola is also used in breweries (Nkongmeneck, 1985).

Kola nuts are perhaps best known to Western culture as a flavouring ingredient and one of the sources of caffeine in cola and other similarly flavoured beverages, although the use of kola (or kola flavoring) in commercial cola drinks has become uncommon. However, recently the use of Kola nut has been reintroduced, most notably in Whole Foods Market 365 Cola  as part of their trend to use natural rather than artificial ingredients. It is also used in Barr’s Red Kola, Red Bull’s new Simply Cola, Harboe Original Taste Cola, Foxon Park Kola, Blue Sky Organic Cola, Sprecher’s Puma Kola, Virgil’s Real Cola, Hansen’s Natural Original Cola, and Cricket Cola, and formerly in Royal Crown Premium. In Barbados the Kola nut is made into a sweet drink known as Clayton’s Kola Tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola_acuminata
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_nut
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/factsheet/Cola_eng.pdf
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/cola_nut.htm
http://www.britannica.hk/botany/kola-nut-369346.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Eat Mouth-Healthy for Healthy Teeth

If you want to prevent cavities, how often you eat can be just as important as what you eat. That’s because food affects your teeth and mouth long after you swallow. Eating cookies with dinner will do less harm to your teeth than eating them as a separate snack. Of course, overall poor nutrition can contribute to periodontal (gum) disease. It also can have other long-term effects on your mouth. Learning how food affects your oral health is the first step toward mouth-healthy eating.

Immediate Effects of Food
Changes begin in your mouth the minute you start to eat certain foods. Bacteria in your mouth make acids. The acids start the process that can lead to cavities.

How does this happen?
All carbohydrate foods eventually break down into simple sugars: glucose, fructose, maltose and lactose. Fermentable carbohydrates break down in the mouth. Other foods don’t break down until they move further down the digestive tract.

It’s the fermentable carbohydrates that work with bacteria to form acids that begin the decay process and eventually destroy teeth. They include the obvious sugary foods, such as cookies, cakes, soft drinks and candy. But they also include less obvious foods, such as bread, crackers, bananas and breakfast cereals.

Certain bacteria on your teeth use the sugars from these foods and produce acids. The acids dissolve minerals inside the tooth enamel. The process is called demineralization. Teeth also can regain minerals. This natural process is called remineralization. Saliva helps minerals to build back up in teeth. So do fluoride and some foods.

Dental decay begins inside the tooth enamel when minerals are being lost faster than they are being regained.

The longer food stays near the bacteria on the tooth, the more acids will be produced. So sticky carbohydrates, such as raisins, can do more acid damage. But other foods that pack into crevices in the tooth also can cause decay. Potato chips are a terrific example. Eat a handful of chips and see how long you have to work to get all the stuck bits out from between your teeth. Teeth with a lot of nooks and crannies, such as molars, are more likely to trap food. That’s why they tend to have more decay.

To make matters worse, many of the foods that are unhealthy for teeth don’t just create acids while they are being eaten. The acids stick around for the next half-hour.

Depending on your eating and drinking patterns, it’s possible for the bacteria to produce acid almost constantly. This can happen if you sip soft drinks or sweetened coffee throughout the day. Eating many small sweet or starchy snacks can produce the same effect. The resulting acid damage adds up, so decay is more likely. Studies have shown that people who eat sweets as snacks between meals have higher rates of decay than people who eat the same amount of sweets with their meals.

On the brighter side, some foods actually help to protect teeth from decay. That’s because they increase saliva flow and neutralize the acids produced by bacteria. This makes it less likely that the enamel will lose minerals. For example, aged cheese eaten immediately after other food helps to buffer the acid.

Chewing sugarless gums also can help protect your teeth against cavities. Xylitol is an ingredient in some sugarless gums. This sweetener has been shown to reduce the amount of bacteria in the mouth. It also helps to buffer the teeth against the effect of acid. Most sugarless gums and sugarless candies increase the flow of saliva, which helps to protect your teeth against bacteria.

Long-Term Effects:-
Like the rest of your body, your mouth depends on overall good nutrition to stay healthy. In fact, your mouth is highly sensitive to poor nutrition. It can lead to tooth loss, serious periodontal (gum) disease and bad breath.

What To Eat:-
The current and best advice for overall good nutrition is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This document was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services.

The guidelines are simple in concept:

*Eat whole grains daily instead of refined grains. Whole grains include brown rice, oatmeal and whole wheat bread. Refined grains include white bread and white rice.
*Eat healthier vegetables, including dark green and orange vegetables.
*Eat a variety of fruits.
*Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, fruits and vegetables.
*Choose fish, beans, nuts and seeds for some of your protein needs.
*Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars.
*Choose and prepare foods with less salt.
*If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.
*Aim for a healthy weight and be physically active each day.

To help people understand these guidelines, the USDA has replaced the old Food Guide Pyramid. The new guide is an interactive tool called MyPyramid. It is actually many different pyramids, depending on a person’s age, gender and physical activity. The tool can be found at www.mypyramid.gov.

Your diet, like the pyramid, should have:

*A strong base of grains
*At least 2½ cups of vegetables a day
*At least 2 cups of fruits a day
*At least 3 cups of calcium-containing milk, yogurt and cheese
*Proteins such as meats, beans, eggs and nuts

Eat fats and sweets sparingly.

To prevent tooth decay, you should follow a few additional guidelines. This can help to keep the amount of acid created by the bacteria on your teeth to a minimum. Here are some tips:

1.Limit between-meal snacking. Fewer snacks mean less acid exposure for your teeth. If you snack, choose foods that are not fermentable carbohydrates.

*Best choices — Cheese, chicken or other meats, or nuts. These foods actually may help protect tooth enamel. They do this by neutralizing acids or by providing the calcium and phosphorus needed to put minerals back in the teeth.

*Moderate choices — Firm fruits such as apples and pears and vegetables. Firm fruits contain natural sugars. However, their high water content dilutes the effects of the sugars. These fruits also stimulate the flow of saliva, which fights bacteria and helps protect against decay. Vegetables do not contain enough carbohydrates to be dangerous.

*Worst choices — Candy, cookies, cakes, crackers, breads, muffins, potato chips, french fries, pretzels, bananas, raisins and other dried fruits. These foods provide a source of sugar that certain bacteria can use to produce acid. The problem can be worse if the foods stick to teeth or get caught between them.

2.Limit the amount of soft drinks or any other drinks that contain sugar. These include coffee or tea with added sugar, cocoa and lemonade. Fruit juices contain natural sugars that also can cause decay. Limit the amount of time you take to drink any of these drinks. Avoid sipping them throughout the day. A can of soda that you finish with a meal exposes your teeth to acids for a shorter time than a soda that takes you two hours to drink.

*Better choices —
Unsweetened tea and water, especially little fluoridated water(  as permissible by WHO). Tea also has fluoride, which can strengthen tooth enamel. Water helps flush away bits of food. It also can dilute the sugar acids.

3.Avoid sucking on hard candies or mints, even the tiny ones. They have enough sugar to increase the acid produced by bacteria to decay levels. If you need a mint, use the sugarless varieties.

4.Very acidic foods (such as citrus fruits) can make the mouth more acidic. This may contribute to a loss of minerals in the teeth. The effects of acid exposure add up over time. Every little bit counts.

5.Brush your teeth after eating and after drinking sugary drinks, to remove the plaque bacteria that create the destructive acids. If you cannot brush after every meal, brush at least twice a day.

6.Chew sugarless gum that contains xylitol. This can help reduce the risk of cavities. The gum helps dislodge some of the food stuck to your teeth. It also increases saliva flow to help neutralize the acids.

Source
:http://www.colgate.com/app/Colgate/US/OC/Information/OralHealthBasics/GoodOralHygiene/OralHygieneBasics/MouthHealthyEating.cvsp

Enhanced by Zemanta

Exercise ‘Can Fight Ageing’

Long-term physical activity has an anti-ageing effect at the cellular level, a German study suggests.
…..click & see

Exercise seems to stimulate a key enzyme
Researchers focused on telomeres, the protective caps on the chromosomes that keep a cell’s DNA stable but shorten with age.

They found telomeres shortened less quickly in key immune cells of athletes with a long history of endurance training.

The study, by Saarland University, appears in the journal Circulation.

In a separate study of young Swedish men, cardiovascular fitness has been linked to increased intelligence and higher educational achievement.

Telomeres are relatively short sections of specialised DNA that sit at the ends of all our chromosomes.

They have been compared to the plastic tips at the ends of shoelaces that prevent the laces from unravelling.

Each time a cell divides, its telomeres shorten and the cell becomes more susceptible to dying.

National athletes:-
The researchers measured the length of telomeres in blood samples from two groups of professional athletes and two groups of people who were healthy non-smokers, but who did not take regular exercise.

One group of professional athletes included members of the German national track and field athletics team, who had an average age of 20.

The second group was made up of middle-aged athletes who had regularly run long distances – an average of 80km a week – since their youth.

The researchers found evidence that the physical exercise of the professional athletes led to activation of an enzyme called telomerase, which helped to stabilise telomeres.

This reduced the telomere shortening in leukocytes, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in fighting infection and disease.

The most pronounced effect was found in athletes who had been regularly endurance training for several decades.

Potency of training:

Lead researcher Dr Ulrich Laufs said: “This is direct evidence of an anti-ageing effect of physical exercise.

“Our data improves the molecular understanding of the protective effects of exercise and underlines the potency of physical training in reducing the impact of age-related disease.”

Professor Tim Spector, an expert on genetics and ageing at Kings College London, said other studies had suggested more moderate exercise had a beneficial effect on ageing.

He said: “It is still difficult to separate cause and effect from these studies – as longer telomeres may still be a marker of fitness.

“Nevertheless – this is further evidence that regular exercise may retard aging.”

Professor Kay-Tee Khaw, of the University of Cambridge, an expert on ageing, said: “The benefits of physical activity for health are well established from many large long-term population studies.

“Even moderate levels of physical activity are related to lower levels of many heart disease risk factors such as blood pressure and cholesterol and lower risk of many chronic diseases associated with ageing such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers.”

 

Intelligence link…….>In the second study, published in Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, a team from the University of Gothenburg analysed data on more than 1.2 million Swedish men born from 1950-1976 who enlisted for military service at age 18.

They found that good heart health was linked to higher intelligence, better educational achievement and raised status in society.

By studying twins in the study, the researchers concluded that environmental and lifestyle factors were key, rather than genetics.

They said the findings suggested that campaigns to promote physical exercise might help to raise standards of educational achievement across the population.

Lead researcher Professor Georg Kuhn said cardiovascular exercise increased blood flow to the brain, which in turn might help forge more and stronger connections between nerve cells.

However, he said it was also possible that intelligent people tended to make more exercise.

You may Click to see:->
Mutant genes ‘key to long life’
Nobel prize for chromosome find.
Hope for test to measure ageing.
Clean living ‘slows cell ageing’.
Healthy living ‘can add 14 years’.
Vitamin D ‘may help slow ageing’.

Source: BBC News :4th .Jan.2010

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Everyday Beverages May Cause Dental Erosion

Researchers have warned people to beware of the damage that acidic beverages have on teeth. Yet, for some, the damage and problems associated with drinking sodas, citric juices, or certain teas may have already begun to take effect.

In a recent study, Dr. Mohamed A. Bassiouny revealed three steps to rehabilitate teeth that suffer from dental erosion as a result of the excessive consumption of these products.

Dr. Bassiouny instructs those who are experiencing tooth erosion to first, identify the source of erosion. Then, you should determine and understand how this source affects the teeth in order to implement measures to control and prevent further damage. Lastly, you should stop or reduce consumption of the suspected food or beverage to the absolute minimum.

Information about the acid content of commonly consumed foods or beverages is usually available online or on the product’s label.


Resources:

Science Daily August 8, 2009
General Dentistry May/June 2009

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Fizzy Drinks Can Damage Liver

Just two cans of fizzy drink a day can increase risk of liver damage by 80 per cent.
………………….Drinking Fruit juice

Health risk: Just two glasses of fruit juice each day can increase the chance of developing fatty liver disease by up to 80 per cent

Drinking just two glasses of fruit juice or fizzy drink each day may cause long-term liver damage resulting in the need for a transplant, according to new research published today.
Liver damage is usually associated with alcohol abuse but a new study has found that drinks with a high sugar content can cause a condition called fatty liver disease, making them even more dangerous than alcohol abuse.

Israeli scientists found that people who drank a litre of high-sugar fizzy drinks or fresh fruit juice each day were five times more likely to develop fatty liver disease

They found that even a couple of cans of beverages such as Coca Cola raised the risk of liver damage, as well as diabetes and heart damage.
Doctors at the Ziv Liver unit in Haifa, Israel compared two groups of volunteers, neither of which had a risk of developing fatty liver disease.
The results at the end of the study showed that 80 per cent of those who had consumed high-sugar fizzy drinks and fruit juices had fatty liver changes, while only 17 per cent of the control group – who had not been drinking sugary beverages – developed fatty livers.
More…Alcohol fuels rising rates of oral cancer in middle age
Always look on the bright side of life… it could help fend off a heart attack

Dr Nimer Assy who lead the study said the research showed that long-term consumption of high-sugar beverages could result in liver failure and the need for a transplant.
He explained that freshly-squeezed fruit juices could be as dangerous as highly sweetened carbonated soda.
‘The ingredient in fizzy drinks and juices that causes the damage is a fruit sugar called fructose, which is highly absorbable in the liver,’ he said.

‘It does not affect insulin production and goes straight to the liver where it is converted to fat.

‘Fructose increases the chances of suffering from a fatty liver, which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.’
The father-of-five, who confessed to letting his own children drink Coca Cola recommended that parents limit their children’s intake of sweetened beverages to no more than one cup, juice box or can each day.
He added that parents should replace the juice in their children’s lunch boxes with a bottle of water.
To reap the maximum benefit from fruit, and to avoid the risk of liver damage, Dr Assy suggested eating the fruit whole: ‘Whole oranges have fibre that prevents fructose from being absorbed into the liver,’ he explained.
Dr Assy’s study was inspired by patients with fatty liver disease at his clinic: ‘We have noticed recently that there are many patients coming to the clinic with fatty infiltration of the liver.
‘Usually the risk factor is for people with obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse, but we noticed some people without these pre-conditions could have fatty liver.’
Dr Assy said that even diet drinks containing artificial sweeteners were not without risk.
‘While diet drinks do not contain fructose, they do have aspartame and caramel colourants – both these can increase insulin resistance and may induce fatty liver,’ he said.
Imogen Shillito, the British Liver Trust’s Director of Information and Education said: ‘We’re very concerned that the rising tide of obesity is putting people’s liver health at risk. Fatty liver disease in the UK is set to get worse with the rising rates of obesity.

‘This research highlights that people should watch their sugar intake as well as their alcohol intake in their drinks to avoid liver damage and reduce the risk of liver cancer.

You may click to see:->
Alcohol fuels rising rates of oral cancer in middle age
Always look on the bright side of life… it could help fend off a heart attack

Women warned to stop drinking cola to avoid brittle bones

‘A healthy diet, including fresh fruit and regular exercise, will help reduce your risk of developing fatty liver disease.


Source
:MailOnline: 9th. Aug.2009

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]