Tag Archives: South Korea

Zanthoxylum coreanum

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum coreanum
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. coreanum
Kingdom:Plantaes
Order: Sapindales

Common Names : Korean lime tree, Zanthoxylum coreanum

Habitat : Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai is distributed only in Korea and China. In Korea, it is found on Jeju Island, it is usually found 700-1100m above the sea level. It is usually near valleys and seashores. It is a rare species that has strong germination growth, meaning that they can germinate in hard climates. It can grow in low altitudes and in well drained soil. It can be introduced to a new area where it has a milder condition and soil that can drain water well.
Description:
Zanthoxylum coreanum is a deciduous Shrub. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

The stems grow erect, and have hairs and thorns. The thorns on the stem can reach a length of 6–12 mm. There are sometimes thorns on the rachis. The leaf is arranged in alternate and is pinnately compound leaf venation. The leaves are shiny and have a strong smell. There are about 7 to 13 leaves on each pinnate venation and the leaves are 1–3 cm wide and 2–5 cm long. Each leaf has ovate or lanceolate shape and serrate marginal shape. It also produces fruits and flowers.

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Flowers of Zanthoxylum coreanum, are only present on old wood. Flowers are in short panicle and diameter of 4–6 cm. The flowers bloom in May and petals are absent from the flower. In a male flower, there are 5–6 calyx and 5 stamens. In female flower, there are 5–8 calyx and 2 carpels. Fruits of Zanthoxylum coreanum are in a capsule and in globular shape. It usually has a length of 5 mm and diameter of 4 mm. The fruit matures in September
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Zanthoxylum coreanum could succeed outdoors at least in the milder areas of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Flowers are formed on the old wood.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses: The leaves are eaten raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
In Korea, Zanthoxylum coreanum is used for many medical purposes. The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is powerfully stimulant and tonic.

It is made into crude medicine for many sicknesses. Sicknesses include ozena, rheumatoid, nasal sinusitis, meno-xenia, dysperpsia, toothache, sore throat, pains in the limbs and more. In an experiment, done by Jae-Hyoung Song, Sung Wook Chae and Kyung-Ah Yoon and more, had proved that Zanthoxylum coreanum contains antiviral against PEDV (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus). Further studies are necessary to know what causes the antiviral against PEDV.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+coreanum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_coreanum

Inula japonica (Xuan Fu Hua)

Botanical name: Inula japonica
Family: Asteraceae,/ Compositae,  aster family

Synonyms: I. Britannica var. chinensis

Common name: Inula flower, Rotated, Upturned flower
Other Names: Elecampane flower, Xuan fu hua

Habitat :Inula japonica grows in South Korea (Asia) ,China (Asia), Russian Federation (Asia), Japan (Asia), Mongolia (Asia)

Description:

This herbaceous perennial grows from rhizomes and can spread depending on conditions. The alternate species Inula britannica L. is reported as aggressive in Alabama; test and monitor for control. Branched stems to two feet in height bear bisexual disk and yellow ray flowers, the disk up to two-thirds inch in
diameter, and a pappus of bristles. Lower leaves wither before flowering, median leaves are a narrow lance-shape about 4 inches long. Xuan fu hua “rotated upturned flower” is also known in traditional Chinese medicine as “the only flower that descends,” descriptive of its action. Flowers July to October,
hardy to Zone 5…..

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Oblate or subspherical,1~2 cm in diameter. Involucre consisting of numerous bracts, imbricated; bracts lanceolate or strip-shaped, greyish-yellow, 4~11 mm long; Sometimes pedicels remaining at the base of involucre,surfaces of the bracts and pedicel covered with white hairs.Ligulate florets 1 row, yellow, about 1 cm long, mostly rolled, often fallen, with 3 terminal teeth; tubular florets numerous, brownish-yellow, about 5 mm long, with 5 terminal teeth; numerous white pappi occurring at the apex of overy, 5~6 mm long. Small elliptical achene sometimes wisible. Texture light, easily broken and separated. Odour, slight; taste, slightly bitter.
Cultivation:
Plant in average well-drained soil at a 6-12 inch radius. The plants will spread by the following season to form a mass. Moist, warm conditions seem to promote expansiveness, but the plant may be managed easily as the root system is shallow. Estimated yield 2-4 pounds dry weight per 100 square feet. Pests

Propagation:
Germination: surface sow, keep at 65-70ºF. Conditions may favor vegetative propagation.

Harvesting:
Harvest fully open flowerheads including pappus on a sunny morning after the morning dew has dried. Dry in a single layer. The flowerheads will curl and dry to a half-inch spherical shape. The overall color should be golden with white hairs and few stalks.

 

Medicinal Uses:
Used in traditional Chinese medicine as a mildly warming expectorant remedy, it is especially suitable when phlegm has accumulated in the chest.  The herb is often prescribed for bronchitis, wheezing, chronic coughing, and other chest complaints brought on by “cold conditions” (profuse phlegm, nausea and vomiting, hiccups and flatulence.  Xuan fu hua also has a bitter action, and it helps to strengthen digestive function.  The flowers are normally used in medicinal preparations, but the aerial parts are also taken, generally for les serious conditions.  The flowers have an antibacterial action, but this can be destroyed by proteins in the body.   The plant has been mentioned as a possible treatment for cancer of the esophagus.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.jadeinstitute.com/jade/herbal-detail-page.php?show=73&order=common_name
http://eol.org/pages/6237903/overview
http://www.oshims.com/herb-directory/i/inula-flower
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://www.greenlife-herbal.com/others/database/xuanfuhua.htm

http://aces.nmsu.edu/medicinalherbs/documents/vol_03.pdf

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‘Ginkgo’ Reduces Neuropathic Pain

: Experiments on animals have shown that an extract of ginkgo biloba can help reduce one common and hard-to-treat type of pain.
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Ginkgo is one of the most popular herbal products, which is widely used as a memory enhancer, among other purposes.

Dr. Yee Suk Kim, a researchers at The Catholic University of Seoul in South Korea, performed experiments in rats to evaluate the effectiveness of ginkgo against neuropathic pain, a common pain problem associated with herpes zoster, limb injury, or diabetes
.

Those suffering from this problem may feel severe pain in response to harmless stimuli like heat, cold, or touch.

During the study, the researchers treated rats with neuropathic pain with different doses of a standardized ginkgo biloba extract or with an inactive solution.

The team performed objective tests to see how ginkgo affected neuropathic pain responses to cold and pressure.

The researchers observed that for both cold and pressure stimuli, pain responses were significantly reduced in ginkgo-treated rats.

According to them, this was so on before-and-after treatment comparisons and on comparison of ginkgo-treated versus placebo-treated animals.

Pain was reduced for at least two hours after ginkgo treatment, the researchers reveal.

Even thought the study has not provided any evidence on how ginkgo works to reduce pain, the researchers think that several mechanisms are possible, including antioxidant activity, an anti-inflammatory effect, or protection against nerve injury–perhaps in combination.

The new study provides the first scientific evidence that ginkgo has a real effect in reducing neuropathic pain.

It attains significance considering that new treatments are needed for neuropathic pain, which does not always respond well to available treatments.

The study has been published in the journal Anesthesia & Analgesia.

Source: The Times Of India

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Indoor Plants Cut Formaldehyde

Indoor plants can reduce formaldehyde levels in the air, according to a new study.

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The sources of the toxic gas formaldehyde are building materials including carpeting, curtains, plywood, and adhesives.

As it is emitted, it deteriorates the air quality, which can lead to ‘multiple chemical sensitivity‘ and ‘sick building syndrome‘, medical conditions with symptoms such as allergies, asthma, and headaches.

The prevalence of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) is greater in new construction.

In the study, lead author Kwang Jin Kim of Korea‘s National Horticultural Research Institute compared the absorption rate of two types of houseplants, Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina) and Fatsia japonica, an evergreen shrub.

During the study, equal amounts of formaldehyde were pumped into containers holding each type of plant in three configurations: whole, roots-only with the leafy portion cut off, and aerial-only, with the below-ground portion sealed off, leaving the stem and leaves exposed.

The results showed the combined total of aerial-only and roots-only portions was similar to the amount removed by whole plants. Complete plants removed approximately 80 percent of the formaldehyde within 4 hours.

Control chambers pumped with the same amount of formaldehyde, but not containing any plant parts, decreased by 7.3 percent during the day and 6.9 percent overnight within 5 hours. As the length of exposure increased, the amount of absorption decreased, which appeared to be due to the reduced concentration of the gas.

Aerial parts of reduced more formaldehyde during the day than at night. This suggests the role played by stomata, tiny slits on the surface of the leaves that are only open during the day.

The portion of formaldehyde that was reduced during the night was most likely absorbed through a thin film on the plant’s surface known as the cuticle. Root zones of ficus removed similar amounts between night and day. However, japonica root zones removed more formaldehyde at night.

Researchers consider micro-organisms living among the soil and root system to be a major contributor to the reduction. Japonica was planted in larger pots than the ficus, which may account for the lower night reduction rate of the latter.

Sources: The Times Of India

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Heart stem cells identified

A master heart stem cell gives rise to the different tissues in the mammalian heart, a discovery that could be great news for future heart repair……..CLICK & SEE

In Wednesday’s issue of the journal Cell, three teams of researchers in the US identified the embryonic stem cells in mice and say the cells could be cloned for use in developing new drug therapies. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into any type of cell.

One team led by Kenneth Chien of the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and another led by Gordon Keller of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, said the cells gave rise to three types of cells in the mammalian heart.

The three types are: cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscle lining the aorta, and endothelial cells that form coronary blood vessels.

Source:The Times Of India