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Chi-it

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Botanical Name :Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.
Family : Rutaceae
Subfamily:Toddalioideae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae

Scientific names :-Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. ,Zanthoxylum armatum DC.  ,Zanthoxylum americanum

Common names:
Chi-it (Ig.),Sibit-paklauit (Ig.),Chinese pepper (Engl.),Prickly ash (Engl.) ,Toothache tree (Engl.) ,Yellow wood (Engl.) ,Suterberry (Engl.),Hua jiao (Chin.)

Habitat :Chi-it is found in the Islands only in Benguet, Luzon, in thickets about limestone cliffs and bowlders, at an altitude of 1,300 to 1,500 meters. It is also reported to occur in India to southeastern China.

Description:
.This is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in) or small tree, which is almost entirely smooth and has a strong aromatic smell. The bark, which is corky, has conspicuous young stems with thick conical prickles rising from a corky base. The spines are shinning and sharp and grow on branchlets. The leaves are alternate, with commonly 2 to 6 pairs of leaflets. The petioles and rachis are narrowly winged. The leaflets are elliptic-lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long and 1 to 1.8 centimeters wide. The flowers are small, yellow, usually unisexual, and borne in dense lateral panicles. The fruit is usually a solitary carpel dehiscing ventrally, about 3 millimeters in diameter, tubercled, red, and strongly aromatic.

You may click to see the pictures

It is hardy to zone 6. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. This species is closely related to Z. planispinum. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation    ;-
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses  :
The seed is ground into a powder and used as a condiment. A pepper substitute, it is widely used in the Orient. A light roasting brings out more of the flavour. The seed is an ingredient of the famous Chinese ‘five spice’ mixture. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed. Young leaves are used as a condiment.

Constituents:
*Bark yields a bitter crystalline principle, identifcal to berberine, and a volatile oil and resin. The carpels yield a volatile oil, resin, a yellow acid principle, and a crystalline solid body, xanthoxylin.
*Carpels of the fruit yield an essential oil which is isomeric with turpentine ahd like eucalyptus oil in odor and properties.
*The bark contains berberine.
*The essential oil from the seeds consists entirely – over 85% – of the hydrocarbone 1-a-phellandrene and also a small quantity of linalool and an unidentified sesquiterpene.
*Bark yields active compounds: alkaloids (g-fagarine, b-fagarine, magnoflorine, laurifoline, nitidine, chelerythrine, tambetarine and cadicine), coumarins (xanthyletin, zanthoxyletin, alloxanthyletin), and resin, tannin and volatile oil.

Properties:
Fruit considered antiseptic, carminative, disinfectant, deodorant, stomachic.
Sino-Annamites consider the leaves and fruit as carminative, sudorific, emmenagogue and astringent.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used ; Bark, seeds, fruits, leaves.
Odontalgic;  Stimulant;  Stomachic;  Tonic;  Miscellany.

The seeds and the bark are used as an aromatic tonic in the treatment of fevers, dyspepsia and cholera. The fruits, branches and thorns are considered to be carminative and stomachic. They are used as a remedy for toothache.

Folkloric;
*Decoction or infusion of bark and seeds used as an aromatic tonic in fevers, dyspepsia, and cholera.
*Fruit, as well as the branches and thorns, used as a remedy for toothache; also, as carminative and stomachic.
*Elsewhere, used for asthma, bronchitis, cholera, fever, indigestion, toothaches, varicose veins and rheumatism.

Studies
• Phenolic Constituents: Study isolated two new phenolic constituents from the seeds – 3-methoxy-11-hydroxy-6,8-dimethylcarboxylate biphenyl and 3,5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-5-?-d-xylopyranoside along with five known compounds.
• Antifungal / Insect Repellent: Essential oil of the fruits of ZA showed repellent activity against insect Allacophora foveicollis and fungistatic activity against 24 fungi, including aflatoxin-producing strains of A flavus and A parasiticus.
• Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Z armatum on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed significant decrease in liver enzymes and liver inflammation, supported by histopath studies on the liver. Results exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity.
• Insecticidal: Study of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum showed high and rapid poison activity on Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing a potential as natural insecticides against mosquitoes.

Other Uses :
Miscellany;  Teeth;  Wood.

The fruit contains 1.5% essential oil. The fruit is used to purify water. Toothbrushes are made from the branches. Wood – heavy, hard, close grained. Used for walking sticks.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum%20alatum

Click to access chi-it.pdf


http://www.stuartxchange.com/Chi-it.html
http://www.ogrodnick.pl/opisy/zanthoxylum_alatum_opis.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum

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Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis)

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Botanical Name : Coptis chinensis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Coptis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Species: C. chinensis
syn. : Coptis teeta Wallich var. chinensis Finet & Gagnepain
Common Name : Huang Lian
Other Name :Chinese goldthread

Habitat : Native to China.Damp coniferous woods and bogs. Forests, shaded places in valleys at elevations of 500 – 2000 metres.  Slow-growing and sensitive plant provides a rich yellow rhizome and thread-like rootlets.


Description:

Perennial forest dweller. Does well in pots. An evergreen Perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 10in) by 0.2 m (0ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to March, and the seeds ripen from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES…...(01).....(1)..…....…(2)..…..(3)…..……………..

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist or wet soil.

Cultivation :

Succeeds in a light moist humus-rich slightly acidic soil with a northerly aspect or light shade. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c.Sow seeds in fall or very early spring with germination in the spring as the ground warms up. Keep well-watered, protected and shaded until seedlings are established. Plant prefers rich, acid loam with moisture and shade.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in an ericaceous compost. Seal the pot in a polythene bag until germination takes place, which is usually within 1 – 6 months at 10°c. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible. Four weeks cold stratification may be beneficial. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in mid-autumn or in spring. Division in spring.

Chemical Constituents:Among other active compounds that Coptis chinensis contains is berberine and coptisine.

Medicinal uses.

Anaesthetic;  Analgesic;  Antibacterial;  Antidote;  Antipyretic;  Antispasmodic;  Bitter;  Blood tonic;  Carminative;  Cholagogue;  Digestive;
Sedative;  Skin;  Stomachic;  Tonic;  Vasodilator.

Huang Lian is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The root is a pungent, very bitter, cooling herb that controls bacterial and viral infections, relaxes spasms, lowers fevers and stimulates the circulation. It is one of the most frequently used herbs in prescriptions for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The root is analgesic, locally anaesthetic, antibacterial, antidote, antipyretic, bitter, blood tonic, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, sedative, stomachic, tonic and vasodilator. It is particularly helpful in the treatment of diarrhoea, acute enteritis and dysentery, whilst it is also used in the treatment of insomnia, fidget, delirium due to high fever, leukaemia and otitis media. Externally it is used to treat various skin problems such as acne, boils, abscesses and burns whilst it is also used as a gargle for mouth and tongue ulcers, swollen gums and toothache. As an eyewash it is used to treat conjunctivitis. The root is harvested in the autumn and used fresh or dried

It acts on Hearts, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach

It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is called duan è huánglián . One study found Coptis chinensis to be effective against the gastrointestinal parasite Blastocystis hominis.

You may click to see : Pharmacological & Clinical Research on Coptis chinensis & Coptis rhizome  :

Other Uses
Dye;  Ground cover.

A bright yellow pigment found in the roots can be used for dyeing. Can be grown as a ground cover plant in the peat garden.


Known Hazards:
Although no specific mention of toxicity has been found for this species, it belongs to a family that contains many species that are mildly toxic and so it is wise to treat this plant with some caution.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptis_chinensis
http://www.crimson-sage.com/shop/?shop=1&itemid=100150
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Coptis%20chinensis

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Abies spectabilis

B]otanical Name : Abies spectabilis – (D.Don.)Spach.
Family: Pinaceae
Genus :
Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. spectabilis
Synonyms:
Abies webbiana – Lindl.Pinus spectabilis – D.Don.

Common Name :Talispatra, Himalayan Fir

Habitat: E. Asia – Himalayas from Afghanistan to Nepal.Abies spectabilis (East Himalayan Fir). It is sometimes held to include the Bhutan Fir (A. densa) as a variety.Found in Afghanistan, China, India, and Nepal, it is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN. It grows in the forests  of  Nepal between 2700 – 3900 metres  on moist open areas.Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description:

An evergreen Tree.”A tree attaining in the E. Himalaya a height of 60 m.growing at a slow rate. Crown broadly conical. Branches horizontally spreading. Bark dark gray, rough and scaly. Shoots red-brown, deeply grooved, pubescent in the grooves. Buds large, globose, resinous. Needles on the upper side of the shoot arranged in several ranks, leaving a V-shaped depression between them, 2-6 cm long, with emarginate apex; upper surface dark green and glossy, with 2 broad stomata bands beneath. Cones cylindrical, 14-20 cm long and about 7 cm thick, violet-purple when young, later brown; seed scales 1.5-2 cm wide; bract scales concealed”

You may click to see  pictures                 Abies spectabilis              

It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

Cultivation:-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. This species is unsatisfactory in south-eastern Britain due to damage by late frosts, trees rarely live more than 40 years and have a poor thin crown. Trees grow far better in the milder and moister western side of the country. Young trees are very slow to establish because they are often damaged by late frosts, it is best to grow the young trees in high shade to get them through this time. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Actions  & Uses:-

Antiperiodic; Astringent; Carminative; Expectorant; Stomachic; Tonic.

The leaves are astringent, carminative, expectorant, stomachic and tonic. The leaf juice used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis etc. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used to treat colds, rheumatism and nasal congestion. The leaf juice is antiperiodic.

Other Uses:-
Essential; Fuel; Incense; Wood.

An essential oil is obtained from the plant, though the report does not give yields or uses. The dried leaves, mixed with other ingredients, are used in making incense. The wood is used for construction and thatching roofs. It is also used for fuel.

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+spectabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_spectabilis
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/earle/pi/ab/spectabilis.htm

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