Tag Archives: Streptococcal pharyngitis

Strep throat

Other Names:
Streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal tonsillitis, or streptococcal sore throat

Definition:
Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called Group A Streptococcus bacteria.  Only a small portion of sore throats are the result of strep throat.

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It  is a contagious infection, spread through close contact with an infected individual.  this is not always needed as treatment may be decided based on symptoms. In highly likely or confirmed cases, antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.

It’s important to identify strep throat for a number of reasons. If untreated, strep throat can sometimes cause complications such as kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can lead to painful and inflamed joints, a rash and even damage to heart valves.

Strep throat is most common between the ages of 5 and 15, but it affects people of all ages. If you or your child has signs or symptoms of strep throat, see your doctor for prompt treatment.

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Symptoms:
Symptoms may be mild or severe.One will often start to feel sick about 2 to 5 days after he or she  come in contact with the strep germ.

Fever may begin suddenly and is often highest on the second day. You may have chills.

You can have a red sore throat, sometimes with white patches. It may hurt to swallow. You may feel swollen, tender glands in your neck.

Other symptoms may include:
*General ill feeling, a loss of appetite and abnormal taste & Fever
*Headache
*Nausea
*Throat pain
*Difficulty swallowing
*Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus
*Tiny red spots on the soft or hard palate — the area at the back of the roof of the mouth
*Swollen, tender lymph glands (nodes) in your neck
*Headache
*Rash
*Stomachache and sometimes vomiting, especially in younger children
*Fatigue

It’s possible for you or your child to have many of these signs and symptoms, but not have strep throat. The cause of these signs and symptoms could be a viral infection or some other kind of illness. That’s why your doctor generally tests specifically for strep throat.

It’s also possible to have the bacteria that can cause strep in your throat without having a sore throat. Some people are carriers of strep, which means they can pass the bacteria on to others, but the bacteria are not currently making them sick.

Some strains of strep throat can lead to a scarlet fever-like rash. The rash first appears on the neck and chest. Then it spreads over the body. It may feel like sandpaper.

Causes:
Strep throat is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). Other bacteria such as non–group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis. It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person and thus crowding as may be found in the military and schools increases the rate of transmission. It has been found that dried bacteria in dust are not infectious, although moist bacteria on toothbrushes or similar items can persist for up to fifteen days. Rarely, contaminated food can result in outbreaks. Of children with no signs or symptoms 12% carry GAS in their pharynx and after treatment approximately 15% remain carriers.

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Diagnosis:
The modified Centor criteria maybe used to determine the management of people with pharyngitis. Based on 5 clinical criteria, it indicates the probability of a streptococcal infection.

One point is given for each of the criteria:

*Absence of a cough
*Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
*Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
*Tonsillar exudate or swelling
*Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age >44)

The Infectious Disease Society of America however recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they have a sibling with the disease.

Laboratory testing:
A throat culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis with a sensitivity of 90–95%. A rapid strep test (also called rapid antigen detection testing or RADT) may also be used. While the rapid strep test is quicker, it has a lower sensitivity (70%) and statistically equal specificity (98%) as throat culture.

A positive throat culture or RADT in association with symptoms establishes a positive diagnosis in those in which the diagnosis is in doubt. In adults a negative RADT is sufficient to rule out the diagnosis however in children a throat culture is recommended to confirm the result. Asymptomatic individuals should not be routinely tested with a throat culture or RADT because a certain percentage of the population persistently “carries” the streptococcal bacteria in their throat without any harmful results.

Differential diagnosis:
As the symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis overlap with other conditions it can be difficult to make the diagnosis clinically. Coughing, nasal discharge, diarrhea, and red, irritated eyes in addition to fever and sore throat are more indicative of a viral sore throat than of strep throat. The presence of marked lymph node enlargement along with sore throat, fever and tonsillar enlargement may also occur in infectious mononucleosis.

Possible Complications & Risk Factors:

*Acute rheumatic fever….click to see
*Scarlet fever
*Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
*Glomerulonephritis
*Ear infection
*Glomerulonephritis
*Guttate psoriasis
*Mastoiditis
*Peritonsillar abscess
*Sinusitis

Treatment:
A number of medications are available to cure strep throat, relieve its symptoms and prevent its spread.

Antibiotics:
If you or your child has strep throat, your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic such as:
Penicillin. This drug may be given by injection in some cases — such as if you have a young child who is having a hard time swallowing or is vomiting.
Amoxicillin. This drug is in the same family as penicillin, but is often a preferred option for children because it tastes better and is available as a chewable tablet.

If you or your child is allergic to penicillin, your doctor likely may prescribe:
A cephalosporin such as cephalexin (Keflex)
Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax)
Clindamycin

These antibiotics reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the risk of complications and the likelihood that infection will spread to classmates or family members.

Once treatment begins, you or your child should start feeling better in just a day or two. Call your doctor if you or your child doesn’t feel better after taking antibiotics for 48 hours.

If children taking antibiotic therapy feel well and don’t have a fever, they often can return to school or child care when they’re no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after beginning treatment. But be sure to finish the entire course of medicine. Stopping medication early may lead to recurrences and serious complications, such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation.

Untreated streptococcal pharyngitis usually resolves within a few days. Treatment with antibiotics shortens the duration of the acute illness by about 16 hours. The primary reason for treatment with antibiotics is to reduce the risk of complications such as rheumatic fever and retropharyngeal abscesses and they are effective if given within 9 days of the onset of symptoms

Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help significantly in the management of pain associated with strep throat. Viscous lidocaine may also be useful. While steroids may help with the pain they are not routinely recommended. Aspirin may be used in adults but is not recommended in children due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome.

Prognosis:
The symptoms of strep throat usually improve irrespective of treatment within three to five days. Treatment with antibiotics reduces the risk of complications and transmission; children may return to school 24 hours after antibiotics are administered. The risk of complications in adults is low. In children acute rheumatic fever is rare in most of the developed world. It is however the leading cause of acquired heart disease in India, sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Australia.

Prevention:
Tonsillectomy may be a reasonable preventive measure in those with frequent throat infections (more than three a year). The benefits are however small and episodes typically lessen in time regardless of measures taken. Recurrent episodes of pharyngitis which test positive for GAS may also represent a person who is a chronic carrier of GAS who is getting recurrent viral infections. Treating people who have been exposed but who are without symptoms is not recommended. Treating people who are carriers of GAS is not recommended as the risk of spread and complications is low.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcal_pharyngitis
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000639.htm
http://ww.mayoclinic.com/health/strep-throat/DS00260

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Scarlet fever

Alternative Names : Scarlatina

Definition:
Scarlet fever is a disease caused by infection with the group A Streptococcus bacteria (the same bacteria that causes strep throat).Once a major cause of death, it is now effectively treated with antibiotics. The term scarlatina may be used interchangeably with scarlet fever, though it is commonly used to indicate the less acute form of scarlet fever that is often seen since the beginning of the twentieth century.
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It can affect people of any age. However, it’s most common between the ages of six and 12.

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Symptoms:

The time between becoming infected and having symptoms is short, generally 1 – 2 days. The illness typically begins with a fever and sore throat.

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The rash usually first appears on the neck and chest, then spreads over the body. It is described as “sandpapery” in feel. The texture of the rash is more important than the appearance in confirming the diagnosis. The rash can last for more than a week. As the rash fades, peeling (desquamation) may occur around the fingertips, toes, and groin area.

The common signs and symptoms that give scarlet fever are as follows:

*Red rash. The rash looks like a sunburn and feels like sandpaper. It typically begins on the face or neck and spreads to the trunk, arms and legs. If pressure is applied to the reddened skin, it will turn pale.

*Red lines. The folds of skin around the groin, armpits, elbows, knees and neck usually become a deeper red than the surrounding rash.

*Flushed face. The face may appear flushed with a pale ring around the mouth.

*Strawberry tongue. The tongue generally looks red and bumpy, and it’s often covered with a white coating early in the disease.

The rash and the redness in the face and tongue usually last about a week. After these signs and symptoms have subsided, the skin affected by the rash often peels. Other signs and symptoms associated with scarlet fever include:

*Fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or higher, often with chills

*Very sore and red throat, sometimes with white or yellowish patches

*Difficulty swallowing

*Enlarged glands in the neck (lymph nodes) that are tender to the touch

*Nausea or vomiting

*Headache

*Abdominal pain

*Bright red color in the creases of the underarm and groin (Pastia’s lines)

*Chills

*General discomfort (malaise)

*Muscle aches

*Sore throat

*Swollen, red tongue (strawberry tongue)

Causes:
Scarlet fever is caused by the same type of bacteria that cause strep throat. In scarlet fever, the bacteria release a toxin that produces the rash and red tongue.

The infection spreads from person to person via droplets expelled when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The incubation period — the time between exposure and illness — is usually two to four days.

Risk Factors:
Children 6 to 12 years of age are more likely than are other people to get scarlet fever. Scarlet fever germs spread more easily among people in close contact, such as family members or classmates.

Complications:
If scarlet fever goes untreated, the bacteria may spread to the:

*Tonsils
*Sinuses
*Skin
*Blood
*Middle ear

Rarely, scarlet fever can lead to rheumatic fever, a serious condition that can affect the:

*Heart
*Joints
*Nervous system
*Skin

Diagnosis:
Diagnosis of scarlet fever is clinical. The blood test shows marked leukocytosis with neutrophilia and conservated or increased eosinophils, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (both indications of inflammation), and elevation of antistreptolysin O titer. Blood culture is rarely positive, but the streptococci can usually be demonstrated in throat culture. The complications of scarlet fever include septic complications due to spread of streptococcus in blood and immune-mediated complications due to an aberrant immune response. Septic complications—today rare—include ear and sinus infection, streptococcal pneumonia, empyema thoracis, meningitis and full-blown sepsis, upon which the condition may be called malignant scarlet fever.

Immune complications include acute glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever and erythema nodosum. The secondary scarlatinous disease, or secondary malignant syndrome of scarlet fever, includes renewed fever, renewed angina, septic ear, nose, and throat complications and kidney infection or rheumatic fever and is seen around the eighteenth day of untreated scarlet fever.

The rash is the most striking sign of scarlet fever. It usually begins looking like a bad sunburn with tiny bumps, and it may itch. The rash usually appears first on the neck and face, often leaving a clear unaffected area around the mouth. It spreads to the chest and back, then to the rest of the body. In body creases, especially around the underarms and elbows, the rash forms classic red streaks (on very dark skin, the streaks may appear darker than the rest of the skin). Areas of rash usually turn white (or paler brown, with dark complected skin) when pressed on. By the sixth day of the infection, the rash usually fades, but the affected skin may begin to peel. Usually there are other symptoms that help to confirm a diagnosis of scarlet fever, including a reddened sore throat, a fever at or above 101 °F (38.3 °C), and swollen glands in the neck. Scarlet fever can also occur with a low fever. The tonsils and back of the throat may be covered with a whitish coating, or appear red, swollen, and dotted with whitish or yellowish specks of pus. Early in the infection, the tongue may have a whitish or yellowish coating. Also, an infected person may have chills, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

When scarlet fever occurs because of a throat infection, the fever typically stops within 3 to 5 days, and the sore throat passes soon afterward. The scarlet fever rash usually fades on the sixth day after sore throat symptoms started, and begins to peel (as above). The infection itself is usually cured with a 10-day course of antibiotics, but it may take a few weeks for tonsils and swollen glands to return to normal.

In rare cases, scarlet fever may develop from a streptococcal skin infection like impetigo. In these cases, the person may not get a sore throat.

Treatment:
Other than the occurrence of the diarrhea, the treatment and course of scarlet fever are no different from those of any strep throat. In case of penicillin allergy, clindamycin or erythromycin can be used with success. Patients should no longer be infectious after taking antibiotics for 24 hours. People who have been exposed to scarlet fever should be watched carefully for a full week for symptoms, especially if aged 3 to young adult. It is very important to be tested (throat culture) and if positive, seek treatment.

A drug-resistant strain of scarlet fever has emerged in Hong Kong, accounting for at least two deaths in that city – the first such in over a decade. The mutant strain of the bacterium is about 60% resistant to the antibiotics, says Professor Kwok-yung Yuen, head of Hong Kong University’s microbiology department. This is compared to a previous strain of the disease, which demonstrated a 10-30% resistance. This new strain may have spread to neighboring Macau and mainland China.

Prognosis:
With proper antibiotic treatment, the symptoms of scarlet fever should get better quickly. However, the rash can last for up to 2 – 3 weeks before it fully goes away.

Prevention :
Bacteria are spread by direct contact with infected people, or by droplets exhaled by an infected person. Avoid contact with infected people.

Children should be taught  to practice the following healthy habits:

*Wash  hands. Show your child how to wash his or her hands thoroughly with warm soapy water.

*Don’t share dining utensils or food. As a general rule, your child shouldn’t share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates. And that rule applies to food, too.

*Cover your mouth and nose. Tell your child to cover his or her mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing to prevent the potential spread of germs.If your child has scarlet fever, wash his or her drinking glasses, utensils and, if possible, toys in hot soapy water or in a dishwasher.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/scarlet-fever/DS00917
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarlet_fever
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/scarletfever1.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000974.htm
http://www.umm.edu/imagepages/19082.htm
http://www.healthofchildren.com/S/Scarlet-Fever.html
http://sigma.ontologyportal.org:4010/sigma/Browse.jsp?kb=SUMO&term=ScarletFever

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Throat Culture

 

Alternative Names:Throat culture and sensitivity; Culture – throat

Definition:
A throat infection with streptococcus bacteria (called strep throat) needs to be treated with an antibiotic.Throat swab culture is a laboratory test done to isolate and identify organisms that may cause infection in the throat. It is the traditional test used for identifying streptococcus bacteria on your throat surface. Throat cultures also can identify some other bacteria that can cause sore throat.

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Throat swab culture is a laboratory test done to isolate and identify organisms that may cause infection in the throat.The test is performed when a throat infection is suspected, particularly strep throat.

How do you prepare for the test?
No preparation is necessary.Only do not use antiseptic mouthwashes before the test.

What happens when the test is performed?
Tilt your head back with your mouth wide open.A sterile cotton swab is rubbed against the back of your throat to gather a sample of mucus from near the tonsils.Resist gagging and closing the mouth while the swab touches the back of the throat near the tonsils. This takes only a second or two and makes some people feel a brief gagging or choking sensation.

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In order to improve the chances of detecting bacteria, the swab may be used to scrape the back of the throat several times. The mucus sample is then placed on a culture plate that helps any bacteria present in the mucus grow, so they can be examined and identified.

How the Test Will Feel :
Your throat may be sore at the time the test is taken. You may experience a gagging sensation when the back of your throat is touched with the swab, but the test only lasts a few seconds.

What risks are there from the test?
There are no risks.This test is safe and well-tolerated. In very few patients, the sensation of gagging may lead to an urge to vomit or cough.

Normal Results:
The presence of the usual mouth and throat bacteria is a normal finding.

What Abnormal Results Mean :
An abnormal result means bacteria or other organism is present. This is usually a sign of infection.

Must you do anything special after the test is over?
Nothing.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Results from a strep culture are available in two or three days.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/throat-culture.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003746.htm

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Rapid Strep Test (RADT)

For a rapid strep test, the throat and tonsils are swabbed to collect bacteria from the infected area for testing. The bacteria are analyzed to see whether strep (streptococcal) bacteria are causing the sore throat.

.This scanning electron micrograph shows disease-causing Streptococcus bacteria, commonly found in the human mouth, throat, respiratory tract, bloodstream, and wounds. Often airborne in hospitals, schools, and other public places, Streptococcus bacteria are responsible for infections such as strep throat, scarlet fever, and some types of pneumonia.

A throat infection with streptococcus bacteria (called strep throat) needs to be treated with an antibiotic. A test is commonly used to find out whether streptococcus bacteria are present on your throat surface. The traditional test for a strep throat has been a throat culture, which takes two to three days to produce results. Several different types of rapid strep tests, however, can produce results within minutes to hours. A rapid strep test can only detect the presence of Group A strep, the one most likely to cause serious throat infections; it does not detect other kinds of strep or other bacteria.

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A good sample of throat secretions is needed to make sure the test is accurate. A person must remain very still during the procedure so that the doctor is able to collect enough secretions for an accurate test.

The Rapid Strep Test works by detecting the presence of a carbohydrate antigen unique to Group A Streptococcus. This may account for some of the problems with the Rapid Strep Test sensitivity. Gargling, eating or other infusion of liquids into the mouth prior to the test may affect the results. If the test is performed before sufficient organisms are present in the throat, or late in the infection when most of the strep germs have been cleared by the immune system, or if it is performed after someone has been partially treated with antibiotics that kill the organism, then the Rapid Strep Test is less likely to detect the organism.

If the Rapid Strep Test detects strep, the infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotics to prevent long-term damage and sequelae. Should the Rapid Strep Test fail to detect strep throat, the clinician might still treat the throat infection based on his or her own judgment.

How do you prepare for the test?
No preparation is necessary.

When it is required to do?

A rapid strep test may be done in the following cases:

*A person has symptoms of strep throat infection.

*A person has been exposed to strep during an epidemic of rheumatic fever.

The person has a personal or family history of rheumatic fever or other serious infections (such as toxic shock syndrome) and has been exposed to strep. In these cases, if there are no symptoms, a culture may be done first because it is more accurate than a rapid strep test.

In general, it is not necessary to test people who have been exposed to strep throat but do not have any symptoms.

What happens when the test is performed?
A cotton swab is rubbed against the back of your throat to gather a sample of mucus. This takes only a second or two and makes some people feel a brief gagging or choking sensation. The mucus sample is then tested for a protein that comes from the strep bacteria.


Risk factor.
:-
There are no risks.

Anything to be done after the test?
Nothing

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Results may be available in minutes to a few hours. Often the doctor will ask you to wait in the office until the result is back.

Results:-
Findings of a rapid strep test may include the following:

Normal
A normal or negative test means that strep bacteria may not be present.

Sometimes, negative results are wrong. This means that you may have a negative rapid strep test result and still have strep throat.
A throat culture may be done if the rapid strep test result is negative.

Abnormal

An abnormal or positive strep test means that strep bacteria are present.

Antibiotic treatment can be started.
A positive test result does not distinguish those people with an active strep infection from those who are carriers of strep bacteria but actually have a viral infection (rather than a bacterial one).
What To Think About:
The rapid strep test costs less than a throat culture and may diagnose strep throat quickly

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/rapid-strep-test.htm
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/rapid-strep-test-for-strep-throat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RADT

http://encarta.msn.com/media_461520073_761574409_-1_1/streptococcus_bacteria.html

 

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Pharyngitis

Definition:
Pharyngitis: (far-in-jÄ«’ tis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. Infection of the tonsils, tonsillitis may occur simultaneously.
Inflammation of the pharynx (the hollow tube in the back of the throat about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea). Pharyngitis is popularly known as a sore throat…CLICK & SEE
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
The major cause is infection, of which 90% are viral, the remainder caused by bacterial infection and rarely oral thrush (fungal candidiasis e.g. in babies). Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by irritation from agents such as pollutants or chemical substances.

Pharyngitis is caused by a variety of microorganisms. Most cases are caused by a virus, including the virus causing the common cold, flu (influenza virus), adenovirus, mononucleosis, HIV, and various others.

Bacterial causes include Group A streptococcus, which causes strep throat, in addition to corynebacterium, arcanobacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and others. In up to 30% of cases, no organism is identified.

Most cases of pharyngitis occur during the colder months — during respiratory disease season. It often spreads among family members.

Strep throat is a serious cause of pharyngitis. The complications of strep throat can include acute rheumatic fever, kidney dysfunction, and severe diseases such as bacteremia and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms
Sore throat
Strep throat may be accompanied by fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Viral pharyngitis may be associated with runny nose and postnasal drip
Severe cases may be accompanied by difficulty swallowing and, rarely, difficulty breathing
Additional symptoms are dependent on the underlying microorganisms

Signs and tests
The health care provider will perform an examination of the pharynx to look for drainage or coating. The skin, eyes, and neck lymph nodes may be examined.
A rapid antigen test may be done for strep. If the rapid test is positive, the patient is treated with an antibiotic. If the rapid test is negative, a throat culture may be done.
If there is suspicion for strep throat a streptococcal screen and/or throat swab culture may be performed. Additional throat cultures or blood tests may be done depending on the suspected organism (e.g., mononucleosis, gonorrheae).

Modern Treatment:
The treatment depends on the underlying cause. Viral infections are managed with warm salt water gargles, pain relievers, and fluids. Antibiotics are needed if strep throat is diagnosed.But most sore throats are viral and will not respond to antibiotics. Bacterial causes include Group A streptococcus. The cephalosporin antibiotics such as cephalexin (Keflex, Keftabs, Biocef) and cefadroxil (Duricef) have been found to be much less likely to fail in eradicating the strep than penicillin.

Symptomatic Treatment:
Twenty-two non-antibiotic managements for sore throat have been studied in controlled trials.Analgesics are among the most effective, but there are many simple measures that can also be used.

Avoid foods and liquids highly acidic in nature, as they will provoke temporary periods of intense pain
Analgesics such as NSAIDs can help reduce the pain associated with a sore throat.

Throat lozenges (cough medicine) are often used for short-term pain relief.

Gargling with warm salty water is a popular household remedy, although there is only anecdotal evidence this gives anything other than temporary relief and likewise for the use of aspirin gargles. Gargling with salty water can help clear up mucus.

Honey has long been used for treating sore throats due to its antiseptic properties.

Warm tea (true or herbal) or soup can help temporarily alleviate the pain of a sore throat.

Cold beverages and popsicles numb the nerves of the throat somewhat, alleviating the pain for a brief time.

Mouthwash (when gargled) reduces the pain but only for a brief time.

There have been some studies that show ingesting a solution high in protein can have a profound relieving effect on sore throats, particularly if they are allergy related.

Drinking heavy amounts of liquid reduces the pain for a short time.

Peppermint candy might help with some cases as well as other hard candies. It will reduce the pain for a short time.
Raw juice of papaya leaves may help to recover sore throat.

Yogurt has been shown to help alleviate the pain temporarily by coating the affected area. Milk also has the same effect.

Raw juice of lemon or lime may help destroy bacteria in bacteria-related throat infections but the high acid content may irritate the affected throat tissues more.

Alcohol has a mild analgesic and antiseptic effect, but may also weaken the immune system.

Powdered liquorice root is very effective.

Malt vinegar when gargled is very effective for treating sore throats.

Pharyngitis Remedies Natural Cure And Ayurvedic Herbal Pharyngitis Treatment
Home Remedy Of Sore Throat
Homeopathic Treatment Of Pharyngitis

Expectations (prognosis)
Most cases of pharyngitis go away on their own, without complications.

Complications
The possible complications of strep throat include rheumatic fever, kidney inflammation, chorea, bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and, rarely, streptococcal shock syndrome
In some severe forms of pharyngitis (e.g., severe mononucleosis-pharyngitis) the airway may become blocked.
Peritonsillar abscess or retropharyngeal abscess are possible.

When to call your health care provider
Notify your provider if you develop a persistent sore throat that does not resolve in several days or if you have high fevers, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or rash. If you have a sore throat and develop difficulty breathing, you must seek medical care immediately.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Help taken from :healthline.com and en.wikipedia.org