Herbs & Plants

Salix eleagnos

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Botanical Name : Salix eleagnos
Family: Salicaceae
Tribe: Saliceae
Genus: Salix
Species:Salix eleagnos
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Synonyms: Salix rosmarinifolia, Rosemary Willow

Common Names: Olive willow, Hoary willow, Rosemary willow

Habitat: Salix eleagnos is native to central and southern Europe and south west Asia.

Salix eleagnos is an erect bushy deciduous shrub with narrow grey-green leaves up to 20 cm (8 in) long, which turn yellow in autumn (fall). The plant is 3 m (10 ft) tall by 5 m (16 ft) broad.The green catkins, 3–6 cm (1–2 in) long, appear with the leaves in spring, male catkins having yellow anthers.

Like all willows, the species is dioecious. The specific epithet eleagnos is frequently spelt elaeagnos, though the original spelling has been accepted as a correct Greek form.

S. eleagnos subsp. angustifolia has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit.


Botanical details:
*Growth form: the plant is a shrub (a woody plant with several stems growing from the base) the plant is a tree
*Leaf type: the leaf blade is simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
*Leaves per node: there is one leaf per node along the stem
*Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes / the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
*Leaf duration: the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)
*Armature on plant: the plant does not have spines, prickles, or thorns
*Leaf blade length: 5–160 mm
*Leaf blade width: 1–8 mm
*Leaf stalk: the leaves have leaf stalks
*Fruit type (general): the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
*Bark texture: the bark of an adult plant is thin and smooth
*Twig winter color: brown,red,yellow
*Bud scale number: there is one scale on the winter bud, and it covers the scale like a cap
Medicinal Uses:
In Ancient Greece, the bark of the white willow (Salix alba) was chewed to relieve the pain of gout and to reduce fever. In the fifth century B.C., Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, prescribed ground willow bark to ease aches and pains. In the 1st century A.D. Dioscorides, a Greek physician in service to the Romans, wrote that the ingested bark and leaves of Salix alba reduce fever and relieve pain. For centuries, Europeans used tea made of the roots and leaves to lower fever and relieve aches. The Chickasaw Indians used tea made from the roots to relieve headache.
In 1830, German researchers isolated salicin from the bark of the white willow tree and from other plants. Their research determined that ingested salicin becomes salicylic acid in the stomach, and that salicylic acid is responsible for the desired effects as well as undesirable toxic side effects that include gastrointestinal bleeding. In 1875 a derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid. Acetylsalicylic acid was discovered to have the properties of and to have many fewer side effects than salicylic acid. In 1899 acetylsalicylic acid appeared in powder form for the first time; 1915 was the first time that it appeared in pill form. A part of the terms of the peace treaty with Germany following World War I was the surrender of the patent and of the trade mark ASPIRIN for acetylsalicylic acid. Since then acetylsalicylic acid (abbreviated as ASA) has been universally known as aspirin. Aspirin is one of the most important and one of the cheapest drugs in the medical armamentarium for the treatment of human diseases, for the relief of pain, and as a blood thinner in the prevention of heart attacks and strokes caused by disease in the blood vessel walls.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Herbs & Plants

Picramnia antidesma

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Botanical Name: Picramnia antidesma
Family: Picramniaceae
Genus: Picramnia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Picramniales

Synonyms: Mountain Damson Bark. Simaruba Honduras Bark.

Common Names: Simaruba bark

Habitat: Picramnia antidesma is native of the West Indies and yields the drug known as Simaruba bark. The tree grows to a considerable height and thicknessJamaica and South Guiana.
Picramnia antidesma has alternate spreading branches; the bark on the old trees is black and furrowed, on the younger trees smooth grey, in places spotted with big patches of yellow, the wood is hard, white and without any special taste; it has numerous leaves alternately on the branches, each leaf has several pinnae, nearly elliptical, upper side smooth deep green, under side whitish, short foot-stalks, flowers male and female on different trees, colour yellow in long panicles. The bark is rough scaly and poor; inside when fresh is a good yellow colour, but when dry paler; it has very little smell and taste and though very bitter is not disagreeable. Macerated in water or rectified spirits it gives a yellow tincture; makes a better and stronger infusion in cold water than in boiling water; the decoction is transparent yellow when hot, but when cooled, is turbid and brownish red in colour. The bark was brought from Guiana in 1713 as a remedy for dysentery. In France in 1718 to 1825 an epidemic flux was cured by the bark and this established its medicinal use in Europe… & see the pictures
Parts Used in medicine : The Bark, root-bark.

Constituents: A bitter tonic credited with specific alternative properties. It belongs to an undetermined species of picrammia and contains a bitter sweet amorphous alkaloid.

Medicinal Uses:
Purgative, tonic, diaphoretic. A very valuable bitter tonic, useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, and in some forms of indigestion; in large doses it is said to act as an emetic. It restores tone to the intestines, allays spasmodic motions, promotes a healthy secretion. Big doses cause vomiting and nausea – should not be used in dysentery attended with fever. In dysentery with weak indigestion it is often preferred to chamonilee.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.