In the condition, called venous thrombosis or thromboembolism, blood clots form in a vein, which can limit blood flow and cause swelling and pain. Those clots can then dislodge from the vein and travel to the heart and the lungs, which can be fatal.
The study examined 574 people in Italy age 55 and up to determine whether they had a history of migraine or migraine at the time of the evaluation. The doctors also reviewed their medical records for cases of venous thrombosis.
The Science Daily online reported that of the participants, 111 people had migraine. A total of 21 people with migraine also had one or more instances of venous thrombosis. In comparison, 35 people without migraine had the condition.
Though researchers were unable to pinpoint the reason for the link between migraine and venous thrombosis, a theory is that the blood of people with migraine may be more prone to clotting, the report said.
It was also found that people with migraine are not more likely to have hardening or narrowing of the arteries, which is contrary to a current theory.
“The thinking has been that because people with migraine are more likely to have strokes and other cardiovascular problems, that they would also have more severe and early atherosclerosis,” said study author Stefan Kiechl, of Innsbruck Medical University in Austria. He said the study provides solid evidence to refute it.
Q: I own a flat on the third (top) floor of a building. The residents’ association has leased out the terrace to a cell phone company which has erected a tower there. I have a pacemaker and am worried about the impact of the signals from the tower on my heart. What should I do?
A: Signals from microwaves and cell phones do affect pacemakers. Irregularities in the heart rate have been noticed when a phone is held even 15cm away from the pacemaker. When you are living just under a phone tower, the signal is likely to be strong and powerful. The first symptoms of the pacemaker being affected are a feeling of faintness and irregularity in your pulse rate. You can be fitted with a 24-hour monitoring device by your cardiologist. This will document any irregularity, so you know it is real and not psychological.
If there are any changes, it may make sense to move. Your building association is unlikely to cancel a financially lucrative enterprise and get the tower relocated.
A: Circumcision is a surgical procedure that involves removal of the skin and mucosal tissue that covers the glans, the tip of the penis. Circumcision is unconditionally practised by Jews and Muslims. It is a part of their religious culture. In others it is usually performed if the foreskin gets stuck (phimosis) or infected. It does help in the prevention of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. But it does not give 100 per cent protection.
All operations can have complications. Problems like infection or bleeding, though rare, can arise after the surgery. Unless your son’s paediatrician has advised circumcision for a particular reason, it does not make sense to put him through elective surgery. When he is older, teaching him about responsibility, sexual norms and safe sex may be a better option.
Yellow vs white:-
Q: There are natural and “artificial” eggs available in the market. The colour of the yolk in the two differs. Is there a difference in their nutritive values? Is eating eggs healthy?
A: Eggs contain easily digestible proteins, fats, vitamins and antioxidants. They are a complete food in themselves. The recommended intake is one egg a day for those with a normal lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides). If the lipids are raised, cutting down on yolks to a maximum of two per week would be fine. Egg whites do not add to the cholesterol level, and you can eat as many of these as you like.
The colour of the yolk only depends on the type of feed the hen has received. It does not affect the egg’s nutritive value. By natural eggs, I think you mean those laid by hens that roam free, and by “artificial” the ones that are laid in hatcheries. Nutrition-wise, both are the same.
Q: My daughter listens to music the whole day. I don’t like it, but do not want to put a stop to it unless it is harmful.
A: If your daughter is listening to music instead of doing her homework or studying, perhaps you need to interfere. But do check her academic performance first. Listening to music does have many positive effects. It soothes, pacifies and relieves tension in children and in adults. Music during exercise provides a cognitive boost, in addition to the other benefits of regular activity. Loud music, on the other hand, can damage hearing, increase the heart rate and produce paradoxical excitement.
Q: My shoes never fit both the feet perfectly. One is always a little loose or tight.
A: A person’s feet may not be identical in shape and size. One is usually marginally larger than the other. If this difference is marked, footwear will never fit properly. It is better to buy a bigger size and wear two socks on the foot that is smaller. Otherwise, you have to buy two pairs of shoes.
Q: I pierced my ear in the upper part, in addition to the ear lobe. It has become red, swollen and painful. My ear now looks ugly and deformed. What should I do?
A: The condition you are describing is called “cauliflower ear”. It occurs when a blood clot develops in the cartilage of the ear as a result of injury. The accumulated blood becomes infected and this destroys the cartilage, making it shrunken and shrivelled.
As soon as there is pain and swelling owing to an injury (even piercing), it should be treated with ice packs and antibiotics. Once it becomes misshapen, cosmetic reconstruction by a plastic surgeon is the only option.
Hemophilia (heem-o-FILL-ee-ah) is a rare, inherited bleeding disorder in which your blood doesn’t clot normally. If you have hemophilia, you may bleed for a longer time than others after an injury. You also may bleed internally, especially in your knees, ankles, and elbows. This bleeding can damage your organs or tissues and, sometimes, be fatal.
People born with hemophilia have little to none of a protein needed for normal blood clotting. The protein is called a clotting factor. There are several types of clotting factors, and they work together with platelets to help the blood clot. Platelets are small pieces of blood cells that are formed in the bone marrow. They play a major role in blood clotting.
When blood vessels are injured, clotting factors help the platelets stick together to plug cuts and breaks at the site of the injury to stop the bleeding. Without clotting factors, normal blood clotting can’t take place. Sometimes people with hemophilia need injections of a clotting factor or factors to stop bleeding.
There are two main types of hemophilia. If you have hemophilia A, you have little to no clotting factor VIII (8). About 9 out of 10 people with hemophilia have type A. If you have hemophilia B, you’re missing or have low levels of clotting factor IX (9).
Hemophilia can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on how much clotting factor is in the blood. About 7 out of 10 people who have hemophilia A have the severe form of the disorder. People who don’t have hemophilia have a factor VIII activity of 100 percent; people who have severe hemophilia A have a factor VIII activity of less than 1 percent.
In addition to being inherited, hemophilia also can be acquired, which means that you can develop it during your lifetime. It can develop if your body forms antibodies to the clotting factors in your bloodstream. The antibodies can block the clotting factors from working. Only inherited hemophilia is discussed in this article.
Other Names for Hemophilia:
Factor VIII deficiency
Factor IX deficiency
If you have inherited hemophilia, you’re born with the condition. It’s caused by a defect in one of the genes that determine how the body makes blood clotting factors VIII or IX. These genes are located on the X chromosomes (KRO-muh-somz).
Chromosomes come in pairs. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. Only the X chromosome carries the genes related to clotting factors.
A male who has the abnormal gene on his X chromosome will have hemophilia. A female must have the abnormal gene on both of her X chromosomes to have hemophilia; this is very rare.
A female is a “carrier” of hemophilia if she has the abnormal gene on one of her X chromosomes. Even though she doesn’t have the condition, she can pass the gene on to her children.
Below are two examples of how the hemophilia gene is inherited.
Inheritance Pattern for Hemophilia—Example 1
The diagram shows one example of how the hemophilia gene is inherited. In this example, the father doesn’t have hemophillia (that is, he has two normal chromosomes—X and Y). The mother is a carrier of hemophilia (that is, she has one abnormal X chromosome and one normal X chromosome). Each daughter has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the abnormal gene from her mother and being a carrier. Each son has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the abnormal gene from his mother and having hemophilia.
Inheritance Pattern for Hemophilia—Example 2
The diagram shows one example of how the hemophilia gene is inherited. In this example, the father has hemophilia (that is, his X chromosome is abnormal). The mother isn’t a carrier of hemophilia (that is, she has two normal X chromosomes). Each daughter will inherit the abnormal gene from her father and be a carrier. None of the sons will inherit the abnormal gene from their father, and, therefore, none will have hemophilia.
Females who are carriers usually have enough clotting factors from their one normal X chromosome to prevent serious bleeding problems.
Very rarely, a girl is born with hemophilia. This can happen if her father has hemophilia and her mother is a carrier.
Some males with the disorder are born to mothers who aren’t carriers. In these cases, a mutation (random change) occurs in the gene as it is passed to the child.
Signs and Symptoms: The major signs and symptoms of hemophilia are excessive bleeding and easy bruising.
The extent of bleeding depends on the type and severity of the hemophilia. Children with mild hemophilia may not have symptoms until they have excessive bleeding from a dental procedure, an accident, or surgery. Males with severe hemophilia may bleed heavily after circumcision. Bleeding can be obvious (external bleeding) or hidden within the body (internal bleeding).
Signs of excessive external bleeding include:
*Bleeding in the mouth from a cut or bite or from cutting or losing a tooth
*Nosebleeds for no obvious reason
*Heavy bleeding from a minor cut
*Bleeding from a cut that resumes after stopping for a short time
*Signs of internal bleeding include blood in the urine (from bleeding in the kidneys or bladder) and blood in the stool (from bleeding in the intestines or stomach).
Bleeding in the Joints
Bleeding in the knees, elbows, or other joints is another common form of internal bleeding in people with hemophilia. This can occur without obvious injury. At first, this bleeding causes tightness in the joint with no real pain or any visible signs of bleeding. The joint then becomes swollen, hot to touch, and painful to bend.
Swelling continues as bleeding continues, and eventually movement in the joint is temporarily lost. Pain can be severe. Joint bleeding that isn’t quickly treated can permanently damage the joint.
Bleeding in the Brain
Internal bleeding in the brain is a very serious complication of hemophilia that can happen after a simple bump on the head or a more serious injury. The signs and symptoms of bleeding in the brain include:
*Long-lasting painful headaches or neck pain or stiffness
*Changes in behavior or being very sleepy
*Sudden weakness or clumsiness of the arms or legs or difficulty walking
*Convulsions or seizures
If hemophilia is suspected or if you appear to have a bleeding problem, your doctor will take a personal and family medical history. This will reveal whether you or anyone in your family has a history of frequent and/or heavy bleeding and bruising. Your doctor also will do a physical exam and order blood tests.
Blood tests are used to determine:
*How long it takes for your blood to clot
*Whether your blood has low levels of any of the clotting factors
*Whether one of the factors is completely missing from your blood
*The test results will show if you have hemophilia, what type of hemophilia you have, and how severe it is.
Hemophilia A and B are classified as mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the amount of clotting factor VIII or IX in the blood.
*Mild hemophilia…….. 5–30 percent of normal factor
*Moderate hemophilia…. 1–5 percent of normal factor
*Severe hemophilia…… Less than 1 percent of normal factor
The degree of symptoms can overlap between the categories. For example, some people with mild hemophilia may have bleeding problems almost as often or as problematic as some people with moderate hemophilia.
Severe hemophilia can cause serious bleeding problems in babies. Therefore, children with severe hemophilia are usually diagnosed during the first year of life. People with milder forms of hemophilia may not be diagnosed until they’re adults.
The bleeding problems of hemophilia A and hemophilia B are the same. Only special blood tests can tell which type a person has. Knowing which type is important because the treatments are different.
Pregnant women who are known carriers of hemophilia can have the condition diagnosed in their unborn child as early as 10 weeks into their pregnancy.
Women who are hemophilia carriers also can have “preimplantation diagnosis” to have a child without hemophilia. For this process, women have their eggs removed and then fertilized by sperm in a laboratory. The embryos that result from this fertilization are then tested for hemophilia. Only embryos that lack the condition will then be implanted in the womb.
Treatment With Replacement Therapy:
The main treatment for hemophilia is called replacement therapy—giving or replacing the clotting factor that’s too low or missing. Concentrates of clotting factor VIII (for hemophilia A) or clotting factor IX (for hemophilia B) are slowly dripped in or injected into a vein.
Clotting factor concentrates can be made from human blood that has been treated to prevent the spread of diseases, such as hepatitis. With the new methods of screening and treating donated blood, the risk of developing an infectious disease from clotting factors taken from human blood is now very small.
To further reduce that risk, you or your child can take clotting factor concentrates that don’t use human blood. These are called recombinant clotting factors. Clotting factors are easy to store, mix, and use at home—it takes only about 15 minutes to receive the factor.
You may have replacement therapy on a regular basis to prevent bleeding. This is called preventive or prophylactic (PRO-fih-lac-tik) therapy. Or, you may only need replacement therapy to stop bleeding when it occurs. This use of the treatment, on an as-needed basis, is called demand therapy. Therapy that’s given as needed is less intensive and less expensive than preventive therapy. However, there is a risk that bleeding will cause damage before the as-needed treatment is given.
Complications of Replacement Therapy: Complications of replacement therapy include:
*Developing antibodies, which are proteins that act against the clotting factors
*Developing viral infections from human clotting factors
*Damage to joints, muscles, or other parts of the body resulting from delays in treatment
Antibodies to the clotting factor. Antibodies destroy the clotting factor before it has a chance to work. This is a very serious problem, because it makes the main treatment for hemophilia—replacing clotting factors—no longer effective.
Antibodies to clotting factor develop in about 20 percent of people with severe hemophilia A and 1 percent of people with hemophilia B.
When antibodies develop, doctors may use larger doses of clotting factors or try different sources of the clotting factor. Sometimes, the antibodies go away. Researchers are studying ways to deal with antibodies to clotting factors.
Viruses from human blood factors. The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors. However, there has been no documented case of these viruses being transmitted during replacement therapy for about a decade. Transmission of viruses has been prevented by:
*Careful screening of blood donors
*Testing of donated blood products
*Treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses
*Vaccinating people with hemophilia for hepatitis A and B *Researchers continue to find ways to make blood products safer. Home Treatment With Replacement Therapy:
Both preventive and as-needed replacement therapy can be done at home. Many people learn to do the infusions at home for their child or for themselves. Home treatment has several advantages:
You or your child can get treatment quicker when bleeding happens. Early treatment means that fewer complications are likely to occur.
*Fewer visits to the doctor or emergency room are needed.
*Home treatment costs less than treatment in a medical care setting.
*Home treatment helps children accept treatment and take responsibility for their own health.
Discuss options for home treatment with your doctor or your child’s doctor. A doctor or other health care provider can teach you the steps and safety procedures for home treatment. Another valuable resource for learning about home treatment is hemophilia treatment centers (discussed under “Living With Hemophilia”).
Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to make it easier to get into a vein for treatment with replacement therapy. These devices can be helpful when such treatment occurs often. However, infections can be a problem with these devices. Your doctor can help you decide whether this type of device is right for you or your child.
Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to make it easier to get into a vein for treatment with replacement therapy. These devices can be helpful when such treatment occurs often. However, infections can be a problem with these devices. Your doctor can help you decide whether this type of device is right for you or your child.
Other Types of Treatment:
Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a man-made hormone used to treat people with mild to moderate hemophilia A. DDAVP can’t be used to treat hemophilia B or severe hemophilia A.
DDAVP stimulates the release of stored factor VIII and von Willebrand factor and increases the level of these proteins in your blood. Von Willebrand factor carries and binds factor VIII, which then can stay in the bloodstream longer.
DDAVP usually is given by injection or in a nasal spray. Because the effect of this medicine wears off when used often, it’s given only in certain situations. For example, your doctor may have you take this medicine prior to dental work or before playing certain sports to prevent or reduce bleeding.
Antifibrinolytic medicines (including tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) may be used with replacement therapy. They’re usually given as a pill, and they help keep clots from breaking down. They’re most often used:
*Before dental work
*For treating bleeding from the mouth or nose
*For mild intestinal bleeding
Researchers are trying to develop ways to correct the defective genes that cause hemophilia to cure the disorder. Such gene therapy hasn’t yet developed to the point that it’s an accepted treatment. But researchers continue to test gene therapies for hemophilia in clinical trials.
Which Treatment Is Best for You?
The type of treatment you or your child receives depends on several things, including how severe the hemophilia is, what activities you will be doing, and what dental or medical procedures you will be having.
*Mild hemophilia—Replacement therapy isn’t usually needed for mild hemophilia. But DDAVP is sometimes given to raise the body’s levels of factor VIII.
*Moderate hemophilia—You may need replacement therapy only when bleeding occurs or to prevent bleeding that could occur when participating in some activity. DDAVP is another treatment option on occasion, prior to having a procedure or doing an activity that increases the risk of bleeding.
*Severe hemophilia—You usually need replacement therapy to prevent bleeding that could cause permanent damage to your joints, muscles, or other parts of the body. Typically, replacement therapy is given at home two or three times a week. It may be needed on a long-term basis or just for short periods when you expect to do an activity that might increase your risk of bleeding. However, some people with severe hemophilia receive treatment only when bleeding occurs.
For all types of hemophilia, getting treatment quickly for bleeding to limit damage is important. Learn to recognize signs of bleeding. Family members also should learn to watch for signs of bleeding in a child with hemophilia. Children sometimes ignore signs of bleeding because they want to avoid the discomfort of treatment.
Living With Hemophilia:
If you or your child has hemophilia, you can take steps to prevent bleeding problems. Thanks to improvements in treatment, a child with hemophilia today is likely to live a normal lifespan.
Hemophilia Treatment Centers:
A nationwide network of hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), funded by the Federal Government, is an important resource for
families and people affected by hemophilia. The medical experts in HTCs provide treatment, education, and support. They can teach you or your family member how to do home treatments. Center staff also can provide information to your doctor.
People who get care in HTCs are less likely than those who get care elsewhere to have bleeding complications and hospitalizations, and they’re more likely to have a better quality of life. This may be due to the centers’ emphasis on prevention of bleeding and the education and support provided to patients and their caregivers.
More than 100 federally funded HTCs are located throughout the United States. Many HTCs are located at major university medical and research centers. The hemophilia teams at these centers include:
*Pediatricians and adult and pediatric hematologists (doctors who specialize in blood disorders)
*Social workers (who can help with financial issues, transportation, mental health, and other issues)
*Physical therapists and orthopedists (doctors who specialize in disorders of the bones and joints)
To find an HTC located near you, go to the directory of HTCs on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Many people with hemophilia go to an HTC for annual checkups, even if it means traveling some distance to do so.
At an HTC, you or your child may be able to participate in clinical research and benefit from the latest research findings about hemophilia treatment. The HTC team also will work with your local health care providers to help meet your needs or your child’s needs.
Ongoing Health Care Needs:
To avoid complications, it’s important that people who have hemophilia:
*Continue any treatment prescribed for hemophilia.
*Get regular checkups and vaccinations as recommended. Vaccines for hepatitis A and B are recommended for those who are treated with blood transfusions. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C.
*Get regular dental care. Dentists at the HTCs are experts in providing dental care for people who have hemophilia. If you
see another dentist, tell the dentist that you or your child has hemophilia. The dentist can provide medicine that will reduce bleeding during dental work.
*Know the signs and symptoms of bleeding in joints and other parts of the body and when to call the doctor or go to the emergency room.
Contact your doctor or go to the emergency room for:
*Heavy bleeding that can’t be stopped or a wound that continues to ooze blood.
*Any signs or symptoms of bleeding in the brain. Such bleeding is life threatening and requires immediate emergency care.
*Limited motion, pain, or swelling of any joint.
It’s a good idea to keep a record of all previous treatments. Be sure to take this information with you to medical appointments and to the hospital or emergency room.
When Your Child Is Diagnosed With Hemophilia
Expect emotional, financial, social, and other strains as you adjust to the situation of having a child with hemophilia. Learn all you can about the disorder and get the support you need.
*Talk with doctors and other health care providers about treatment, prevention of bleeding, and what to do in emergencies.
*Take advantage of the care teams at the HTCs for education and support as well as treatment. The social worker on the team can help with emotional issues, financial and transportation problems, and other concerns.
*Seek the many resources available through the Web, books, and other materials, including those provided by national and local hemophilia organizations.
*Look into support groups that offer a variety of activities for children with hemophilia and for family members. Some groups offer summer camps for children with hemophilia. Ask your doctor, nurse coordinator, or social worker about these groups and camps, or contact your local chapter of the National Hemophilia Foundation.
Challenges will occur as your child grows and becomes more active. In addition to treatment and regular health and dental care, your child needs information about hemophilia that’s at his or her level. Children with hemophilia also need to be reassured that the condition isn’t their fault and given support for having a chronic health problem.
Young children with hemophilia need extra protection from things in the home and elsewhere that could cause injuries and lead to bleeding:
*Protect toddlers with kneepads, elbow pads, and protective helmets. All children should wear safety helmets when riding tricycles or bicycles.
*Be sure to use the safety belts and straps in highchairs, car seats, and strollers to protect the child from falls.
*Remove furniture with sharp corners or pad them while the child is a toddler.
*Keep out of reach or locked away small and sharp objects and other items that could cause bleeding or harm.
*Check play equipment and outdoor play areas for possible hazards.
You also need to learn how to examine your child for and recognize signs of bleeding as well as prepare for bleeding episodes when they do occur. Keep a cold pack in the freezer ready to use as directed or to take along with you to treat bumps and bruises. Popsicles work fine when there is minor bleeding in the mouth. You also might want to keep a bag ready to go with items you will need if you must take your child to the emergency room or elsewhere.
Be sure that anyone who is responsible for your child knows that he or she has hemophilia. Talk with your child’s babysitters, daycare providers, teachers, other school staff, and coaches or leaders of afterschool activities about when to contact you or to call 9–1–1 for emergency care.
Consider having your child wear a medical ID bracelet or necklace. If your child is injured, the ID will alert anyone caring for your child about the condition.
Physical Activity and Hemophilia:
Physical activity helps keep muscles flexible, strengthens joints, and helps maintain a healthy weight. Children and adults with hemophilia should get regular physical activity, but they may have limits on what they can do safely.
People with mild hemophilia can participate in a variety of activities. Those with severe hemophilia should avoid contact sports and other activities that are likely to lead to injuries that could cause bleeding.
The physical therapist at the HTC can develop an exercise program tailored to your needs and teach you how to exercsafely. Talk with your doctor or physical therapist about recommended types of physical activity and sports.
To prevent bleeding, you also may be able to take clotting factors prior to exercise or a sporting event.
In general, some safe physical activities are swimming, biking (wear a helmet), walking, and golf.
Activities that aren’t usually considered safe for those with bleeding problems include most contact sports, such as football, hockey, and wrestling.
Medicine Precautions Some medicines increase the chance for bleeding. You should avoid medicines such as:
*Aspirin and other drugs that contain salicylates (sa-LIH-sil-ates)
*Ibuprofen (EYE-boo-pro-fen), naproxen, and some other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Treatment at Home and When Traveling:
Home treatment with replacement therapy has many benefits. It lets you treat bleeding early before complications are likely to develop. Home treatment also can save you from having to make frequent trips to the doctor’s office or hospital. This can give you more independence and a sense of control over your hemophilia.
But if you’re treating yourself or your child with clotting factors at home, you should take some precautions:
*Follow instructions for storage, preparation, and use of clotting factors and treatment materials.
*Keep a record of all medical treatment.
*Know the signs and symptoms of bleeding, infection, or an allergic reaction, and how to respond appropriately.
*Have someone with you when you treat yourself.
*Know when to call the doctor or 9–1–1.
When you’re traveling, be sure to take enough treatment materials along. You should carry with you a letter from your doctor describing your hemophilia and treatment. It’s also a good idea to find out in advance where to go for care when out of town.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
When a PYT (pretty young thing) steps off an aeroplane and drops dead minutes later, DVT (deep vein thrombosis) makes news. Others, probably less attractive and older, who develop DVT two or three weeks after travelling, are forgotten.
DVT occurs if the legs remain stationary, causing the blood to remain stagnant in the legs. Enforced immobility occurs in the cramped spaces of planes, buses, vans, cars or trains, and in offices.
Prolonged immobility causes the blood to stagnate in the veins of the legs. The blood is not able to negotiate the acute angle at the bent knee, especially if the feet are also crossed. Blood thickens and this results in “thrombosis”, another word for clot formation.
Undetected thrombi are very common. They form after a journey lasting four hours or more in one in 10 people. Many of these small clots dissolve spontaneously. Some large ones migrate, causing “thrombo-embolism” (a moving clot). As these travel through the body, they may become wedged and block blood vessels. This can result in stroke, heart attack (myocardial infarction) or fatal pulmonary embolism.
DVT is more likely to occur in people who are very tall (more than 190cm) or very short (less than 152cm). The risk rises steadily after the age of 40 years. Children being fidgety, rarely develop DVT. Young people can also develop DVT if they are obese, have a family history of clots, have had cancer or heart failure or have varicose veins. Women are generally more prone to it, especially if they are pregnant, have delivered in the preceding six weeks or are on hormone treatment. The risk for DVT increases if there is immobility for four hours.
Multiple short journeys, too, are dangerous. The waiting periods must be added to the travel time. Frequent travel increases the risk as the effects of a journey take about four weeks to wear off.
DVT can be present with redness and warmth, pain, discolouration and sometimes swelling of one leg. It can be totally asymptomatic and diagnosed in retrospect after an embolus has occurred. The diagnosis is confirmed with Doppler studies and blood tests. But by that time it may have been too late.
Airlines advocate exercises during long flights. Passengers are advised to get up, stretch and walk in the plane every hour. However, this is not very practical. The planes are cramped and crowded, and the aisles blocked with moving food and drink trolleys. Balance may be a problem while attempting to stretch or walk in a moving train. On long bus journeys, remaining seated and immobile is probably the only option. So, to prevent DVT,
• The foot should be rotated and the toes wiggled 20 times every half an hour.
• Those driving should break journey and stretch every hour.
• Alcohol adds to the soporific effects of the journey and contributes to the inactivity. Avoid it.
• Wear loose fitting clothes.
• Avoid socks with elastic bands. Special compression stockings are available which help to keep the blood flowing.
• Shoes should be loose.
• High risk individuals can take aspirin for a few days before and after a journey under medical supervision.
The treatment of DVT involves injections of anticoagulants like heparin, followed by tablets of warfarin. They prevent the extension of the clot and formation of new ones but do not dissolve the ones that are already present. If there has been recurrent DVT, treatment may have to be continued lifelong. A high price to pay for not wiggling your toes!
Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)is a short-term stroke that lasts for less than 24 hours. The oxygen supply to the brain is restored quickly, and symptoms of the stroke disappear completely. A transient stroke needs prompt medical attention as it is a warning of serious risk of a major stroke.
Cerebral thrombosisoccurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in an artery (blood vessel) supplying blood to the brain. Furred-up blood vessels with fatty patches of atheroma (arteriosclerosis) may make a thrombosis more likely. The clot interrupts the blood supply and brain cells are starved of oxygen.
Cerebral embolism is a blood clot that forms somewhere in the body before travelling through the blood vessels and lodging in the brain. This causes the brain cells to become starved of oxygen. An irregular heartbeat or recent heart attack may make you prone to forming emboli.
Cerebral haemorrhageoccurs when a blood vessel bursts inside the brain and bleeds (haemorrhages). With a haemorrhage, extra damage is done to the brain tissue by the blood that seeps into it.
Effects of a stroke: No two strokes are the same and people can be affected in quite different ways. This partly depends on which area of the brain is damaged, because different parts control different abilities such as speaking, memory, swallowing and moving.
Strokes usually occur suddenly.
The most common signs of a stroke are weakness, paralysis or numbness of the arm and leg.
Speech may be difficult or become difficult to understand.
Swallowing may be affected. Until this improves, patients may be fed by a tube or given fluids into a vein (intravenously) to avoid food going into the lungs.
People who have had severe strokes may lose consciousness. Unfortunately, the likelihood of such patients making a good recovery are poor.
Treatment: In the first few days after a stroke, treatment involves ensuring that the patient is well hydrated and nourished. The next phase of treatment – recovery through rehabilitation – involves a team of health professionals including physiotherapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, nurses and doctors.
If a stroke is caused by a blood clot, then taking a low-dose aspirin (eg Nu-seals 75mg) once a day may help make the blood less sticky and less likely to cause clots.
Smokers have double the risk of stroke as non-smokers.
Irregular heart beat (atrial fibrillation) is fairly common in old age, and increases the risk of stroke by causing blood clots to form in the heart. Blood clots can be prevented from forming by taking warfarin, a medicine that makes the blood less likely to clot. Warfarin (eg Marevan) treatment requires careful monitoring with regular blood checks and is a very effective way to reduce the risk of stroke.
Diabetes affects 1 in 20 older people, and can also increase the risk of having a stroke. Good control of diabetes is important and requires attention to diet, regular urine tests or blood tests, and probably some medication.
Too much alcohol increases the risk of a stroke. The recommended ‘safe’ limits for alcohol consumption are 21 units each week for women and 28 units each week for men. One unit of alcohol is equivalent to a measure of spirits, or a glass of wine, or half a pint of beer. People who drink more than this run a higher risk of stroke, liver disease and dementia.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose