Tag Archives: Tibet

Ophiocordyceps sinensis

Botanical Name : Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Family: Ophiocordycipitaceae
Genus: Ophiocordyceps
Species: O. sinensis
Kngdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Sordariomycetes
Order: Hypocreales

Synonyms: Cordyceps sinensis
Common Names: Yarsagomba,caterpillar fungus, Yartsa Gunbu, yarshagumba,  The transliteration in Bhutan is Yartsa Guenboob. It is known as keera jhar, keeda jadi, keeda ghas or ‘ghaas fafoond in Nepali. Its name in Chinese D?ng chóng xià cao means “winter worm, summer grass”

Habitat : Yarsagumba or Yarchagumbu is an exceptional and incredible herb that grows in the pastures above 3,300 meters upto 4000 meters in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India and Tibet.

Description:
Similar to other Cordyceps species,  Ophiocordyceps sinensis consists of two parts, a fungal endosclerotium (caterpillar) and stroma. The stroma is the upper fungal part and is dark brown or black, but can be a yellow color when fresh and, longer than the caterpillar itself, usually 4–10 cm. It grows singly from the larval head, and is clavate, sublanceolate or fusiform and distinct from the stipe. The stipe is slender, glabrous, and longitudinally furrowed or ridged. The fertile part of the stroma is the head. The head is granular due to the ostioles of the embedded perithecia. The perithecia are ordinally arranged and ovoid  The asci are cylindrical or slightly tapering at both ends, and may be straight or curved, with a capitate and hemispheroid apex and may be two to four spored. Similarly, ascospores are hyaline, filiform, multiseptate at a length of 5-12 um and subattenuated on both sides.[8] Perithecial, ascus and ascospore characters in the fruiting bodies are the key identification characteristics of O. sinensis. Ophiocordyceps (Petch) Kobayasi species produce whole ascospores and do not separate into part spores which is different from other Cordyceps species, which produce either immersed or superficial perithecia perpendicular to stromal surface and the ascospores at maturity are disarticulated into part spores. Generally Cordyceps species possess brightly colored and fleshy stromata, but O. sinensis had dark pigments and tough to pliant stromata, a typical characteristic feature of most of the Ophiocordyceps species.

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Chemical constituents:
The chemical constituents of natural Cordyceps include cordycepic acid, glutamic acid, amino acids, polyamines, cyclic dipeptides, saccharides and sugar derivatives, sterols, nucleotides and nucleosides, 28 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives and other organic acids, vitamins, and inorganic elements. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and ergosterol are the main components of natural and cultured Cordyceps, these fatty acids, as well as 14 investigated compounds, can be used to discriminate the hierarchical cluster, as the palmitic acid and oleic acid contents in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured Cordyceps.

Medicinal Uses:
Yarsagumba  is used as a reputed curative to many diseases, anti- aging, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac and also treatment against cancer. Ophiocordyceps sinensis serves against kidney and lung problems and stimulates the immune system; it is used for treatment of fatigue, night sweating, respiratory disease, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthenia after severe illness, arrhythmias and other heart diseases and liver disease.

Yarsagumba is also known as the “Himalayan Viagra” or “Himalayan Gold” for its high medicinal   value. It is mainly used as a treatment for impotency in many countries. Numerous scientific studies and research reveals that it has properties of antibiotic in it. Cordycep sinensis is used for lung and respiratory infection, pain, sciatica and backache. It also provides vitality and increases physical stamina of the body. Yarsa gumba is used by the Chinese to cure chronic hepatitis B and immune function such as dysfunctioning of liver.
More research is being carried out worldwide to ascertain its various medical effects.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yarsagumba
http://www.jtcm.org/article.asp?issn=2225-4110;year=2013;volume=3;issue=1;spage=16;epage=32;aulast=Lo
http://funmania.wordpress.com/2008/01/18/yarsagumba-the-himalayan-viagra/

Cordyceps sinensis

Botanical Name : Cordyceps sinensis
Family: Clavicipitaceae
Genus: Cordyceps
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
Class: Sordariomycetes
Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
Order: Hypocreales

Common Names: Winter Worm-Summer Grass,caterpillar fungus (English), dong zhong chang cao, dongchongxiacao,  semitake (Japan), zhongcao,  and chongcao (China).The fungus is known in Tibetan as yartsa gunbu or yatsa gunbu.

Habitat : Cordyceps sinensis grows wild at altitudes above 3000 meters in the mountainous regions of China. Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in Tibet in the 15th Century.

Edible Uses:
Cordyceps sinensis is a parasitic fungus often mistakenly referred to as a mushroom. Though in the western world cordyceps is most often taken in the form of an extract, it’s use as a food source in China dates back many millenia. It was cooked into soups, with poultry, and with meat, and was only consumed by the wealthy and among members of the Chinese Imperial Palace.

Description :
Caterpillar fungi are the result of a parasitic relationship between the fungus and the larva of the ghost moth genus Thitarodes, several species of which live on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet, Qinghai, West-Sichuan, SW-Gansu & NW Yunnan, all in China, and the Himalayas India, Nepal, Bhutan). The fungus germinates in living organisms (in some cases the larvae), kills and mummifies the insect, and then the fungus grows from the body of the insect.
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One of the unique qualities of this parasitic fungus is it’s host organism. Most fungus and mushrooms grow out of decomposing plant matter. But cordyceps sinensis is parasitic to the larvae of moths, especially bat moths.

Once the insect has been colonized, it’s insides are filled with mycelium and the fruiting body (stroma) grows out, usually through the head of the host organism. Throughout this process, the outward form of the caterpillar is retained.

It is known as yarsha gumba in Nepal. The Latin etymology describes cord as club, ceps as head, and sinensis as Chinese. Cordyceps sinensis, known in English commonly as caterpillar fungus, is considered a medicinal mushroom in oriental medicines, such as Traditional Chinese medicines and Traditional Tibetan medicine.

Medicinal Uses:
Cordyceps has been used for about 2000 years in the Far East.  It was virtually unknown to the Western part of the world until the Chinese women’s track team broke records in 1993 and was found to be part of their dietary supplements.  It is prized as a male sexual elixir and often appears in tonic formulas, particularly herbal liquors.  It is comparable in cost to good ginseng, and like many tonic herbs, it can be cooked and consumed together with tonic foods.  Traditional sources suggest stewing a male duck with this herb stuffed into its cavities.

Some of the specific actions are: It is very effective in tonifying arrhythmia with an efficacy up to 94%. When the product was applied to 200 different ailments, no toxic side effect was detected;   It helps strengthen the immune system of tumor patients who have received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or an operation. It is remarkable for stabilizing the hemogram, increasing the blood cells and protein for producing blood plasma, and for eliminating the ill effects after various therapies. Furthermore, the product is a synergist for reinforcing the efficacy of radiotherapy.  It provides remarkable benefits for various Climatic Age Illness, Impotence, Emission, Neurasthenia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Cirrhosis, flabby waist and knee.  It is also effective in lowering the lipoproteinemia level, and in preventing Arterio-Sclerosis, Coronary heart disease as well as certain other diseases related to blood vessels of the brain.  It helps stimulate the immune system of the elderly and strengthen their resistance to illness. Frequent dosage can prevent senile disorders.  One of the reasons for aging is due to the insufficient secretion of sexual hormones. Cordyceps sinensis is, in this regard, a hormone stimulator. Morever, the aging effect is to a large extent attributed to the rise of active monoamine oxidize enzyme inside the body and Cordyceps Sinensis can effectively inhibit the rising of such enzyme. Thus, it is an anti-aging medicine which helps regenerate the organic functioning of humans.  After a three-week dose, patients with the aforesaid symptoms would feel promising improvement. In general, this product is a tonic good for bodily nourishment and for stimulating brain activity.  Long-term administration can reinforce the body against foreign attacks, improve the organic functioning, strengthen the immune system and in turn help bring longevity.

Improved insulin sensitivity due to cordyceps has been demonstrated in both normal rats and humans. These effects are presumably mediated by the polysaccharide fraction of cordyceps, and multiple polysaccharides from cordyceps which reduce blood sugar in diabetic mice have been identified. It should be noted that cordyceps should be used with caution by those with low blood sugar.

You may click to learn more about Cordyceps sinensis….(1)…..     (2)……..(3)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordyceps
http://cordyceps-sinensis.org/
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00eBNEcqZWMoVM/Cordyceps-Sinensis-Extract.jpg
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img.tootoo.com/mytootoo/upload/26/268381/product/268381_5672087b5fa1a314dea41c74c864315e.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tootoo.com/buy-cordyceps_sinensis/&h=368&w=400&sz=47&tbnid=W7YCTkV9OdYkUM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=98&zoom=1&docid=BV0Il1lxUj0HhM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=D9MST8KeDqeYiQLtk-GoDQ&ved=0CHQQ9QEwCA&dur=3285

Polygonum rumicifolium – Royle

Botanical Name : Polygonum rumicifolium – Royle.
Family : Polygonaceae
Genus :Polygonum
Kingdom        : Plantae
Order
: Caryophyllales
Synonyms       : Aconogonum rumicifolium – (Royle.)Hara.
Common Name : Goronthu, Choarh

Habitat :E. Asia – Himalayas from Afghanistan to C. Nepal and Tibet.  Shrubberies and alpine slopes, 2700 – 4300 metres

Description:
It is a herbaceous annual plants under 5 cm high, others erect herbaceous perennial plants growing to 3–4 m tall, and yet others perennial woody vines growing to 20–30 m high in trees; several are also aquatic, growing as floating plants in ponds. The smooth-edged leaves vary greatly in shape between species, and can be narrow lanceolate, oval, broad triangular, heart shaped or arrowhead shaped; they range from 1–30 cm long. The stems are often reddish or red-speckled. The flowers are small, pink, white, or greenish, forming in summer in dense clusters from the leaf joints or stem apices.
.You may click to see the picture.
It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it is hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in an ordinary garden soil but prefers a moisture retentive not too fertile soil in sun or part shade. Repays generous treatment. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits.

Propagation

Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer if they have reached sufficient size. If not, overwinter them in a cold frame and plant them out the following spring after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Young shoots – raw or cooked. Seed – raw or cooked. It is rather small and fiddly to utilize.

Medicinal Uses
Used in Chinese medinines.

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention has been made for this species, there have been reports that some members of this genus can cause photosensitivity in susceptible people. Many species also contain oxalic acid (the distinctive lemony flavour of sorrel) – whilst not toxic this substance can bind up other minerals making them unavailable to the body and leading to mineral deficiency. Having said that, a number of common foods such as sorrel and rhubarb contain oxalic acid and the leaves of most members of this genus are nutritious and beneficial to eat in moderate quantities. Cooking the leaves will reduce their content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.

Resources:
http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Polygonum+rumicifolium
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.nbbn.net/vip/liqingliang/products/Catalogue4209/22946.html

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Fungus of Fortune

Tibetan nomads have found easy money in the form of the caterpillar fungus that promises to treat everything from impotence to ageing.

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Cordyceps sinensis (top) feeds on caterpillar larvae

Lhamotso never learned to read and write, and she has few marketable skills other than the ability to milk a yak.

Yet she can earn up to $1,000 a week, an unimaginable fortune for a Tibetan nomad. She has bought herself a shiny new Honda motorcycle. She and her husband gave up their tent for a house they built with solar panels, a satellite dish and television.

The worm, Lhamotso explains, “has changed our lives”.

What Tibetans call the worm is actually not a worm but a fungus — Cordyceps sinensis — that feeds on caterpillar larvae. It has a more poetic name, “winter worm, summer grass,” because its appearance changes from one to the other with the seasons. It is a prized ingredient in traditional medicines, with prices in the past few years skyrocketing such that prime specimens are worth their weight in gold, literally, about $900 an ounce.

Because the caterpillar fungus is indigenous only to the 1,600-km-long Tibetan plateau running from western China to Nepal, the money has hastened the nomads’ lurching transition into modernity.

“It is a bit like a gold rush in the Wild West. It has brought enormous wealth to these communities,” says Andrew Fischer, an economist at the London School of Economics specialising in Tibet.

For centuries, Tibetan nomads added caterpillar fungus to soups or tea, believing it boosted stamina, endurance, lung capacity, kidney function and, of course, sexual performance. Its use for medicinal purposes was documented back in the 14th century. Until recently, the fungus was cheap and abundant and the Tibetans would feed it to yaks and horses too when their energy was flagging.

The fungus’ popularity took off after the 1993 World Championships in Athletics, when Chinese female athletes broke records in nine track and field events and their coach gave partial credit to an elixir containing the fungus.

Then came the 2003 epidemic of the sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), setting Asian consumers off on a frenzy of buying anything that might boost immunity.

Last year China exported $43 million worth of caterpillar fungus, touted as a treatment for everything from impotence to ageing.

The centre of the caterpillar fungus trade is in Qinghai province. Here, the bu — Tibetan for worm — is by far the largest source of cash and dictates the pace of daily life. During the peak fungus-hunting season, schools close to allow children to help. People with jobs shirk work to prospect for riches.

The season runs for about 40 days, beginning in early spring when the mountains are brown and spongy as though covered with a dirty shag carpet. Timing is crucial. If you dig too early, you get a live, wriggling caterpillar. It’s best to dig just after the fungus has killed the larvae.

The best caterpillar fungus is found at higher elevations, such as Heitushan, the 4,267m Black Earth Mountain in Golog, Qinghai province, where Lhamotso lives.

The climb is steep. Lhamotso counts herself lucky to have the motorcycle. She and her daughters, 10 and 16, pile on and zigzag uphill until the terrain gets too rough and they must walk.

Children are useful on the hunt because their sharp eyes allow them to pick the fungus — sort of a little yellow root with a stalk — growing out of the top out of the clumps of grass and sodden earth.

“It is very boring work,” complains Hiriti, Lhamotso’s younger daughter. Reaching into the pocket of her faux leather jacket, the girl pulls out a tissue and unwraps an 8-cm-long twig, the only piece she found all day. She will sell it for about $3.

“I think people must be insane to pay so much,” Lhamotso says. “It’s only in the last two years that it has gotten so expensive. It’s crazy, but it is good for us. How else would I make so much money? I can’t read or write.”

Lhamotso expects to make at least $6,000 this season — about triple what most Chinese families earn in a year.

Lhamotso is well aware that the fungus might not be a reliable source of income for much longer. It’s growing scarcer from over-harvesting and changes in the fragile ecosystem of the Tibetan plateau.

“When I was young, somebody could walk out of the tent and dig 800 to 900 pieces in a day. Now we have to hike three hours up the mountain and the best we do is maybe 50 pieces,” says Tsering, one of Lhamotso’s companions.

“It is expensive because it is rare, and it is rare because it is over-exploited,” says Lin Zhibin, a pharmacology expert at the Peking University Health Science Centre.

Another concern is that relentless digging on the mountains is contributing to soil erosion and desertification. Although the caterpillar fungus has given the nomads a financial boost, Tibetan intellectuals remain ambivalent about its benefits to society as a whole.

The real problem is that Tibetans themselves have become used to the easy money and the creature comforts it buys.

“People can’t go backwards. For years, it’s been like digging up gold, only more valuable,” says Daodu, 31, a teacher. “People today can’t survive without it.”

Sources:Los Angles Times

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