Categories
Pediatric

Development of Toddler

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Introduction:
Brain fact: Brains are ready for learning from birth.
The human brain function and development grows amazingly fast, starting from day one in the womb. By age 6, your baby’s brain will be almost adult-sized. Even at birth, babies’ brains contain millions of brain cells, which are called neurons.

Brain fact: Brain connections are strengthened with experience.
Brain connections are called synapses. Thousands and thousands of them are formed with everyday experiences. Synapses are crucial because they transmit brain impulses, which control body functions, thinking, feeling, learning, memory, and language.

Your toddler has a new toy, which he is exploring with lots of energy. His brain cells are firing away, and new synapses may occur. Toddlers‘ brains will make many more synapses than needed for good brain functioning. Synapses that are used frequently will be strengthened and remain. Those that are not will eventually disappear. So by hugging and reading to your toddler, you can encourage the growth and strengthening of brain connections.

When a baby is born, parents must consider their most important job is to take proper care  of their child, leaving aside    every other important  job  in   life.

Toddlers are children ages 1 – 3.

THEORIES
Jean Piaget, in the cognitive (thought) development theory, includes the following:

•Early use of instruments or tools
•Following visual (then later, invisible) displacement (moving from one place to another) of objects
•Understanding that objects and people are there even if you can’t see them (object and people permanence)
Erik H. Erikson‘s personal-social development theory says the toddler stage represents Autonomy (independence) vs. Shame or Doubt. The child learns to adjust to society’s demands, while trying to maintain independence and a sense of self.

These milestones are typical of children in the toddler stages. Some variation is normal. If you have questions about your child’s development, contact your health care provider.

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
The following are signs of expected physical development in a toddler:

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS (use of large muscles in the legs and arms)
•Stands alone well by 12 months
•Walks well by 12 – 15 months (if the child is not walking by 18 months, he or she should be evaluated by a health care provider)
•Learns to walk backwards and up steps with help at about 16 – 18 months
•Throws a ball overhand and kicks a ball forward at about 18 – 24 months
•Jumps in place by about 24 months
•Rides a tricycle and stands briefly on one foot by about 36 months

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FINE MOTOR SKILLS (use of small muscles in hands and fingers)……click & see
•Makes tower of three cubes by around 15 months
•Scribbles by 15 – 18 months
•Can use spoon and drink from a cup by 24 months
•Can copy a circle by 36 months

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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

click & see

•Uses 2 – 3 words (other than Mama or Dada) at 12 – 15 months

•Understands and follows simple commands (“bring to Mommy”) at 14 – 16 months
•Names pictures of items and animals at 18 – 24 months
•Points to named body parts at 18 – 24 months
•Begins to say his or her own name at 22 – 24 months
•Combines 2 words at 16 to 24 months — there is a range of ages at which children are first able to combine words into sentences; if a toddler cannot do so by 24 months, parents should consult their health care provider
•Knows gender and age by 36 months.

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SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT…....click & see
•Indicates some needs by pointing at 12 – 15 months
•Looks for help when in trouble by 18 months
•Helps to undress and put things away by 18 – 24 months
•Listens to stories when shown pictures and can tell about immediate experiences by 24 months
•Can engage in pretend play and simple games by 24 – 36 months

BEHAVIOR
Toddlers are always trying to be more independent. This creates not only special safety concerns, but discipline challenges. The child must be taught — in a consistent manner — the limits of appropriate vs. inappropriate behavior.

When toddlers try out activities they can’t quite do yet, they can get frustrated and angry. Breath-holding, crying, screaming, and temper tantrums may be daily occurrences.

It is important for a child to learn from experiences and to be able to rely on consistent boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.

Toddlers always imitate their parents and so  toddlers behavior with others depends  on their parents behavior .
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SAFETY

TODDLER SAFETY IS MOST IMPORTANT
•It is important for parents to recognize that the child can now walk, run, climb, jump, and explore. This new stage of movement makes child-proofing the home essential. Window guards, gates on stairways, cabinet locks, toilet seat locks, electric outlet covers, and other safety features are essential.
•As during the infancy period, place the toddler in a safety restraint (toddler car seat) when riding in a car.
•Do not leave a toddler unattended for even short periods of time. Remember, more accidents occur during the toddler years than at any other stage of childhood.
•Introduce and strictly stick to rules about not playing in streets or crossing without an adult.
•Falls are a major cause of injury. Keep gates or doors to stairways closed, and use guards for all windows above the ground floor. Do not leave chairs or ladders in areas that are likely to tempt the toddler into climbing up to explore new heights. Use corner guards on furniture in areas where the toddler is likely to walk, play, or run.
•Childhood poisonings are a frequent source of illness and death during the toddler years. Keep all medications in a locked cabinet. Keep all toxic household products (polishes, acids, cleaning solutions, chlorine bleach, lighter fluid, insecticides, or poisons) in a locked cabinet or closet. Many household plants may cause illness if eaten. Toad stools and other garden plants may cause serious illness or death. Get a list of these common plants from your pediatrician.
•If a family member owns a firearm, make sure it is unloaded and locked up in a secure place.
•Keep toddlers away from the kitchen with a safety gate, or place them in a playpen or high chair. This will eliminate the danger of burns from pulling hot foods off the stove or bumping into the hot oven door.
•Toddlers love to play in water, but should never be allowed to do so alone. A toddler may drown even in shallow water in a bathtub. Parent-child swimming lessons can be another safe and enjoyable way for toddlers to play in water. Never leave a child unattended near a pool, open toilet, or bathtub. Toddlers cannot learn how to swim and cannot be independent near any body of water.

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PARENTING TIPS
•The toddler years are the time to begin instilling values, reasoning, and incentives in the child, so that they learn accepted rules of behavior. It is important for parents to be consistent both in modeling behavior (behaving the way you want your child to behave),and in addressing appropriate versus inappropriate behavior in the child. Recognize and reward positive behavior. You can introduce time-outs for negative behavior, or for going beyond the limits you set for your child.
•The toddler’s favorite word may seem to be “NO!!!” It is important for parents not to fall into a pattern of negative behavior with yelling, spanking, and threatening of their own.
•Teach children the proper names of body parts.
•Stress the unique, individual qualities of the child.
•Teach concepts of please, thank you, and sharing with others.
•Read to the child on a regular basis — it will enhance the development of verbal skills.
•Toddlers thrive on regularity. Major changes in their routine are challenging for them. Toddlers should have regular nap, bed, snack, and meal times.
•Toddlers should not be allowed to eat many snacks throughout the day. Multiple snack times tend to suppress their appetite for regular meals, which tend to be more balanced.
•Travel and guests can be expected to disrupt the child’s routine and make them more irritable. The best responses to these situations are reassurance and reestablishing routine in a calm way.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002010.htm
http://www.enfamil.com/app/iwp/enf10/content.do?dm=enf&id=/Consumer_Home3/Toddlers3/Toddlers_Articles/brainDevelopment&iwpst=B2C&ls=0&cm_mmc=paid%20search-_-Enfagrow-_-Google-_-2010&csred=1&r=3482830970

http://www.whattoexpect.com/funnel/registration.aspx?18=toddlerdevelopment&xid=g_reg&s_kwcid=TC|21967|the%20development%20of%20toddlers||S|b|8765848023&gclid=CKbri6_J56gCFRG4KgodSz8bCw

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Bone Fracture

DEFINITION:-
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture)….>…..click & see

A stress fracture .>....(click & see)...is a hairline crack ->. (click & see).….in the bone that develops because of repeated or prolonged forces against the bone.

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx or Fx) is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high force impact or stress, bone fracture can also occur as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, certain types of cancer or osteogenesis imperfecta. Although fractures are commonly referred to as bone breaks, the word break is not part of formal orthopaedic terminology.

Fractures, broken bones–you can call it what you wish, it means the same thing–are among the most common orthopedic problems, about 6.8 million come to medical attention each year in the United States. The average citizen in a developed country can expect to sustain two fractures over the course of their lifetime.

Fractures happen because an area of bone is not able to support the energy placed on it (quite obvious, but it becomes more complicated). Therefore, there are two critical factors in determining why a fracture occurs:

*the energy of the event

*the strength of the bone

The energy can being acute, high-energy (e.g. car crash), or chronic, low-energy (e.g. stress fracture). The bone strength can either be normal or decreased (e.g. osteoporosis). A very simple problem, the broken bone, just became a whole lot more complicated!

Different Types of Fractures:-
A doctor may be able to tell whether a bone is broken simply by looking at the injured area. But the doctor will order an X-ray to confirm the fracture and determine what type it is.

Reassure your child that, with a little patience and cooperation, getting an X-ray to look at the broken bone won’t take long. Then, he or she will be well on the way to getting a cool — maybe even colorful — cast that every friend can sign.

For little ones who may be scared about getting an X-ray, it might help to explain the process like this: “X-rays don’t hurt.

……....CLICK & SEE

Doctors use a special machine to take a picture to look at the inside of your body. When the picture comes out, it won’t look like the ones in your photo album, but doctors know how to look at these pictures to see things like broken bones.”However, a fracture through the growing part of a child’s bone (called the growth plate) may not show up on X-ray. If this type of fracture is suspected, the doctor will treat it even if the X-ray doesn’t show a break.

You may click to see the different pictures of broken bones

Children’s bones are more likely to bend than break completely because they’re softer. Fracture types that are more common in kids include:

*buckle or torus fracture: one side of the bone bends, raising a little buckle, without breaking the other side

*greenstick fracture: a partial fracture in which one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends (this fracture resembles what would happen if you tried to break a green stick)

Mature bones are more likely to break completely. A stronger force will also result in a complete fracture of younger bones.

A complete fracture may be a:

*closed fracture: a fracture that doesn’t break the skin

*open (or compound) fracture: a fracture in which the ends of the broken bone break through the skin (these have an increased risk of infection)

*non-displaced fracture: a fracture in which the pieces on either side of the break line up

*displaced fracture: a fracture in which the pieces on either side of the break are out of line (which might require surgery to make sure the bones are properly aligned before casting)

Other common fracture terms include:

*hairline fracture: a thin break in the bone
*single fracture: the bone is broken in one place
*segmental: the bone is broken in two or more places in the same bone
*comminuted fracture: the bone is broken into more than two pieces or crushed

CAUSES:-
The following are common causes of broken bones:

*Fall from a height

*Motor vehicle accidents

*Direct blow

*Child abuse

*Repetitive forces, such as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip

In children:-
In children, whose bones are still developing, there are risks of either a growth plate injury or a greenstick fracture.

*A greenstick fracture occurs because the bone is not as brittle as it would be in an adult, and thus does not completely fracture, but rather exhibits bowing without complete disruption of the bone’s cortex.

*Growth plate injuries, as in Salter-Harris fractures, require careful treatment and accurate reduction to make sure that the bone continues to grow normally.

*Plastic deformation of the bone, in which the bone permanently bends but does not break, is also possible in children. These injuries may require an osteotomy (bone cut) to realign the bone if it is fixed and cannot be realigned by closed methods.

SYMPTOMS:

*A visibly out-of-place or misshapen limb or joint

*Swelling, bruising, or bleeding

*Intense pain

*Numbness and tingling

*Broken skin with bone protruding

*Limited mobility or inability to move a limb

TREATMENT:-
FIRST AID :

*Check the person’s airway and breathing. If necessary, call 911 and begin rescue breathing, CPR, or bleeding control.Keep the person still and calm.

*Examine the person closely for other injuries.

*In most cases, if medical help responds quickly, allow the medical personnel to take further action.

*If the skin is broken, it should be treated immediately to prevent infection. Don’t breathe on the wound or probe it. If possible, lightly rinse the wound to remove visible dirt or other contamination, but do not vigorously scrub or flush the wound. Cover with sterile dressings.

*If needed, immobilize the broken bone with a splint or sling. Possible splints include a rolled up newspaper or strips of wood. Immobilize the area both above and below the injured bone.

*Apply ice packs to reduce pain and swelling.

*Take steps to prevent shock. Lay the person flat, elevate the feet about 12 inches above the head, and cover the person with a coat or blanket. However, DO NOT move the person if a head, neck, or back injury is suspected.

CHECK BLOOD CIRCULATION:-
Check the person’s blood circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in the leg, press on the foot). It should first blanch white and then “pink up” in about two seconds. Other signs that circulation is inadequate include pale or blue skin, numbness or tingling, and loss of pulse. If circulation is poor and trained personnel are NOT quickly available, try to realign the limb into a normal resting position. This will reduce swelling, pain, and damage to the tissues from lack of blood.

TREAT BLEEDING:-
*Place a dry, clean cloth over the wound to dress it.

*If the bleeding continues, apply direct pressure to the site of bleeding. DO NOT apply a tourniquet to the extremity to stop

the bleeding unless it is life-threatening.

DO NOT:-
*DO NOT move the person unless the broken bone is stable.

*DO NOT move a person with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg unless it is absolutely necessary. If you must move the

person, pull the person to safety by his clothes (such as by the shoulders of a shirt, a belt, or pant-legs).

*DO NOT move a person who has a possible spine injury.

*DO NOT attempt to straighten a bone or change its position unless blood circulation appears hampered.

*DO NOT try to reposition a suspected spine injury.

*DO NOT test a bone’s ability to move.

Call immediately for emergency medical assistance if:
Call 911 if:

*There is a suspected broken bone in the head, neck, or back.

*There is a suspected broken bone in the hip, pelvis, or upper leg.

*You cannot completely immobilize the injury at the scene by yourself.

*There is severe bleeding.

*An area below the injured joint is pale, cold, clammy, or blue.

*There is a bone projecting through the skin.

Even though other broken bones may not be medical emergencies, they still deserve medical attention. Call your health care  provider to find out where and when to be seen.

If a young child refuses to put weight on an arm or leg after an accident, won’t move the arm or leg, or you can clearly see a deformity, assume the child has a broken bone and get medical help.

First aid for fractures includes stabilizing the break with a splint in order to prevent movement of the injured part, which could sever blood vessels and cause further tissue damage. Waxed cardboard splints are inexpensive, lightweight, waterproof and strong. Compound fractures are treated as open wounds in addition to fractures.

At the hospital, closed fractures are diagnosed by taking an X-ray photograph of the injury.

Since bone healing is a natural process which will most often occur, fracture treatment aims to ensure the best possible function of the injured part after healing. Bone fractures are typically treated by restoring the fractured pieces of bone to their natural positions (if necessary), and maintaining those positions while the bone heals. To put them back into the natural positions, the doctor often “snaps” the bones back into place. This process is extremely painful without anesthesia, about as painful as breaking the bone itself. To this end, a fractured limb is usually immobilized with a plaster or fiberglass cast which holds the bones in position and immobilizes the joints above and below the fracture. If being treated with surgery, surgical nails, screws, plates and wires are used to hold the fractured bone together more directly. Alternatively, fractured bones may be treated by the Ilizarov method which is a form of external fixator.

Occasionally smaller bones, such as toes, may be treated without the cast, by buddy wrapping them, which serves a similar function to making a cast. By allowing only limited movement, fixation helps preserve anatomical alignment while enabling callus formation, towards the target of achieving union.

Surgical methods of treating fractures have their own risks and benefits, but usually surgery is done only if conservative treatment has failed or is very likely to fail. With some fractures such as hip fractures (usually caused by osteoporosis or Osteogenesis Imperfecta), surgery is offered routinely, because the complications of non-operative treatment include deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, which are more dangerous than surgery. When a joint surface is damaged by a fracture, surgery is also commonly recommended to make an accurate anatomical reduction and restore the smoothness of the joint. Infection is especially dangerous in bones, due to their limited blood flow. Bone tissue is predominantly extracellular matrix, rather than living cells, and the few blood vessels needed to support this low metabolism are only able to bring a limited number of immune cells to an injury to fight infection. For this reason, open fractures and osteotomies call for very careful antiseptic procedures and prophylactic antibiotics.
Sometimes bones are reinforced with metal, but these fracture implants must be designed and installed with care. Stress shielding occurs when plates or screws carry too large of a portion of the bone’s load, causing atrophy. This problem is reduced, but not eliminated, by the use of low-modulus materials, including titanium and its alloys. The heat generated by the friction of installing hardware can easily accumulate and damage bone tissue, reducing the strength of the connections. If dissimilar metals are installed in contact with one another (i.e., a titanium plate with cobalt-chromium alloy or stainless steel screws), galvanic corrosion will result. The metal ions produced can damage the bone locally and may cause systemic effects as well.

Herbal Treatment For Bone Broken for quicker bone groth & healing:-

By eating garlic buds, frying it in ghee joins the broken bone and releives the fracture pain. Eat Agar Agar – sea weed boiled with water. Eat the powder of Vajiram – Pirandai.

Prevention:
*Wear protective gear while skiing, biking, roller blading, and participating in contact sports. This includes helmets, elbow pads, knee pads, and shin pads.

*Create a safe home for young children. Gate stairways and keep windows closed.

*Teach children how to be safe and look out for themselves.

*Supervise children carefully. There is no substitute for supervision, no matter how safe the environment or situation appears to be.

*Prevent falls by not standing on chairs, counter tops, or other unstable objects. Remove throw rugs and electrical cords from floor surfaces. Use handrails on staircases and non-skid mats in bathtubs. These steps are especially important for the elderly.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_fracture
http://www.herbalking.in/diseases_b.htm#bonebroken
http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/otherfractures/a/fracture.htm
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/aches/broken_bones.html

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Categories
Featured Healthy Tips

Sadness & Depression is Unhealthy

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What contributes frowning to one’s face? Is it not sadness? This state of being is one of the many reasons why people who have emotional breakdown put their lives at risk. When deeper sadness or depression consumes the individual, illness and disturbance clog his mind and feelings.

CLICK & SEE

Most people who suffer from depression or extreme sadness are affected with the way they deal with their fellow man. Depressed people are sensitive and demand special attention. At times, depression swallows them and affects their relationship with other people, particularly their families and those who stay closer to them.

You have your ups and downs, but for the most part, you are moderately happy. There’s no burning desire to change your life. You’d probably have an uplifting effect on someone who is less happy than you, but at the same time, you could benefit if you associated with those happier than yourself.

Enthusiasm is a feeling similar to happiness but the emotion involved is intense. Enthusiasm is often associated with divine inspiration, an intense emotion deeper than happiness itself. However, our society’s status these days hinders people from being enthusiasts. Instead, many are grieving and saddened with what they see in the surroundings and in the whole world. Most people who were victimized by wars and social problems find enthusiasm impossible to feel. Why, even the richest people on earth feel sad at times. If this is the case, is it true that enthusiasm is elusive?

Many sigh because of sadness and bad experiences. We can say that indeed, happiness or enthusiasm is a relative state of being. This is the reason why many people resort to illicit drugs, thinking that they can escape the bitter experiences they are experiencing. They thought they can fake happiness for a few hours. Little did they know that no matter how difficult life is, happiness is still available and waiting to be rediscovered.

How can you promote and contribute to enthusiasm and happiness?

1. Set goals and seek life’s purpose. Happiness cannot be achieved overnight so starting early means experiencing happiness the soonest.

2. Take away all the bitterness you kept for years. Learn to say sorry and accept your limitations.

3. Keep your life simple by allotting time for you to relax and enjoy wholesome recreation.

4. Learn to develop self-worth. Love your deeds and do favors for yourself. Adopt changes if necessary and if you feel like you are bored in doing routines.

5. Humbly accept others support and appreciate small gifts from them.

6. Try rendering support or reciprocating the kindness shown to you.

7. Develop hobbies that will contribute to your self-worth. Some women and housewives, for instance, love gardening. They at times talk to their plants. They find this rewarding in most ways.

8. Read some inspirational books. Keep simple but inspiring messages and share these to others. Remember that giving brings joy to every person; learn the value of generosity at all times.

9. Constantly communicate to others your inspiring and up building stories. Learn to accept feedbacks from your listeners.

10. Learn to be flexible, accept the fact that everything does not just happen the way you think everything should be.

Keeping these simple things in mind, I can say that happiness and enthusiasm are not that difficult to find. Many people pay huge amounts of money just to have the opportunity to gain worthwhile experiences. In the end, these people are convinced that the real happiness they seek cannot be bought. It can be achieved in many ways; but to find it, they must be humble enough to compromise some wants in exchange of the need to be happy.Always try to get rid of GRID. Grid and desire are not same.Grid will make you unhappy but desire will encourage you to succeed and success will give you happiness.

DOING REGULAR YOGA EXERCISE & PRANAYAMA  UNDER THE GUIDELINES  OF AN EXPERT WILL BE THE BEST MEDICINE FOR GETTING OUT OF MENTAL DEPRESSION.