Tag Archives: Travel and Tourism

Condurango

Botanical Name : Gonolobus Condurango
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Asclepiadaceae
Genus:     Gonolobus
Species: G.condurango
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Gentianales

Synonyms:  Condurango Blanco. Marsdenia Condurango.
.
Habitat:Cundurango is native to Ecuador, South America. Condurango grows on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia.

Common Names : Condurango or Cundurango, Eagle Vine, Eagle-Vine Bark, Marsdenia Cundurango, Condurangorinde, and Ecorce de Condurango.

Description:
The product of an asclepiadaceous vine about 30 feet long and 2 feet in diameter. The bark is beaten with a mallet to separate it from the stem when it has been sun-dried. In commerce it occurs in quilled pieces 2 to 4 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter. External surface, pale greyish brown to dark brown, nearly smooth, more or less scaly and roughened, with numerous warts or lenticels, the scales soft with sometimes a brownish-black fungus on them, inner side whity brown and longitudinally striate; fracture short, fibrous, granular; odour slightly aromatic, specially in the fresh drug; taste bitter and aromatic; yields not more than 12 per cent of ash.

Click to see the picture : >..(01).....(1)..…..…(2)...

Medicinal Uses:
Constituents:  A large quantity of tannin, a glucoside and an alkaloid resembling strychnine in its action.

 Part Used: The Bark

The part of Condurango that is used in medicinal remedies is the dried bark of branches and the trunk of the tree.

This bitter may be used in a whole range of digestive and stomach problems.  It will relax the nerves of the stomach, making it of use in the settling of indigestion where this is affected by nervous tension and anxiety.  Often used in South American folk medicine as a bitter and digestive tonic, it is a specific treatment for nervous indigestion and anorexia nervosa.  Its bitterness slowly increases the appetite, as well as the stomach’s ability to process increased quantities of food.  The herb is also thought to stimulate the liver and pancreas, and may be taken for liver disorders.  It also encourages menstruation.  The caustic white latex is applied to remove warts.  Condurangogenins in condurango may prove beneficial in countering tumors.  The whole plant, however, does not seem to significantly alter cancer development.

It is a digestive aid; an herbal medicine used to help food digestion, increase stomach juices, and help stimulate the appetite.

Diuretic stomachic, alterative. Has been regarded as a potential remedy for cancer and is useful in the early stages, but has no effect in the progress of the disease. There are many varieties of the plant, and the species experimented with in cancer is the Condurango blanco, which may be considered a genuine C. Cortex. It is largely used in South America as an alterative in chronic syphilis and is of great benefit.

It increases the circulation.

It is used in Homeopathic medicines too.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/condur94.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonolobus_condurango
http://www.diagnose-me.com/treatment/condurango.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Antidesma acidum Retz

Botanical Name : Antidesma acidum Retz.
Family: Meliaceae
Genus: Aphanamixis
Species: A. polystachya
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Syn.  :Amoora rohituka W& A
Common Names:Rohitaka, Harinharra, Tiktaraj
Vernacular Names :
Gujarati: Ragat Rohido
Marathi: Raktharohida
Bengali: Tiktaraj
Kannada: Mukhyamuttage
Tamil: Malampuluvan, Sem, Semmaram
Malayalam: Chemmaram, Sem
Telugu: Chevamanu, Rohitaka

Habitat :
It is native to Tropical areas generally from Asia and Oceania : China , Bhutan , India , Sri Lanka , Indochina , Burma , Thailand , Indonesia , Malaysia , Papua New Guinea and Philippines .

West Sepik, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, Western Highlands, Eastern Highlands, Southern Highlands, Western, Gulf, Central, Northern, Milne Bay, New Britain, New Ireland & Manus.

Description:
Large canopy tree (up to 25 m high, rarely to 35 m); Bole cylindrical or markedly fluted (slightly up to 100 cm diam.); often crooked or straight (bole up to c. 15 m long); buttresses buttresses present (buttresses 1-4 m high); spines spines absent; aerial roots aerial roots absent; stilt roots stilt roots absent; Bark brownish red or pale brown, rough, scaly or flaky; Subrhytidome (under-bark) red (bright red); less than 25 mm thick (5-6 mm thick), 5.0-8.0; bark blaze consisting of one layer; strongly aromatic; pleasant; outer blaze red, markings absent, fibrous; inner blaze red, markings absent, fibrous; bark exudate (sap) present, white/milky, not readily flowing (spotty), colour not changing on exposure to air, sticky; terminal buds not enclosed by leaves.
You may click to see the pictures of the plant
Leaves: Leaves spaced along branches, spiral (leaves occurring singly at a node and arranged spirally up the branchlet), compound (a leaf made up from two or more leaflets); petiole present, not winged, attached to base of leaf blade, swollen (at base and inhabited by ants); leaves pinnate (unbranched with more than three leaflets); petiolule not swollen; rachis present, absent, absent; leaves with a terminal leaflet (the number of leaflets odd – imparipinnate), broadest below middle, (7.5-) 9.5-25.0 cm, (4.0-) 5.5-8.0 (-9.0) cm, leaflets opposite, asymmetric, terminal developing leaflet buds straight; venation pinnate, secondary veins open, prominent, intramarginal veins absent; leaves lower surface green, upper surface green, indumentum (hairs) absent; absent; domatia absent; stipules absent.

Flowers: Inflorescence axillary (sweetly aromatic), flowers on an unbranched axis, cones absent; flowers unisexual or bisexual, unisexual with male and female flowers on different plants, stalked (shortly), flowers with many planes of symmetry, 3.0-5.0 (-7.0) mm long, diameter small (up to10 mm diam.) (4-9 mm diam.); perianth present, with distinct sepals and petals whorls, inner perianth pale yellow or cream-coloured (sometimes tinged with red); 3, some or partly joined; stamens 3-8, present, joined (to form a staminal tube), at base joined to the perianth; ovary superior, carpels joined (when more than one), locules 3 (-4); styles solitary, 1.

Fruits: Infrutescence arranged on unbranched axis, fruit 20.0-40.0 mm long, yellow when young or pale red, not spiny, slightly fleshy, simple, dehiscent, capsule; seeds 1-3, much more than 10 mm long (17-20 mm long), not winged, narrow (longer than wide), seed 1-10 mm diam. (c. 6 mm diam.).
Click  For more  details click : http://www.biotik.org/india/species/a/aphapoly/aphapoly_en.html

Other Uses: The wood is used for construction of ships, vehicles, posts and agricultural tools.
Click to see : Evaluation of Aphanamixis polystachya as a source of repellents, antifeedants, toxicants and protectants in storage against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)
:

Medicinal Uses:

Click to see  :
*Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation :

* Full Length Research Paper
Central nervous system depressant and analgesic
activity of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) parker leaf
extract in mice
:

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphanamixis_polystachya
http://www.pngplants.org/PNGtrees/TreeDescriptions/Aphanamixis_polystachya_Wall_R_N_Parker.html

Aerva lanata

Botanical Name :Aerva lanata Linn
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Amaranthoideae
Genus: Aerva
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales
Species: A. lanata
Common Names:Cheroola, Chaya, Gorakha ganja, Kapurijadi, Cherupula, Kapur-madhura, Paunsia, Buikallan, Poolai, Pindiconda.

Vernacular Names:-
Bengali: Chaya.
Duk.: Kul -ke -jar, Khul.
Hindi:Gorakhbuti or Kapuri jadi.
Kannada: Bilesuli.
Malayalam: Cherula.
Marathi: Kapuri-madhura.
Punjabi: Bui-kaltan (flowers as sold in bazaars).
Rajasthani: Bhui.
Sanskrit: Astmabayda
Sindhi: Bhui, Jari.
Sinhalese-Pol pala.
Tamil: Sirru -pulay -vayr.
Telugu: Pinde-conda, Pindi-chetter.
Trans-Indus: Asmei, Spirke, Sasai.
Swahili: Kinongo
Akan-Asante bameha
Abure n-tanfa
Akye: munongbe
Baule akopinolé
Guere (Chiehn) ura ore, wore oré (K&B) wulo wulé (B&D)

Habitat :- Native to
Afrotropic:
Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia, Somalia
East Tropical Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon, Rwanda, Zaire
West Tropical Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo
South Tropical Africa: Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe
Southern Africa: South Africa – Natal, Transvaal
Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar
Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
Indomalaya:
Indian Subcontinent: India, Sri Lanka
Malesia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines
Australasia: Queensland

Description:
A semi erect many branched under shrub grows up to 50 cm in height. Leaves are simple, alternate, short petioled, tomentose, and become smaller in the flowering twigs. Flowers are small sessile, greenish or whitish, often found in spikes. Fruits are greenish round compressed utricle, seeds kidney shaped and small.

Click to see the pictures.>...…(01)...……..(1).………(2).……

Aerva lanata  is a common weed which grows wild everywhere in plains of India. The root has a camphor like aroma. The dried flowers which look like soft spikes, are sold under the commercial name as Buikallan or Boor.

Edible Uses:
The whole plant, especially the leaves, is edible. The leaves are put into soup or eaten as a spinach or as a vegetable. The plant provides grazing for stock, game in and chickens.

Medicinal Uses:

The plant is said to be diuretic and demulcent. Its diuretic action is said to be very effective in the treatment of urethral discharges and gonorrhoea and is of value in cases of lithiasis and as an anthelmintic. A trace of alkaloid has been detected.

As per Ayurveda
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, urinry infection, vesical calculi, cough, and boils.

Leaves
A leaf-decoction is prepared as a gargle for treating sore-throat and used in various complex treatments against guinea-worm. to wash Babies that have become unconscious during an attack of malaria or of some other disease are washed with a leaf decoction at the same time smoke from the burning plant is inhaled. The leaf-sap is also used for eye-complaints. An infusion is given to cure diarrhoea and in an unspecified manner at childbirth, and on sores.

Decoction of the flowers is said to cure stones in any part of the stomach and that of the root is diuretic and cure for kidney stones

Root
The root is used in snake-bite treatment.

Flowers
For pains in the lower part of the back leaves and flowers are reduced to ash which is rubbed into cuts on the back.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:

Spiritual
It gives protection against evil spirits, is a good-luck talisman for hunters, and safeguards the well-being of widows.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerva_lanata
http://enchantingkerala.org/ayurveda/ayurvedic-medicinal-plants/cherula.php
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

Enhanced by Zemanta

Rangan(Ixora coccinea)

Botanical Name :Ixora coccinea
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Ixora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Bengali Name :Rangan
Other Names:Jungle Geranium, Flame of the Woods,Santan-pula (Tag.) ,Tangpupo (Bis.) ,Dwarf santan (Engl  and Jungle Flame

Habitat :
Native to tropical south-east Asia, including Southern India and Sri Lanka.. Its name derives from an Indian deity.

Description:
Although there are some 400 species in the genus Ixora, only a handful are commonly cultivated, and the common name, Ixora, is usually used for I. coccinea. I. coccinea is a dense, multi-branched evergreen shrub, commonly 4–6 ft (1.2–2 m) in height, but capable of reaching up to 12 ft (3.6 m) high. It has a rounded form, with a spread that may exceed its height. The glossy, leathery, oblong leaves are about 4 in (10 cm) long, with entire margins, and are carried in opposite pairs or whorled on the stems. Small tubular, scarlet flowers in dense rounded clusters 2-5 in (5–13 cm) across are produced almost all year long. There are numerous named cultivars differing in flower colour (yellow, pink, orange) and plant size. Several popular cultivars are dwarfs, usually staying under 3 ft (1 m) in height. Ixora ‘Nora Grant’ is a popular dwarf and ‘Super King’ is a popular hybrid with much larger flower clusters than the species.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES..
Blooming Time: Ixoras are compact plants that bloom primarily in summer and intermittently the rest of the year with proper care.

Cultivation: Ixoras do best in at least 4 hours of direct sunlight a day. Pot in a mixture of 2 parts peat moss to 1 part potting soil and 1 part sand or perlite. Keep moist; fertilize every 2 weeks in spring and summer, monthly the rest of the year.

Propagation: Propagated by cutting in spring, preferably with 3 to 4 nodes, with bottom heat. Can also be propagated by seed when produced.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized :Leaves, roots, stems and flowers


Constituents and properties:

Root contains an aromatic acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids.
Leaves yield flavonols kaemferol and quercetin, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids and ferulic acids.
Flowers contain cyanidin and flaconboids, and a coloring material related to quercitin.
Considered internally sedative, stomachic, tonic, antiseptic, cholagogue and externally astringent and antiseptic

Folkloric:-
Decoction of roots used for nausea, hiccups, and anorexia.
Flowers used for dysentery and leucorrhea.
Poulticed fresh leaves and stems for sprains, eczema, boils and contusions.
Diluted tincture of roots for mouthwash and gargles for sore throat.
Flower decoction for hypertension, amenorrhea and irregular menstruation.
Decoction of leaves for wounds and skin ulcers.
In Bengal, roots are used for dysentery.
Root, ground into pulp, mixed with water and pepper, or as tincture, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Powdered roots used for sores and chronic ulcers.
In Indo-China, root decoction used to clarify the urine.
In India and Sri Lanka, the fruits are eaten and the flowers used as flavoring.

Studies

• Wound healing: Alcoholic extract of IC showed increase in granuloma tissue weight, tensile strength and glycosaminoglycan content. The prohealing activity was attributed to increased collagen deposition, alignment and maturation.
• Antimicrobial: Extract studies of EC for antimicrobial activity showed the ethyl fraction to be more active than the methanol fraction.
• Antioxidant:
Phytochemical screening showed the flower extract to possess flavonoids, steroids, tannin. IC showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.
• Pharmacologic evaluation / Electroconvulsive Protective: Evaluation showed that IC has protective property against electroconvulsions, antiinflammatory and hemostatic properties.
Hepatoprotective: Extract of IC flowers showed significant hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol overdose-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Chemoprotective: IC flower fraction showed chemoprotective effects on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in mice.
• Antinociceptive : Study showed the aqueous leaf extract of IC possesses considerable antinociceptive activity mediated centrally via a dopaminergic mechanism. In addition, the antioxidant activity may play a role in inducing antinociception. The dopaminergic and antioxidative activities may arise from alkaloid and flavonoid constituents, respectively.
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-mitotic: Lupeol, isolated from the leaves of IC, was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Anti-mitotic activity was also noted in a preliminary cytotoxic study.
• Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study of the active fraction of Ixora coccinea flowers showed greater activity on ascitic tumors than solid tumors. It had no toxicity to normal lymphocytes but was toxic to lymphocytes from leukemic patients.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous leaf extract of Ixora coccinea showed strong antihistamine and antioxidant activity that can account for its anti-inflammatory potential. In addition, the inhibitionn of prostaglandins and bradykinins may play a role in its antiinflammatory effect.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study of the fresh leaf extract of Ixora coccinea was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic property and could be a potential therapeutic agent against ulcer disease.

Other Uses:

Very ornamental plant, increases the beauty of the garden.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ixora_coccinea
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Santan.html

Enhanced by Zemanta

Being Bored is Bad for Your Health

Experts say there’s a possibility that the more bored you are, the more likely you are to die early.

………………….

Researchers analyzed questionnaires completed between 1985 and 1988 by more than 7,500 London civil servants. The civil servants were asked if they had felt bored at work during the previous month. The researchers then tracked down how many of the participants had died by April 2009.

Those who reported they had been very bored were two and a half times more likely to die of a heart problem than those who hadn’t reported being bored.

Resources:
USA Today February 11, 2010
International Journal of Epidemiology April 2010

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]