Categories
Herbs & Plants

Gudmar / madhunasini

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Botanical Name:Asclapias geminata Roxb/Periploca Sylvastris Retz
Family : Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Asclepiadoideae
Tribe : Marsdenieae
Gender : Gymnema
Species : G. sylvestris
Division :  Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass:  Asterids
Order :  Gentianales

Synonyms: Periploca sylvestris Willd., Gymnema melicida Edgew.

Common Name:
English :Suger destroyer,Periploca of the wood
Sanskrit:Mesasrngi,Ajaballi, Ajagandini, Ajashringi, Bahalchakshu, Chakshurabahala, Grihadruma, Karnika, Kshinavartta, Madhunasini, Medhasingi, Meshashringi, Meshavishanika, Netaushadhi, Putrashringi, Sarpadanshtrika, Tiktadughdha, Vishani.
Local Indian Names :
Hindi– Gur-mar, merasingi; Bengali- Mera-singi; Marathi– Kavali, kalikardori, vakundi; Gujarati– Dhuleti, mardashingi; Telugu- Podapatri; Tamil- Adigam, cherukurinja; Kannada– Sannager-asehambu; Malyalam– Cakkarakkolli, Madhunashini.

Parts Used: Leaves

Habitat:
Preferentially grows in forests and secondary open scrub and is in heights up to 1000-1200 meters .  It is especially distributed in the monsoon forests and, less frequently, has reached parts of Oceania and America .  It is located in Asia especially in India , in the tropical forests of central and southern Iraq, in Western Ghats is a mountain range that lies west of India and in the territory of Goa .  It also grows in Japan , Sri Lanka , Vietnam , Taiwan and some provinces of China in Fujian , Guangxi , Hainan , Yunnan and Zhejiang .  Less commonly can be found in South Africa .

Description:
Large climbers,rooting at nodes,leaves elliptic,acuminate,base acute to acuminate, glabrous above sparsely or densely tomentose beneath. Flowers small, in axillary and lateral umbel like cymes, pedicels long. Calyz-lobes long, ovate,obtuse,pubescent. Corolla pale yellow campalute,valvate, corona single with 5 fleshy scales. Scales adnate to throat of corolla tube between lobes. Anther connective produced into a membranous tip, pollima2,erect,carpels 2, unilocular; loculus many ovulated. Follicle long,fusiform.

…click to see the pictures.…..(01).…(1)..…….(2)……...(3)...…………………….

Extensive, much-branched, twining shrubs. Leaves 3-6 x 2-3 cm, ovate or elliptic-oblong, apiculate, rounded at base, sub-coriaceous. Flowers minute, greenish-yellow, spirally arranged in lateral pedunculate or nearly sessile cymes. Corolla lobes imbricate. Follicles solitary, upto 8 x 0.7 cm, terete, lanceolate, straight or slightly curved, glabrous. Seeds ovate-oblong, glabrous, winged, brown. Flowering: August-March; Fruiting: Winter.

Madhunashini is an evergreen climber and the best season for planting is June-July. After the ploughing and leveling of the land, 45 cm3 sized pits are made at a distance of 2.5 m between the rows and 1.75 m between plants (within the row). The pits are dug open 15 days earlier to planting, they are filled with green leaves and top soil and 2 kgs of well rotten manure per pit is added. The pits are to be irrigated and left for one week, then the rooted cuttings are planted in the pits.

HARVESTING AND YIELD
The crop is ready for harvest two years after planting. Leaves are the economic part and the harvesting of the leaves begins when plants start flowering i.e., during end of June or first week of July. Leaves can be harvested along with flowers either by hand or can be cut with sickle/knife. The harvest leaves are dried under shade by allowing sufficient air to circulate by spreading thinly on clear ground for about7-8 days. Direct sunlight should be avoided to maintain the quality of the leaves.

The crop is harvested only once in a year during flowering and on an average 5-6 kg dried leaves per plant can be obtained from a 4 years old plant yielding about 10,000 – 15,000 kgs of dried leaves per hectare. The crop can be cultivated for 10-15 years under good management.

Chemical Composition:
The leaves contain hentriacontane, pentatriacontane, a-and ß-chlorophylls, phytin, resins, tartaric acid, formic acid, butyric acid, anthraqui-none derivatives, inositol, d -quercitol and “gymnemic acid”. The leaves give positive tests for alkaloids. Flavonol glycosides, kaempferol and quercetin have been isolated from the aerial parts of the plant (Liu et al., 2004). Three new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides were isolated from the leaves of the plant. Six oleanane-type saponins (Ye et al., 2000, 2001). Few new tritepenoid saponins, gymnemasins A, B, C and D were also isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Suttisri et al., 1995, Sahu et al., 1996).

Medicinal Property & Uses:  The plant is stomachic, stimulant, laxative and diuretic. It is good in cough, biliousness and sore eyes. If the leaves of the plant are chewed, the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substances is suppressed (Gent, 1999, Persaud et al., 1999, Intelegen, 2004). The leaves are said to be used as a remedy for diabetes (Prakash et al., 1986; Shanmugasundaram et al., 1990; Grover et al., 2002; Gholap & Kar, 2003}. It has been included among the most important herbs for all doshas (Mhasker & Caius, 1930; Holistic, 2004). It has shown effective activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (Satdive et al., 2003). Tribals in Chhindi rub the leaves on infected body parts to cure infections.

The leaf powder is tasteless with a faint pleasant aromatic odour. It stimulates the heart and the circulatory system, increases the secretion of urine, and activates the uterus. Tribals of Central India prepare decoctions of Methi/ fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Gudmar (Gymnema sylvestre), Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), Ajwan (Trachyspermum ammi), gokshura (Tribulus terrestris), vayu-vidanga (Embelia ribes), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Harra (Terminalia chebula), and chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) to cure diabetes and stress related disorders.

Traditional healers from various states of India use this plant in various ailments. Leaf is given in gastric troubles in Rajasthan. Traditional healers of Maharastra prescribe it in urinary problems and stomachache whereas in Madhya Pradesh, tribals and local healers apply the leaf extract in cornea opacity and other eye diseases. In Andhra Pradesh it is used in glycosuria.

In Indian Ayurveda it is mainly used in the treatment of Diabetes, hydrocil & Asthama.

Few important companies in Product Manufacturing:

Active Ingredients Group., Inc., China

Amitco International Botanical & Nutritional Division, USA

Camden-Grey Essential Oils, Miami, USA.

Christina’s Body & Fitness, USA

Dabur, India

Himalaya Herbals, India

Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd. India

Philly Pharmacy, USA

S&D Chemicals (Canada) Ltd. Canada

Concluding Remarks:

It is the need of the hour to save this highly important medicinal plant of Patalkot valley. If proper initiatives would not be taken in time, there would not be single Gymnema plant in the valley. It is urged to the scientists, conservationists, researchers, NGO’s and other bodies to come forward and take moves to protect this important herb. Local farmers should be encouraged to cultivate this herb. Government and policy makers are having lots of plans/ ideas but they find problems in proper implementations. It is the youth and people from literate world who should come forward to take this task in their hands.

 Other uses: Alcoholic extract has a dry leaves showing antibacterial activity against Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus subtilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus .

Caution:    If the indicated amounts are used, ie no more than 400mg per day is generally safe, well tolerated and no side effects.  During pregnancy and lactation has not been determined whether or not there may be side effects.  Still, it is recommended to consult a medical practitioner before taking Gymnema extract diabetic children and elderly.  Contraindicated if used in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs.  Be careful when taking gymnema with glipizide, glyburide and insulin.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.allianceingredients.com/pdfdocs/GYMNEMA.pdf
http://horticulture.kar.nic.in/APMAC_website_files/madhunasini.htm
http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/gymnema.shtml
http://www.sacredearth.com/ethnobotany/plantprofiles/Gymnea.php
http://www.orissafdc.com/products_medicinal_plants.php

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Tribulus (Gokshura)

 

Botanical Name:Tribulus/ Tribulus terrestris/Pedalium Murex (LINN.)
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Zygophyllales
Genus: Tribulus
Common Names: Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, Burra Gookeroo and Goathead are the most widely used.

Other common names: Tribulus, Gokshura, Goathead, Tribulus Terrestris, Burra Gookeroo, Burra Gokhru, Caltrop, Yellow Vine
Habitat: Native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and in northern Australia. It can thrive even in desert climates and poor soil.

Description:
It is a taprooted herbaceous perennial plant that grows as a summer annual in colder climates. The stems radiate from the crown to a diameter of about 10 cm to over 1 m, often branching. They are usually prostrate, forming flat patches, though they may grow more upwards in shade or among taller plants. The leaves are pinnately compound with leaflets less than a quarter-inch long. The flowers are 4–10 mm wide, with five lemon-yellow petals. A week after each flower blooms, it is followed by a fruit that easily falls apart into four or five single-seeded nutlets. The nutlets or “seeds” are hard and bear two to three sharp spines, 10 mm long and 4–6 mm broad point-to-point. These nutlets strikingly resemble goats’ or bulls’ heads; the “horns” are sharp enough to puncture bicycle tires and to cause painful injury to bare feet.
click to see the pictures……>...(01)......(1)……...(2)……...(3)...
Tribulus species are perennial, but some grow as annuals in colder climates. The leaves are opposite and compound. The flowers are perfect (hermaphroditic) and insect-pollinated, with fivefold symmetry. The ovary is divided into locules that are in turn divided by “false septa” (the latter distinguish Tribulus from other members of its family).

Some species are cultivated as ornamental plants in warm regions. Some, notably T. cistoides, T. longipetalus, T. micrococcus, T. terrestris, and T. zeyheri, are considered weeds.

The Latin name tribulus originally meant the caltrop (a spiky weapon), but in Classical times already meant this plant as well

Cultivition:
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

The plant is widely naturalised in the Americas and also in Australia south of its native range. In some states in the United States, it is considered a noxious weed and an invasive species.

It has been reported that puncture vine seeds have been used in homicidal weapons in southern Africa; murderers smear them with the poisonous juice of Acokanthera venenata and put them where victims are likely to step.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out after the last expected frost.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.
Leaves and young shoots – cooked. A nutritional analysis is available. Fruit – cooked. The unexpanded seed capsules are ground into a powder and made into a bread. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

*Leaves (Fresh weight)

*0 Calories per 100g

*Water: 79.09%

*Protein: 7.22g; Fat: 0g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 4.6g;

*Minerals – Calcium: 1600mg; Phosphorus: 80mg; Iron: 9.22mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;

*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 41mg;


Medicinal Uses:

Abortifacient; Alterative; Anthelmintic; Aphrodisiac; Carminative; Demulcent; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Infertility; Pectoral.

The seed is abortifacient, alterative, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactogogue, pectoral and tonic. It stimulates blood circulation. A decoction is used in treating impotency in males, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea and incontinence of urine. It has also proved effective in treating painful urination, gout and kidney diseases. The plant has shown anticancer activity. The flowers are used in the treatment of leprosy. The stems are used in the treatment of scabious skin diseases and psoriasis. The dried and concocted fruits are used in the treatment of congestion, gas, headache, liver, ophthalmia and stomatitis.

Tribulus has been shown to enhance sexual behaviour in an animal model. It appears to do so by stimulating androgen receptors in the brain.

Some body builders use T. terrestris as post cycle therapy or “PCT“. After they’ve completed an anabolic-steroid cycle, they use it under the assumption that it will restore the body’s natural testosterone levels.

Tribulus has a long history of use in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of India. It is considered an aphrodisiac, diuretic, and nervine.

Tribulus, a traditional Ayurvedic herb commonly known as the puncture vine, has been used for centuries in Europe as a treatment for impotence and as a stimulant to help enhance sexual drive and performance. Tribulus has been shown to increase LH (luteinizing hormone) production and boost testosterone levels. Tribulus exerts its testosterone-elevating effects by stimulating an increase in LH, which is responsible for telling your body to produce testosterone. Testosterone is a vital hormone responsible for the development of secondary sexual traits, as well as increasing muscle size and strength. As a result, Tribulus as also been shown to increase energy and stamina, and to speed up muscle recovery after muscle fibers have been broken down as a result of exercise.

*Boost natural testosterone production

*Gain lean muscle whilst reducing body fat

*Pro-anabolic formula for increased athletic power

*Enhance vitality, sexual libido and feelings of youthfulness

*Improve sport performance through increased natural hormonal activity

As per Ayurveda:
It is sheetala, svadu, invigorating; useful in the treatment of urinary affection: madhura; gastric stimulant, aphrodisiac; nutritive; used in the treatment of urinary ca1culii, polyuria, dyspnoea, cough, piles, dysuria, heart disease; pacifies deranged vata.

Parts Used: Fruits, leaves, stem and root.

Therapeutic Uses:
Fruits (dried) : aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic and tonic; decoction/infusion efficacious in chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea, gout, gravel. impotence, kidney diseases and painful micturition; one of the ten ingredients of Dashamula;


leaves:
in affections of urinary calculii, stomachic; stem: astringent, infusion useful in gonorrhoea; root: aperient, demulcent and tonic; an ingredient of Dashamula kwatha, a well-known Ayurvedic preparation for urinary troubles and impotence.

The root and fruit are sweetish; cooling; tonic, fattening, aphrodisiac, alterative; improve appetite; useful in strangury, urinary discharges, vesicular calculi, pruritus ani; alleviate burning sensation; reduce inflammation; remove .. tridosha,” cough, asthma, pain; cure, skin and heart diseases, piles, leprosy.-

The leaves are aphrodisiac and purify the bIood.-

The seeds are cooling, fattening, diuretic aphrodisiac; remove inflammations, urinary troubles, stones in the bladder.-

The ashes are sweet ‘cooling, aphrodisiac; cure” vatapurify the blood

The fruit is sour with a bad taste; :diuretic; removes gravel from the urine and stone in the bladder; cures strangury, gleet.-

The leaves are diuretic; tonic; enrich the blood; increase the menstrual flow; cure gonorrhoea and gleet; a decoction is useful as a gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums; reduce inflammation.-

The root is a good stomachic and appetiser: emmenagogue, diuretic carminative; cures lumbago .

The fruits are regarded as cooling, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, and are used in painful micturition, calculous affections, urinary, disorders and impotence.

An infusion” made from the fruit has been found very useful as a diuretic in gout, kidney disease and gravel;, also used largely as anaphrodisiac..

The fruit is reputed tonic and astringent. It is used for coughs, spermatorrhoea, scabies, anemia, ophthalmia; it is a powerful hemootatic, much used in postpartum haemorrhage and in dysenteries;as a gargle it is prescribed for ulcers of the gums, inflammation of the mouth, aphthae, and angina.

The entire plant, but more particularly the fruits, are used in medicine. They possess cooling, diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties and are used in dysuria, urinary disorders, calculus affections, and impotency. .

For more Knowledge you may click on:->……..(1)….(2).(3)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribulus
http://websites.uk-plc.net/247Weight/products/Tribulus.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Tribulus+terrestris

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#eranda

 

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Nishinda (Vitex Negundo)

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Botanical Name : Vitex negundo
Family Name :Verbenacae/Lamiaceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Lamiales
Genus:    Vitex
Species:V. negundo

Common Name : CHASTE TREE, HUANG PING, GATTILIER INCISE, HUANG CHING, LENGGUNDI, MAN CHING, NEGUNDO CHASTETREE

Vernacular Names:
Bengali Name : Nishinda, Nirgundi, Samalu
Chinese Name : Huang ping
English Name : Five-Leaved Chaste Tree
French Name : Gattilier incise
German Name : Mönchspfeffer
Gujarati Name : Nagod, Nagad
Hindi Name : Sambhalu, Sawbhalu, Samhalu, Nirgandi, Nisinda, Mewri
Kannada Name : Belenekki
Latin name : Vitex negundo Linn.
Marathi Name : Lingad, Nigad, Nirgundi
Persian Name : Banjangasht, Sisban
Punjabi Name : Bharwan, Maura, Banni, Swanjan
Sanskrit Name : Nirgundi, Nirgumdo
Urdu Name : Tukhme Sambhalu

Habitat: Vitex negundo is native to tropical Eastern and Southern Africa and Asia. It is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.
Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.This plant is commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests

Part Used : Whole plant (Parts Offered : Fruits, Seeds, Leaves, Roots)

Description:
Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small deciduous tree growing from 2 to 8 m (6.6 to 26.2 ft) in height. The bark is reddish-brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair. The numerous flowers are borne in panicles 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) in length. Each is around 6 to 7 cm (2.4 to 2.8 in) long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.

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The fruit is a succulent drupe, 4 mm (0.16 in) in diameter, rounded to egg-shaped. It is black or purple when ripe.

Cultivation method: It is raised through seeds and cutting. After harvesting of mature seeds sown in nursery beds. Normally germination commences within 2-3 weeks. Four to six months old seedlings are used to transplant in the field.

Uses : The leaves are astringent, febrifuge, sedative, tonic and vermifuge. They are useful in dispersing swellings of the joints from acute rheumatism and of the testes from suppressed gonorrhoea. The juice of the leaves is used for removing foetid discharges and worms from ulcers, whilst an oil prepared with the leaf juice is applied to sinuses and scrofulous sores. A decoction of the stems is used in the treatment of burns and scalds.

The dried fruit is vermifuge and is also used in the treatment of angina, colds, coughs, rheumatic difficulties etc. The fresh berries are pounded to a pulp and used in the form of a tincture for the relief of paralysis, pains in the limbs, weakness etc. The root is expectorant, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in the treatment of colds and rheumatic ailments. The plant is said to be a malarial preventative and is also used in the treatment of bacterial dysentery – extracts of the leaves have shown bactericidal and antitumor activity. The leaves are used to repel insects in grain stores. Extracts of the leaves have insecticidal activity. The fresh leaves are burnt with grass as a fumigant against mosquitoes.
It is one of the ten herbal medicines endorsed by the Philippine Department of Health as an effective herbal medicine with proven therapeutic value. Lagundi has been clinically tested to be effective in the treatment of colds, flu, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and pharyngitis. Studies have shown that Lagundi can prevent the body’s production of leukotrienes which are released during an asthma attack. Lagundi contains Chrysoplenol D. A substance with anti-histamine properties and muscle relaxant.

The leaves, flowers, seeds and root of Lagundi can all be used as herbal medicine. A decoction is made by boiling the parts of the plant and taken orally. Today, Lagundi is available in capsule form and syrup for cough.

Nirgundi is an important herb in Ayurveda. This herb pacifies the kapha and vata doshas of the body. The roots, seeds and leaves part of this herb are used to prepare medicines.

Nirgundi herb has various properties such as bitter, acrid, astringent, heating, anthelmintic and cephalic. It is used to cure various diseases such as leucoderma, inflammations, spleen enlargement, eye diseases, bronchitis and various other diseases. Some Ayurvedic properties and other benefits of nirgundi herb are discussed in this article.

Medicinal uses: As medicine its leaf, root, flower and fruits are used. Boiled water from its leaves is used to cure chronic pain. Its is a also used for swelling, rheumatism, sores, fever and headache. Leaves and branches are insect repellent so village people are used for preserving stored grains (especially in rice) against insect attacks.
Benefits:
1.  Relief of asthma & pharyngitis

2.  Recommended relief of rheumatism, dyspepsia, boils, diarrhea

3.  Treatment of cough, colds, fever and flu and other bronchopulmonary disorders

4.   Alleviate symptoms of Chicken Pox

5.   Removal of worms, and boils

Preparation:
For 1. For boil half cup of chopped fresh or dried leaves in 1 cup of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Drink half cup three times a day.

For2.
The lagundi flowers are also good for diarrhea and fever. Boil as with the leaves.

For 3
. The root is specially good for treating dyspepsia, worms, boils, colic and rheumatism.

Other Uses:
It is mainly used as a natural insect repellent. Click for more knowledge…..(1)……..(1a) ……(1b)

Lagundi tablets (300 mg) are available from the Department of Health’s Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) Telephone # (632) 727-6199.
Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitex_negundo
http://www.mapbd.com/Mpdes.htm#nishinda
http://www.motherherbs.com/vitex-negundo.html
http://herbal-medicine.philsite.net/lagundi.htm

Vitex negundo Linn.