Categories
Herbs & Plants

Typha angustifolia

[amazon_link asins=’B01MT8FBZF,B01ETYTVIO,B01ETYTWVA,B01GRJ4NMI,3843306869,B00G4MTZ90,3844007156,B01K925N0A,B00G4MTWZW’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’e8e5bace-5043-11e7-8b76-3f2e4c37e3cc’]

Botanical Name : Typha angustifolia
Family: Typhaceae
Genus: Typha
Species: T. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names:Lesser Bulrush , Narrowleaf Cattail , Lesser Reedmace,Small Reed Mace, Cattail

Habitat : Typha angustifolia  grows  throughout the world from the Arctic to latitude 30° S, including Britain but absent from Africa.This is found in  water up to 15cm deep, avoiding acid conditions. Often somewhat brackish or subsaline water or wet soil in America, growing from sea level to elevations of 1900 metres.

Description:
Typha angustifolia is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). The plant’s leaves are flat, very narrow (¼”-½” wide), and 3′-6′ tall when mature; 12-16 leaves arise from each vegetative shoot. At maturity, they have distinctive stalks that are about as tall as the leaves; the stalks are topped with brown, fluffy, sausage-shaped flowering heads. The plants have sturdy, rhizomatous roots that can extend 27″ and are typically ¾”-1½” in diameter.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires wet soil and can grow in water.

Cultivation :
A very easily grown plant, it grows in boggy pond margins or in shallow water up to 15cm deep. It requires a rich soil if it is to do well. Succeeds in sun or part shade. A very invasive plant spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site, it is not suitable for growing in small areas. Unless restrained by some means, such as a large bottomless container, the plant will soon completely take over a site and will grow into the pond, gradually filling it in. This species will often form an almost complete monoculture in boggy soil. The dense growth provides excellent cover for water fowl.

Propagation : 
Seed – surface sow in a pot and stand it in 3cm of water. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible and, as the plants develop, increase the depth of water. Plant out in summer. Division in spring. Very easy, harvest the young shoots when they are about 10 – 30cm tall, making sure there is at least some root attached, and plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses  :    
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Oil;  PollenRoot;  Seed;  Stem.

Roots – raw or cooked. They can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and then boiled to yield a sweet syrup. The roots can also be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereal flours. Rich in protein, this powder is used to make biscuits etc. Young shoots in spring – raw or cooked. An asparagus substitute. Base of mature stem – raw or cooked. It is best to remove the outer part of the stem. Young flowering stem – raw, cooked or made into a soup. It tastes like sweet corn. Seed – cooked. The seed is very small and fiddly to harvest, but it has a pleasant nutty taste when roasted. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. Due to the small size of the seed this is probably not a very worthwhile crop. Pollen – raw or cooked. A protein rich additive to flour used in making bread, porridge etc. It can also be eaten with the young flowers, which makes it considerably easier to utilize. The pollen can be harvested by placing the flowering stem over a wide but shallow container and then gently tapping the stem and brushing the pollen off with a fine brush. This will help to pollinate the plant and thereby ensure that both pollen and seeds can be harvested.

Medicinal Uses:

Anticoagulant;  Diuretic;  Emmenagogue;  Haemostatic;  Lithontripic;  Miscellany.

The pollen is diuretic, emmenagogue and haemostatic. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes haemostatic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal haemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhoea and injuries. An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

In Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external bleeding.  The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The pollen may be mixed with honey and applied to wounds and sores, or taken orally to reduce internal bleeding of almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding, or blood in the urine.  The pollen is now also used in the treatment of angina.  Pu huang does not appear to have been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition.  The dregs remaining after the pollen has been sifted from the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot skillet and then used as an internal or external astringent in dysentery and other forms of bowel hemorrhage.  It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal hemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries.  An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

Other Uses  :
Biomass;  Insulation;  Miscellany;  Oil;  Paper;  Soil stabilization;  Stuffing;  Thatching;  Tinder;  Weaving.

The stems and leaves have many uses, they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc. They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc. The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc. They have good insulating and buoyancy properties. The female flowers make an excellent tinder and can be lit from the spark of a flint. The pollen is highly inflammable and is used in making fireworks. This plants extensive root system makes it very good for stabilizing wet banks of rivers, lakes etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Typha+angustifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Advertisements
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Typha latifolia

[amazon_link asins=’B00BUAZ6LW,B06W2FX972,B008GXL5D4,B01EUVTNC0,B01D9Q0U7O,B071Y59DY8,B01CMG31S2,B01M33MI4W,B06XFPMNGQ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’61e75646-5258-11e7-a0ca-a10d03fac451′]

Botanical Name : Typha latifolia
Family: Typhaceae
Genus: Typha
Species: T. latifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names :Bulrush, Common Bulrush, Broadleaf Cattail, Common Cattail, Great Reedmace, Cooper’s reed, Cumbungi

Typha latifoliaT. latifolia is called totora, espadaña común, tule espidilla, or piriope in Spanish; roseau des étangs in French; and tabua-larga in Portuguese.

Habitat :Typha latifolia is found as a native species in North and South America, Great Britain, Eurasia and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and the Northwest Territories, and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii. The species is non-native, and considered an invasive weed, in Australia and Hawaii. It is not native but has been reported in Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines.

T. latifolia has been found in a variety of climates, including tropical, subtropical, southern and northern temperate, humid coastal, and dry continental. It is found at elevations from sea level to 7,500 feet (2,300 m).

T. latifolia is an “obligate wetland” species, meaning that it is always found in or near water. The species generally grows in flooded areas where the water depth does not exceed 2.6 feet (0.8 meters). However, it has also been reported growing in floating mats in slightly deeper water. T. latifolia grows mostly in fresh water but also occurs in slightly brackish marshes. The species can displace other species native to salt marshes upon reduction in salinity. Under such conditions the plant may be considered invasive, since it interferes with preservation of the salt marsh habitat

Description:
T. latifolia shares its range with other related species, and hybridizes with Typha angustifolia, narrow-leaf cattail, to form Typha × glauca (Typha angustifolia × T. latifolia), white cattail. Common cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrow-leaf cattail.

You may click to see the pictures of   Typha latifolia 
The plant is 1.5 to 3 metres (5 to 10 feet) high and it has 2-4cm broad leaves, and will generally grow out in to 0.75 to 1 metre [2 to 3 feet] of water depth.

Edible Uses:
The rhizomes of Typha latifolia were eaten by many first peoples of North America, as well as the leaf bases and young flower spikes. The rhizomes can be consumed after cooking and removing the skin, while the peeled stems and leaf bases can be eaten raw or cooked.

While Typha latifolia grows all over, including in rural areas, it is not advisable to eat specimens deriving from polluted water as it is used as a bioremediator, it absorbs pollutants. Do not eat them if they taste very bitter or spicy.

The Hopi Kachinas give it to children with toys attached such as bows and dolls during the Home

Medicinal Uses:
Native Americans from most tribes living near wetland areas have found interesting medicinal uses for cattails. Some tribes used the fuzz as a remedy for burns or to create a powder that prevented chafing. Others crushed the rhizomes and used them as topical treatment for sores and inflammation. The Delaware used the root as a cure for kidney stones, and the Houma Indians steeped the flowering stem as a treatment for whooping cough.  The leaves are diuretic. The leaves have been mixed with oil and used as a poultice on sores.
The pollen is astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, haemostatic, refrigerant, sedative, suppurative and vulnerary. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes haemostatic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, hemorrhage, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries. A decoction of the stems has been used in the treatment of whooping cough. The roots are diuretic, galactogogue, refrigerant and tonic. The roots are pounded into a jelly-like consistency and applied as a poultice to wounds, cuts, boils, sores, carbuncles, inflammations, burns and scalds. The flowers are used in the treatment of a wide range of ailments including abdominal pain, amenorrhea, cystitis, dysuria, metrorrhagia and vaginitis. The young flower heads are eaten as a treatment for diarrhea.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_latifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Iris Pseudacorus

[amazon_link asins=’B073M97WZ3,B00DYZFBKC,B00A96VTSM,B01ETYSS7Y,B00CKYX00G,B073GJTGSR,1539522415′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’03c58ca5-b2f1-11e7-9d02-e1c344c3910c’]

Botanical Name :  Iris Pseudacorus
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Section: Limniris
Species: I. pseudacorus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Iris Aquatica. Iris lutia. Yellow Flag. Yellow Iris. Fleur de Luce. Dragon Flower. Myrtle Flower. Fliggers. Flaggon. Segg. Sheggs. Daggers. Jacob’s Sword. Gladyne. Meklin. Levers. Livers. Shalder.

Common Names:Yellow iris , Yellow flag,  Paleyellow iris

Habitat :
Iris psudacoru  is native to  Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa the Caucasus and W. Asia.   It grows on damp marshy areas, swampy woods and in shallow water or wet ground on the edges of rivers and ditches. Often found in shady places.

Description:
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1-1.5 m (or a rare 2 m) tall, with erect leaves up to 90 cm long and 3 cm broad. The flowers are bright yellow, 7-10 cm across, with the typical iris form. The fruit is a dry capsule 4-7 cm long, containing numerous pale brown seeds.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES
Iris pseudacorus grows best in very wet conditions, and is often common in wetlands, where it tolerates submersion, low pH, and anoxic soils. The plant spreads quickly, by both rhizome and water-dispersed seed. It fills a similar niche to that of Typha and often grows with it, though usually in less deep water. While it is primarily an aquatic plant, the rhizomes can survive prolonged dry conditions. Yellow iris has been used as a form of water treatment since it has the ability to take up heavy metals through its roots.

Large iris stands in western Scotland form a very important feeding and breeding habitat for the endangered Corn Crake.

I. pseudacorus is one of two Iris species native to Britain, the other being Stinking Iris (Iris foetidissima).

Cultivation :
. Prefers a humus rich soil. Succeeds in water up to 15cm deep. Requires a moist soil, especially in early summer. Prefers a position in semi-shade. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn. A delicately scented essential oil is obtained from the dried roots. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Some named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Invasive, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification improves germination time and rates. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March or October. Early autumn is best. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: …..Coffee……The seed is said to make an excellent coffee substitute as long as it is well roasted. Caution is advised, it might be poisonous.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
The Yellow Flag rhizome was formerly much employed as a medicine, acting as a very powerful cathartic, but from its extremely acrid nature is now seldom used. An infusion of it has been found to be effective in checking diarrhoea, and it is reputed of value in dysmenorrhoea and leucorrhoea.

It was formerly held in the highest esteem, the juice of the root being considered a cure for obstinate coughs, ‘evil spleens,’ convulsions, dropsies and serpents’ bites, and as Gerard also says, ‘doth mightilie and vehementlie draw forth choler.’ Gerard recommended it as a cosmetic, saying:
‘The root, boiled soft, with a few drops of rosewater upon it, laid plaisterwise upon the face of man or woman, doth in two daies at the most take away the blacknesse and blewnesse of any stroke or bruise,’
though he adds as a warning that if the skin
‘be very tender and delicate, it shall be needful that ye lay a piece of silke, sindall or a piece of fine lawne betweene the plaister and the skinne for otherwise in such tender bodies it often causeth heat and inflammation.’

Yellow flag was once credited with healing properties it did not actually have it was used as a diuretic, purgative and emetic. It has also been recommended for making a cooling astringent lotion for external application, and is reputedly effective when applied to wounds. A tea prepared from the rhizome (underground stem) was once used as a remedy for certain gynecological complaints, but is no longer recommended. A lotion made from the juice of the fresh rhizome is sometimes recommended by herbalists for wounds. Pharmacologists report that there is some evidence that yellow flag shows anti-inflammatory activity. A slice of the root held against an aching tooth is said to bring immediate relief. It was at one time widely used as a powerful cathartic but is seldom used nowadays because of its extremely acrid nature. When dried the root loses its acridity and then only acts as an astringent. A tincture of the rhizome is used in homeopathy.

He recommends:
‘an oil made of the roots and flowers of the Iris, made in the same way as oil of roses and lilies. It is used to rub in the sinews and joints to strengthen them, and is good for cramp.’
Parkinson, of all the varieties, most esteems ‘for his excellent beautie and raretie the great Turkie Flower de luce.’

‘And for a sweet powder to lay among linnen and garments and to make sweet waters to wash hand-gloves or other things to perfume them’ the roots of the sweetsmelling Flag.
The acrid juice snuffed up the nostrils excites violent sneezing, and on the authority of Dr. Thornton, ‘in this way it has cured complaints of the head of long standing in a marvellous way.’ The root powdered was also used as snuff.
The old authorities praised it as a cure for toothache, a slice of the rhizome rubbed against the aching tooth or held in the mouth between the teeth, being supposed to cause the pain to disappear at once.

The root was also an ingredient in an antidote to poison. Withering (Arrangement of Plants) mentions it as having cured swine bitten by a mad dog.

Culpepper (1652) says that the distilled water of the whole herb is a sovereign remedy for weak eyes, either applied on a wet bandage, or dropped into the eye, and that an ointment made of the flowers is very good for ulcers or swellings.

Other Uses: …....Dye; Essential; Ink; Tannin……..A beautiful yellow dye is obtained from the flowers. A good black dye is obtained from the root if it is mixed with iron sulphate. It is brown otherwise. The root is a source of tannin and has been used in making ink. A delicately scented essential oil, obtained from the roots, has been used to adulterate the oil of Acorus calamus

The flowers afford a beautiful yellow dye, and the root, with sulphate of iron, a good black dye.

The acrid properties are entirely dissipated by drying, after which it acts only as an astringent, so powerful from the amount of tannin contained, that it has been used in the place of Galls in the making of ink.

Landscape Uses    :Container, Specimen

Known Hazards:
Iris psudacorus is poisonous. Even when dry it causes gastroenteritis in cattle (Sutherland 1990). This plant is listed as an injurious weed in Nevada. Care should be taken when pulling or digging yellow iris because resinous substances in the leaves and rhizomes can cause skin irritation (Cooper and Johnson 1984). Mechanical removal in sensitive areas, such as shallow stream beds, can be expected to cause extensive disturbance to the substrate and permit the establishment of other unwanted plants. Cutting followed by herbicide (glyphosate) treatment with a dripless wick may be the best method for controlling plants in sensitive sites, such as the Frio River.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_pseudacorus
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/plants/docs/ir_pseud.html
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/iripse09.html
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/plants/docs/ir_pseud.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+pseudacorus

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Narrow Leaf Cattail

[amazon_link asins=’B015OUF8A2,B00BUAZ6LW,B01MZ01OR4,B01MDNABKY’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’e9fc9b35-4ac8-11e7-a1b7-5da3c2b5e05c’]

Botanical Name : Typha angustifolia
Family: Typhaceae – Cat-tail family
Genus : Typha L. – cattail
Species :Typha angustifolia L. – narrowleaf cattail
Kingdom:Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division:  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass: Commelinidae
Order: Typhales

Synonyms:
Typha angustifolia L.
TYANC Typha angustifolia L. var. calumetensis Peattie
TYANE Typha angustifolia L. var. elongata (Dudley) Wiegand

Common Name : Lesser Bulrush or Narrowleaf Cattail or Lesser Reedmace or Cattail

Habitat :This cattail is an “obligate wetland” species that is commonly found in the northern hemisphere in brackish locations.

Description:
Typha angustifolia is a perennial herbaceous plant of genus.
The plant’s leaves are flat, very narrow (¼”-½” wide), and 3′-6′ tall when mature; 12-16 leaves arise from each vegetative shoot. At maturity, they have distinctive stalks that are about as tall as the leaves; the stalks are topped with brown, fluffy, sausage-shaped flowering heads. The plants have sturdy, rhizomatous roots that can extend 27″ and are typically ¾”-1½” in diameter.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It has been proposed that the species was introduced from Europe to North America.  In North America, it is also thought to have been introduced from coastal to inland locations.

The geographic range of Typha angustifolia overlaps with the very similar species Typha latifolia (broadleaf or common cattail). T. angustifolia can be distinguished from T. latifolia by its narrower leaves and by a clear separation of two different regions (staminate flowers above and pistilate flowers below) on the flowering heads. The species hybridize as Typha x glauca (Typha angustifolia x T. latifolia) (white cattail); Typha x glauca is not a distinct species, but is rather a sterile F1 hybrid.[6] Broadleaf cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrowleaf cattail

Edible Uses:
Several parts of the plant are edible, including during various seasons the dormant sprouts on roots and bases of leaves, the inner core of the stalk, green bloom spikes, ripe pollen, and starchy roots. The edible stem is called bon bon in Vietnam

Medicinal Uses:
In Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external bleeding.  The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The pollen may be mixed with honey and applied to wounds and sores, or taken orally to reduce internal bleeding of almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding, or blood in the urine.  The pollen is now also used in the treatment of angina.  Pu huang does not appear to have been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition.  The dregs remaining after the pollen has been sifted from the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot skillet and then used as an internal or external astringent in dysentery and other forms of bowel hemorrhage.  It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal hemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries.  An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TYAN&photoID=tyan_004_avp.tif
http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/aquatics/typhaan.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/typhaangu.html

Enhanced by Zemanta