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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Croup

Alternative Names: Viral croup; Laryngotracheobronchitis – acute; Spasmodic croup

Definition:
Croup  is a respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a “barking” cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It may produce mild, moderate, or severe symptoms, which often worsen at night.

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The barking cough of croup is the result of inflammation around the vocal cords (larynx) and windpipe (trachea). When the cough reflex forces air through this narrowed passage, the vocal cords vibrate with a barking noise. Because children have small airways to begin with, those younger than age 5 are most susceptible to having more-marked symptoms with croup.

Croup typically occurs between the ages of six months and six years, but the peak age is two and it’s less common after three. Children with asthma may get repeated episodes.

Croup usually isn’t serious. Most cases of croup can be treated at home. Sometimes, your child will need prescription medication.

Once due primarily to diphtheria, this cause is now primarily of historical significance in the Western world due to the success of vaccination.

Croup affects about 15% of children, and usually presents between the ages of 6 months and 5–6 years. It accounts for about 5% of hospital admissions in this population. In rare cases, it may occur in children as young as 3 months and as old as 15 years. Males are affected 50% more frequently than are females, and there is an increased prevalence in autumn (fall).

History:
The word croup comes from the Early Modern English verb croup, meaning “to cry hoarsely”; the name was first applied to the disease in Scotland and popularized in the 18th century. Diphtheritic croup has been known since the time of Homer’s Ancient Greece and it was not until 1826 that viral croup was differentiated from croup due to diphtheria by Bretonneau. Viral croup was thus called “faux-croup” by the French, as “croup” then referred to a disease caused by the diphtheria bacteria. Croup due to diphtheria has become nearly unknown due to the advent of effective immunization

Symptoms:
Croup is characterized by a “barking” cough, stridor, hoarseness, and difficult breathing which usually worsens at night. The “barking” cough is often described as resembling the call of a seal or sea lion.

As the cough gets more frequent, the child may have labored breathing or stridor (a harsh, crowing noise made during inspiration).The stridor is worsened by agitation or crying, and if it can be heard at rest, it may indicate critical narrowing of the airways. As croup worsens, stridor may decrease considerably.

Other symptoms include fever, coryza (symptoms typical of the common cold), and chest wall indrawing. Drooling or a very sick appearance indicate other medical conditions

Rarely, croup can last for weeks. Croup that lasts longer than a week or recurs frequently should be discussed with your doctor to determine the cause.

Causes:
Viral croup is the most common. Other possible causes include bacteria, allergies, and inhaled irritants. Acid reflux from the stomach can trigger croup.

Croup is usually (75% of the time) caused by parainfluenza viruses, but RSV, measles, adenovirus, and influenza can all cause croup.

Before the era of immunizations and antibiotics, croup was a dreaded and deadly disease, usually caused by the diphtheria bacteria. Today, most cases of croup are mild. Nevertheless, it can still be dangerous.

Croup tends to appear in children between 3 months and 5 years old, but it can happen at any age. Some children are prone to croup and may get it several times.

In the northern hemisphere, it is most common between October and March, but can occur at any time of the year.

In severe cases of croup, there may also be a bacterial superinfection of the upper airway. This condition is called bacterial tracheitis and requires hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. If the epiglottis becomes infected, the entire windpipe can swell shut, a potentially fatal condition called epiglottitis.

Diagnosis:
Croup is a clinical diagnosis. The first step is to exclude other obstructive conditions of the upper airway, especially epiglottitis, an airway foreign body, subglottic stenosis, angioedema, retropharyngeal abscess, and bacterial tracheitis.

A frontal X-ray of the neck is not routinely performed, but if it is done, it may show a characteristic narrowing of the trachea, called the steeple sign. The steeple sign is suggestive of the diagnosis, but is absent in half of cases.

Other investigations (such as blood tests and viral culture) are discouraged as they may cause unnecessary agitation and thus worsen the stress on the compromised airway. While viral cultures, obtained via nasopharyngeal aspiration, can be used to confirm the exact cause, these are usually restricted to research settings. Bacterial infection should be considered if a person does not improve with standard treatment, at which point further investigations may be indicated

Severity:
The most commonly used system for classifying the severity of croup is the Westley score. It is primarily used for research purposes rather than in clinical practice. It is the sum of points assigned for five factors: level of consciousness, cyanosis, stridor, air entry, and retractions.The points given for each factor is listed in the table to the right, and the final score ranges from 0 to 17.

*A total score of ? 2 indicates mild croup. The characteristic barking cough and hoarseness may be present, but there is no stridor at rest.
*A total score of 3–5 is classified as moderate croup. It presents with easily heard stridor, but with few other signs.
*A total score of 6–11 is severe croup. It also presents with obvious stridor, but also features marked chest wall indrawing.
*A total score of ? 12 indicates impending respiratory failure. The barking cough and stridor may no longer be prominent at this stage.
85% of children presenting to the emergency department have mild disease; severe croup is rare (<1%).

Treatment :-
Most cases of croup can be safely managed at home, but call your health care provider for guidance, even in the middle of the night.

Cool or moist air might bring relief. You might first try bringing the child into a steamy bathroom or outside into the cool night air. If you have a cool air vaporizer, set it up in the child’s bedroom and use it for the next few nights.

Acetaminophen can make the child more comfortable and lower a fever, lessening his or her breathing needs. Avoid cough medicines unless you discuss them with your doctor first.

You may want your child to be seen. Steroid medicines can be very effective at promptly relieving the symptoms of croup. Medicated aerosol treatments, if necessary, are also powerful.

Serious illness requires hospitalization. Increasing or persistent breathing difficulty, fatigue, bluish coloration of the skin, or dehydration indicates the need for medical attention or hospitalization.

Medications are used to help reduce upper airway swelling. This may include aerosolized racemic epinephrine, corticosteroids taken by mouth, such as dexamethasone and prednisone, and inhaled or injected forms of other corticosteroids. Oxygen and humidity may be provided in an oxygen tent placed over a crib. A bacterial infection requires antibiotic therapy.

Increasing obstruction of the airway requires intubation (placing a tube through the nose or mouth through the larynx into the main air passage to the lungs). Intravenous fluids are given for dehydration. In some cases, corticosteroids are prescribed.

Alternative Treatments :-
Since most croup cases are mild in severity, over the counter treatments are often used. These treatments include ointments such as Vick’s or other menthol creams. These often are used to open up the airways. Other over the counter treatments include humidifiers to keep the humidity up in a room and lessen the chances of the airways becoming further inflamed or irritated.

Other methods of breaking croup attacks include hot shower exposure and cold air exposure. In the hot shower method, the shower is used as a sauna, in that the shower is running but people sit outside of it, taking in the warm, humid air. This method can be very effective when used in ten minute increments. Cuddling or reading to the child can limit the stress that is on the child during such a treatment. Cold or cool air exposure is another very effective alternative treatment. This method of treatment relies on the idea that the inflamed tissues will cool and shrink when exposed to cool air. Since most croup cases occur during the fall or winter seasons, this is often achieved simply by going outside or driving with the windows rolled down.

Lifestyle and home remedies:
Croup often runs its course within three to seven days. In the meantime, keep your child comfortable with a few simple measures.

*Stay calm. Comfort or distract your child — cuddle, read a book or play a quiet game. Crying makes breathing more difficult.

*Moisten the air. Use a cool-air humidifier in your child’s bedroom or have your child breathe the warm, moist air in a steamy bathroom. Although researchers have questioned the benefits of humidity as part of emergency treatment for croup, moist air seems to help children breathe easier — especially when croup is mild.

*Get cool. Sometimes breathing fresh, cool air helps. If it’s cool outdoors, wrap your child in a blanket and walk outside for a few minutes.

*Hold your child in an upright position. Sitting upright can make breathing easier. Hold your child on your lap, or place your child in a favorite chair or infant seat.

*Offer fluids. For babies, water, breast milk or formula is fine. For older children, soup or frozen fruit pops may be soothing.

*Encourage resting. Sleep can help your child fight the infection.

*Try an over-the-counter pain reliever. If your child has a fever, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) may help. Cough syrup, which doesn’t affect the larynx or trachea, isn’t likely to relieve your child’s cough. Over-the-counter cold preparations are not recommended for children younger than age 5.

Your child’s cough may improve during the day, but don’t be surprised if it returns at night. You may want to sleep near your child or even in the same room so that you can take quick action if your child’s symptoms become severe.

Prognosis:
Viral croup is usually a self-limited disease, but can very rarely result in death from respiratory failure and/or cardiac arrest. Symptoms usually improve within two days, but may last for up to seven days. Other uncommon complications include bacterial tracheitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary edema

Prevention:
To prevent croup, take the same steps you use to prevent colds and flu. Frequent hand washing is most important. Also keep your child away from anyone who’s sick, and encourage your child to cough or sneeze into his or her elbow.

To stave off more-serious infections, keep your child’s immunizations current. The diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and measles vaccines offer protection from some of the rarest — but most dangerous — forms of upper airway infection.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/croup2.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/croup/DS00312
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croup
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003215.htm

http://modernmedicalguide.com/croup-acute-spasmodic-laryngitis/

http://savingmommymoney.com/croup-symptoms-and-cure

http://www.methodsofhealing.com/Healing_Conditions/croup/

http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=770500647

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Coming soon, the Hips and Knees that will Never Wear Out

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Replacement body parts that never wear out could become a reality within a few years as the  scientists say.

Dodgy knees and hips will be repaired using tissue engineering, while donor heart valves from animals are being specially treated to last indefinitely.
Longer-lasting artificial joints are already being tested in a bid to ensure people will be able to enjoy another 50 active years.

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X-ray of female pelvix with total hips replacement

Scientists at the University of Leeds Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering have launched a £50million research initiative focused on areas of the body most affected by ageing, including joints, spine, teeth, heart and circulation.

Unlike studies involving stem cells and growing ‘spare parts’ in a lab, the programme uses the body’s own regenerative systems. The Leeds scientists have developed a chemical wash that strips cells away from donated cartilage, heart valves, blood vessels and other tissue before they are put into a human body.
Research shows they become repopulated with cells within about six months. Some 40 patients have already been treated with modified heart valves in a study in Brazil.

Professor John Fisher, director of the institute and one of the world’s leading researchers into artificial joints, said research so far had shown the valves did not deteriorate and were not rejected by the body, because ‘foreign’ donor cells had all been stripped away.
The unique method of removing living cells from human and animal tissue creates a biological ‘scaffold’ that can be regenerated within the body, at the site which needs repairing.

Worn-out ligaments and cartilage in knees can be replaced with a scaffold that will eventually attract cells to make the joint last longer.

Other areas targeted for treatment are the spine  –  where discs can be replaced  –  elbow and shoulder tissues and parts of the knee. Vascular patches are being devised that seal the holes made in arteries when surgeons clear a blockage.

The technique is not suitjointsable for whole organs, however. Professor Fisher has also designed a ceramic-on-metal hip joint that reduces ten-fold the wear and tear on artificial joints.

As a result people should be able to get spare parts at an earlier age, when they are less disabled, and they could last up to 50 years, he said.

The professor added: ‘Hip have been used for nearly 50 years but nowadays people want to cycle, play tennis, even go skiing, so they have to last longer.’
He said a scaffolding transplant would cost only around &pound;1,000 a time. It was much more expensive to grow cells outside the body, and there was a higher infection risk.

Professor Eileen Ingham, deputy director of the Institute, said stem cells were not the answer to structural replacement of wornout bits of the body such as heart valves.

She said: ‘We are working with the NHS National Blood & Transplant Tissue Services to apply it to human donor valves. Once a patient has one, it should last a lifetime.’

Professor Christina Doyle, chief executive of Xeno Medical, predicted that in 20-30 years there would be techniques capable of regenerating human tissue off-the-shelf for use in operations.

She said: ‘It will be a case of the surgeon dialling up for spare parts to be delivered in a sterilised plastic bag.’

Source:Mail Online, 20th. Oct.’09

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Hot Antidote for Cool Climes

2D representation of CO2
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Recent research shows that the next ice age can be staved off if we act SO fast:-

………….
Conventional wisdom says that the build up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not good for the earth’s inhabitants. Carbon dioxide absorbs heat, passes it around, and raises the earth’s temperatures. The rising temperatures release more carbon dioxide, and the gas absorbs more heat, passes it around, and raises the temperatures further. We would want to avoid this chain reaction, unless we can control it like in a nuclear reactor. That is exactly what we might end up doing, according to new research published last month.

We do not like scorching temperatures, but mild heat may be preferable to intense cold. When the earth is in an ice age — a phenomenon frequent in its history — snow covers a substantial part of the globe, making agriculture impossible, except in some warm areas. Human beings just managed to scrape through the last ice age. We are in the middle of an interglacial period (period between two ice ages), and we do not know precisely when the next ice age will come.

As it now turns out now, higher carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are the best way to keep the ice age away. Says Gary Shaffer, scientist at Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen: “If we use the fossil fuel reserves wisely, we can modulate the carbon dioxide levels and keep the ice ages away for at least half a million years.”

Shaffer is not proposing a new idea but he has gathered enough data about it to crystal gaze with confidence. He has just finished a study on the earth’s climate for the next half a million years, using a new model he developed with his colleagues. The model points to one reassuring possibility. If we reduce fossil fuel use — compared to 1990s levels — globally by 20 per cent by 2020 and 60 per cent by 2050, we would have done enough to keep the temperature rise to one degree centigrade. And we would also have enough fossil fuel reserves to increase the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at some time in the future when the temperatures begin to drop.

Shaffer’s study is a tangential piece of good news at a time when everything regarding climate change seems to be gloomy. While all studies point to disaster, Shaffer says that we would be in reasonable shape if we act fast enough.

There was more direct good news recently. The journal Nature reported that forests have been soaking up carbon dioxide at levels much higher than previously thought. Recent studies in the Amazon forests suggest that increasing levels of carbon dioxide spur plant growth, but scientists were not sure whether this happens all over the world. Now Simon Lewis and his colleagues at the University of Leeds say that it happens in Africa as well. In fact, forests have absorbed around 18 per cent of the increase in carbon dioxide emissions.

These two studies are unrelated, but they together point to one fact: the earth can recover from a potentially disastrous climate change if we act quickly, and that plants should be an important part of our strategy to fight climate change. Just three months ago, climate scientist James Hansen of Columbia University and 10 other leading scientists argued in a paper in the Open Atmospheric Science Journal that carbon dioxide levels should be brought back to pre-industrial levels of 350 parts per million (ppm), from the current 385 ppm, by the end of the century if we want to avoid total ice melt in the earth. “Ice sheets are the issue that matters,” Hansen had said some time ago, “especially to countries like China and India that have a large population near the coast.”

Hansen and others also calculated what it takes to do this. Technologies are being developed (one in Columbia University itself) to take carbon dioxide from the air and put it back to the earth. Hansen calculated that it would take at least $10 trillion to remove 50 ppm of carbon dioxide. But the good news is that the scientists have also calculated that improved agriculture and forestry methods can remove at least this much carbon dioxide in 100 years.

The Nature paper shows that the forests could make a more significant contribution as they grow faster when there is more carbon dioxide in the air. “We were very lucky,” says Lewis. “There is now more reason to preserve our forests.”

Palaeo-climate studies unambiguously show that the earth warmed up or cooled down depending on the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. There was a time when the entire earth had frozen, and it was the release of carbon dioxide that slowly warmed it. There could be a day when snow conditions return, but the presence of more carbon dioxide in the air would ward off snow for longer periods. And when an ice age is still inevitable, as is bound to happen during certain periods owing to the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit, we could pump carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. “We should not use up our fossil fuel reserves completely,” says Shaffer. “We should save it for use when we need it.”

A scientific conference to be held in Copenhagen next week is likely to give us new guidelines on exactly how to go about it in this new light.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Even a Little Caffeine May Harm F-oetus

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Pregnant women who consume caffeine even about a cup of coffee daily are at higher risk of giving birth to an underweight baby, researchers said.

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The new findings published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) also linked any source of caffeine, including that from tea, cola, chocolate and some prescription drugs, to relatively slower foetal growth.

The findings are the latest in mounting evidence indicating the amount of caffeine a person consumes may directly impact one’s health, especially when pregnant.

In January, U.S. researchers found that pregnant women who drink two or more cups of coffee a day are at twice the risk of having a miscarriage as those women who avoid caffeine.

Babies born underweight are more likely to develop a range of health conditions when they grow older, including high blood pressure, diabetes and heart problems. Women who drank one to two cups of coffee daily, or between 100-199 milligrams, had a 20 percent increased risk of having a baby of low birth weight, the study found.

This was compared to women who consumed less than 100 milligrams daily. “Caffeine consumption during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of foetal growth restriction and this association continued throughout pregnancy,” Justin Konje at the University of Leicester in Britain and colleagues wrote.

“Sensible advice would be to reduce caffeine intake before conception and throughout pregnancy.” Konje and his team – which included researchers from the University of Leeds — looked at 2,645 women at an average age of 30 who were between 8 and 12 weeks pregnant.

The women reported an average caffeine consumption during pregnancy of 159 milligrams per day, lower than new recommended limits of 200 milligrams in Britain. The likelihood of having a low birth weight baby rose to 50% for women who consumed between 200 milligrams and 299 milligrams each day, about two to three cups of coffee.

The impact was about the same as from alcohol and the association with low birth weight was maintained throughout a woman’s pregnancy, the study found. Even small amounts may prove harmful but Konje said in a telephone interview the best advice was to limit caffeine consumption to below 100 milligrams a day. “We couldn’t say that there was a lower limit for which there is no effect,” he said. “My advice is if possible to reduce caffeine intake to a minimum. You have to be realistic because you can’t ask people to stop taking caffeine.”

Sources: The Times Of India

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Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)

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acute conjunctivitis Day 3
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Definition:
Conjunctivitis is inflammation or infection of the membrane lining the eyelids (conjunctiva).

Alternative Names
Inflammation – conjunctiva; Pink eye

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The conjunctiva is exposed to bacteria and other irritants. Tears help protect the conjunctiva by diluting bacteria and washing it away. Tears also contain enzymes and antibodies which kill bacteria.

There are many causes of conjunctivitis. Viruses are the most common cause. Other causes include bacteria, Chlamydia, fungus, and rarely, parasitic agents.

“Pink eye” refers to a viral infection of the conjunctiva. These infections are especially contagious among children. Handwashing is key to preventing the spread of the virus, which is similar to the type that cause the common cold.

Bacteria are an uncommon cause of conjunctivitis. Many physicians give a mild antibiotic eyedrop for pink eye to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis is also caused by allergies (allergic conjunctivitis), chemical exposure, and certain systemic (throughout the body) diseases.

Newborns can be infected by bacteria in the birth canal. This condition is called ophthalmia neonatorum, and it must be treated immediately to preserve eyesight. Use of contact lenses, particularly extended-wear lenses, can cause conjunctivitis.

Conjunctivitis occurs when the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and part of the eyeball becomes inflamed and red. This may be due to an allergy, infection, a foreign body or blocked tear duct. The redness appears because the small blood vessels in the conjunctiva react to it. If the infection is severe the conjunctiva may be swollen. The eye may then feel gritty and itchy, shed tears and have a yellow or white discharge.

Infection is often due to a seasonal bug — an adeno or influenza virus. It may be associated with a cold or sore throat. These infections are self-limiting. Cold or warm compresses applied to the eyes can be soothing. It does not really require any treatment with eye drops and clears up spontaneously in three or four days.

The discharge in bacterial conjunctivitis can be yellow and purulent (containing pus). This requires antibiotic eye drops. These are effective when applied every two or three hours. An eye ointment may be applied at night.

Infectious conjunctivitis (viral or bacterial) can spread rapidly within a classroom, home or community. Contrary to popular belief, just looking at an affected person does not cause the infection to spread. The virus or bacteria gets transferred from the infected person’s eyes on to table tops, books and other frequently used items. If an uninfected person touches a contaminated surface, and then his or her eyes, the infection is transferred. Wearing dark glasses reduces photophobia due to the infection and prevents people from touching and rubbing their own eyes.

Symptoms
*Increased tearing
*Eye pain
*Redness in the eyes
*Gritty feeling in the eyes
*Itching of the eye
*Blurred vision
*Sensitivity to light
*Crusts that form on the eyelid overnight

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Signs and tests
*Examination of eyes
*Swab of conjunctiva for analysis

Treatment
Treatment of conjunctivitis depends on the cause.

Allergic conjunctivitis may respond to treatment for underlying allergies, or it may disappear on its own when the allergen that caused it is removed. Cool compresses may be soothing for allergic conjunctivitis.

Antibiotic medication, usually eye drops, is effective for bacterial conjunctivitis. Viral conjunctivitis will disappear on its own. The discomfort of viral or bacterial conjunctivitis can be soothed by applying warm compresses (a clean cloth soaked in warm water) to closed eyes.

Some people apply drops of pure and fresh rose water and get good result.  cats-claw the Miracle Herb from the Rain Forest of Peru can cure conjunctivitis by putting drops of the tea in eyes several times over the course of two days. The juice of Amla mixed with Honey if taken twice daily will cure conjunctivitis and glaucoma.It reduces intraocular tention in a remarkable manner.

Ayurvedic  cure &  home remedies of  conjunctivitis

Homeopathic Remedies for Conjunctivitis

Expectations (prognosis)
The outcome is usually good with treatment.

Complications
Reinfection within a household or school may occur if preventive measures are not followed.

Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if symptoms persist longer than 3 or 4 days.

Prevention:-

If you develop conjunctivitis:

• Don’t touch your eyes. Don’t itch or scratch

Wash your hands often

• Use a clean towel which must be changed daily. Don’t share towels

• Change your pillow cases everyday

• Don’t share eye cosmetics or personal eye-care items (like mascara and kajal)

• Apply a compress to your eyes by soaking a clean cloth in water and applying it gently to your closed eyelids. Don’t touch both eyes with the same cloth. This reduces the risk of spreading red eye from one eye to the other

• Clean the crusts from the eyelids with a solution of 1 part of baby shampoo to 10 parts of warm water

• Stop wearing contact lenses until the infection completely clears up.

Children with viral conjunctivitis rapidly transmit the infection to their classmates. They should stay at home if infected and return to school only when the eyes no longer have a discharge. This may take around a week.

During the process of birth, a baby’s eyes can become contaminated by organisms present in the birth canal. An antibiotic ointment or drops are usually applied soon after birth to the infant’s eyes to prevent infection. In ancient civilisations, these infections were recognised and treated by applying a few drops of expressed breast milk to the baby’s eyes. Breast milk contains high concentrations of immunoglobulin which can protect against infection.

Sometimes, the tear ducts in babies are blocked. This occurs because either they are not yet fully developed or have been partially blocked by debris during the process of birth. This causes constant tearing of the affected eye and can result in a secondary infection. It usually clears up spontaneously by the age of one year.

All cases of conjunctivitis are not caused by infection. Allergy to substances like pollen, dust or chemicals can also cause the mucous lining of the eyes and airways to respond by releasing chemicals like histamine. This can result in itchy, red and watery eyes, a running nose and sneezing.

Non-steroidal anti allergy eye drops containing sodium chromoglycate are usually all that is needed to clear this. The eyes may respond faster to over-the-counter steroid eye drops but if the diagnosis is wrong, they can cause a flare up of the infection.

Chemicals like chlorine in swimming pools or detergents in soap and shampoo can cause a conjunctivitis-like response. Flushing the eye with clean water usually cures the problem within a day.

Dust particles, saw dust and other foreign bodies can be accidentally imbedded in the eye. An eyelash may also grow inwards. Both these cause constant irritation, redness and watering. If this occurs, you need to consult an ophthalmologist.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

:www.healthline.com

The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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