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Ailmemts & Remedies

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

OTHER  NAMES: Acute cystitis or Bladder infection,

Definition:
A urinary tract infection (UTI), is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.(kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.) Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). …..CLICK & SEE… :Female urinary system .……. Male urinary system 

Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than men are. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to kidneys.

CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.

SIGN  &  SYMPTOMS:   
Urinary tract infections don’t always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:

*A strong, persistent urge to urinate
*A burning sensation when urinating
*Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
*Urine that appears cloudy
*Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
*Strong-smelling urine
*Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone

UTIs may be overlooked or mistaken for other conditions in older adults.

Types of urinary tract infection:

Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.

These symptoms may vary from mild to severe and in healthy persons last an average of six days.

KIDNEYS (acute pyelonephritis):...CLICK & SEE
*Upper back and side (flank) pain
*High fever
*Shaking and chills
*Nausea
*Vomiting

BLADDER (cystitis): ….CLICK & SEE
*Pelvic pressure
*Lower abdomen discomfort (Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present.)
*Frequent, painful urination
*Blood in urine (Rarely the urine may appear bloody  or contain visible pus in the urine.)

URETHRA (urethritis): …….CLICK & SEE
:Burning with urination
:Discharge

Children:
In young children, the only symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may be a fever. Because of the lack of more obvious symptoms, when females under the age of two or uncircumcised males less than a year exhibit a fever, a culture of the urine is recommended by many medical associations. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur.

Elderly:
Urinary tract symptoms are frequently lacking in the elderly. The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that many elderly people have preexisting incontinence or dementia.

It is reasonable to obtain a urine culture in those with signs of systemic infection that may be unable to report urinary symptoms, such as when advanced dementia is present. Systemic signs of infection include a fever or increase in temperature of more than 1.1 °C (2.0 °F) from usual, chills, and an increase white blood cell count.

CAUSES:    
Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.

The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.

E. coli is the cause of 80–85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. Rarely they may be due to viral or fungal infections. Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (mostly related to urinary catheterization) involve a much broader range of pathogens including: E. coli (27%), Klebsiella (11%), Pseudomonas (11%), the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (9%), and Enterococcus (7%) among others. Urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections. Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium can infect the urethra but not the bladder. These infections are usually classified as a urethritis rather than urinary tract infection

Sex:
In young sexually active women, sexual activity is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections, with the risk of infection related to the frequency of sex. The term “honeymoon cystitis” has been applied to this phenomenon of frequent UTIs during early marriage. In post-menopausal women, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing a UTI. Spermicide use, independent of sexual frequency, increases the risk of UTIs. Diaphragm use is also associated. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

Women are more prone to UTIs than men because, in females, the urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. As a woman’s estrogen levels decrease with menopause, her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Additionally, vaginal atrophy that can sometimes occur after menopause is associated with recurrent urinary tract infections.

Chronic prostatitis may cause recurrent urinary tract infections in males. Risk of infections increases as males age. While bacteria is commonly present in the urine of older males this does not appear to affect the risk of urinary tract infections.

Urinary catheters:
Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three to six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in decreasing symptomatic infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter.

Male scuba divers utilizing condom catheters or the female divers utilizing external catching device for their dry suits are also susceptible to urinary tract infections.

Others:
A predisposition for bladder infections may run in families. Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. Complicating factors are rather vague and include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.

Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, and in part because of voiding dysfunction. It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population.

Pathogenesis:
The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body’s immune response.

RISK FACTORS  &  COMPLICATIONS:
*Urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.

*Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.

*Catheter use. People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.

*A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.
When treated promptly and properly, lower urinary tract infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences.

Complications of a UTI are as follows::

*Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience three or more UTIs.
*Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
*Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
*Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
*Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up to urinary tract to the kidneys.

DIAGNOSIS:
In straightforward cases, a diagnosis may be made and treatment given based on symptoms alone without further laboratory confirmation. In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase. Another test, urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per mL of a typical urinary tract organism. Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. However, women with negative cultures may still improve with antibiotic treatment. As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly.

Classification:
A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated. Otherwise if a woman is healthy and premenopausal it is considered uncomplicated. In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection.

Children:
To make the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection in children, a positive urinary culture is required. Contamination poses a frequent challenge depending on the method of collection used, thus a cutoff of 105 CFU/mL is used for a “clean-catch” mid stream sample, 104 CFU/mL is used for catheter-obtained specimens, and 102 CFU/mL is used for suprapubic aspirations (a sample drawn directly from the bladder with a needle). The use of “urine bags” to collect samples is discouraged by the World Health Organization due to the high rate of contamination when cultured, and catheterization is preferred in those not toilet trained. Some, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (watching a person’s urethra and urinary bladder with real time x-rays while they urinate) in all children less than two years old who have had a urinary tract infection. However, because there is a lack of effective treatment if problems are found, others such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence only recommends routine imaging in those less than six months old or who have unusual findings.

Differential diagnosis:
In women with cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) or vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and in young men with UTI symptoms, a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause. These infections are typically classified as a urethritis rather than a urinary tract infection. Vaginitis may also be due to a yeast infection. Interstitial cystitis (chronic pain in the bladder) may be considered for people who experience multiple episodes of UTI symptoms but urine cultures remain negative and not improved with antibiotics. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) may also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins. Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide with rates of 2 to 40%. Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, it may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others.

TREATMENTS;
Medications:
For those with recurrent infections, taking a short course of antibiotics when each infection occurs is associated with the lowest antibiotic use. A prolonged course of daily antibiotics is also effective. Medications frequently used include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Methenamine is another agent used for this purpose as in the bladder where the acidity is low it produces formaldehyde to which resistance does not develop. Some recommend against prolonged use due to concerns of antibiotic resistance.

In cases where infections are related to intercourse, taking antibiotics afterwards may be useful. In post-menopausal women, topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence. As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. Antibiotics following short term urinary catheterization decreases the subsequent risk of a bladder infection. A number of vaccines are in development as of 2011.

Children:
The evidence that preventative antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor. However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, resulting in less than a third of a percent (0.33%) of chronic kidney disease in adults. Whether routine circumcisions prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011.

Alternative medicine:
Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections. A Cochrane review concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small. Long-term tolerance is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%. Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication. As of 2011, intravaginal probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial.

Lifestyle and home remedies:

Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your discomfort until antibiotics treat the infection.
The following tips should be followed:

*Drink plenty of water. Water helps to dilute your urine and flush out bacteria.

*Avoid drinks that may irritate the bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices or caffeine until your infection has cleared. They can irritate the bladder and tend to aggravate frequent or urgent need to urinate.

*Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
PREVENTIONS:
The following steps can be taken to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections:

*Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.

*Drink cranberry juice. Although studies are not conclusive that cranberry juice prevents UTIs, it is likely not harmful.

*Wash  or  Wipe properly   from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.

*Empty the bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.

*Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.

*Change the birth control method. Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_tract_infection
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract-infection/

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News on Health & Science

If You’re in Pain, Think UTI

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Pain while passing urine, a desire to urinate every few minutes, an inability to pass urine despite the urge, high-coloured, cloudy urine, abdominal pain, high fever, shivering and vomiting — a few or all of these are symptoms of an infection somewhere along the urinary tract. In the elderly, the only symptom may be a change in mental status. In men, the pain may be felt in the rectal area. In children, after a period of dryness, bedwetting may recur. In babies, the temperature can fall instead of rise, and there may be jaundice. Almost 25 per cent of visits to a physician is due to this very common infection.
CLICK & SEE
Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects all age groups and both sexes. It is much more common in women, because of the shorter urethra, its proximity to the anus, pregnancy (when the uterus obstructs the free flow of urine) and minor trauma during sexual intercourse. Thirty five per cent of women have one episode of UTI before the age of 30. Men tend to develop UTI if their prostrate gland is enlarged as this obstructs the flow of urine. In both sexes kidney stones, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, diabetes or lack of immunity (HIV, cancer medication) can increase susceptibility to infection. Pregnant women can develop asymptomatic UTI with bacteria detected in their urine on routine examination. This condition, called “asymptomatic bactinuria” of pregnancy, needs to be treated.
...CLICK & SEE
Physicians suspect that UTI exists based on the symptoms. A routine urine examination shows abnormalities like pus cells or blood in the urine. A culture can be done to determine the organism responsible so that the appropriate antibiotic can be administered.

Untreated patients of UTI can sometimes recover spontaneously without treatment in a few months. But the infection can also enter the blood stream, causing potentially fatal septicaemia. The kidneys may become scarred, too. This leads to high blood pressure and kidney failure. During pregnancy, recurrent or chronic UTI or asymptomatic UTI compromises the placental blood supply. This affects the baby’s nutrition, leading to low birth weight and sometimes causing the mother to go into premature labour.

There are several regimens for treating UTI. Depending on the organism and antibiotic, in adult women a three-day course is usually sufficient for mild infection. In most cases and in the case of men, however, a 7-10 or 14-day course is required. Oral medication is usually sufficient. If the infection has affected the kidney, hospitalisation and intravenous medication may be required. It is important to follow the doctor’s instructions and complete the course of antibiotics even if you are symptomatically better. In women, if the symptoms do not respond and there is also white discharge, there may be an underlying pelvic infection. In men, non-responsiveness to treatment may be due to unrecognised prostatitis.

One of the ways to prevent UTI is to drink plenty of water. The urine becomes dilute and the bladder gets flushed regularly. An adult needs around 2.5 litres of water a day. In hot, humid climates and in people who exercise vigorously the requirement may go up to 4-6 litres a day. Also, drink a glass of water before going to bed. Empty the bladder before and after intercourse. Drink a glass of water after intercourse.

A few studies have shown that cranberry juice (available in India, Hindi name karaunda) and blueberry juice (not available) helps reduce the frequency and duration of UTI. This is because the juice contains vitamin C which acidifies the urine. It also contains natural chemicals that make the bladder wall slippery and prevent bacteria from sticking to it and initiating an infection. Other citrus juices and tablets of vitamin C are effective but not as efficient. A tablespoon of home-made curd taken on an empty stomach first thing in the morning naturally repopulates the intestines with “good lactobacillus”. This decreases the likelihood of the growth of disease-causing bacteria in the rectum, from where they can enter the urethra.

The pelvic muscles become lax after childbirth. This increases the possibility of the bladder and uterus descending downwards while straining. “Accidents” with leakage of urine and urgency can also occur.

All these increase the chances of infection. Keegles exercises should be done regularly soon after childbirth. Also while passing urine, consciously stop and start. This tones the pelvic muscles.

Women tend to lean forward while urinating. This position is inefficient as it increases the angle between the bladder and the urethra, creating an obstruction to the flow of urine. Women should consciously lean backwards. Also, when the area is being washed after urination or passing motion, wash from front to back. This decreases the likelihood of contamination of the urethra with rectal bacteria

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Bladder stones

Alternative Names :Stones – bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi

Definition:
Bladder stones are usually small masses of minerals that form in your bladder. Bladder stones develop when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated, causing minerals in your urine to crystallize. Concentrated, stagnant urine is often the result of not being able to completely empty your bladder. This may be due to an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or recurring urinary tract infections.

..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Bladder stones are hard buildups of minerals that form in the urinary bladder. In most cases, these stones are made up of calcium. Stones are usually between 0.2cm and 2cm, but may be smaller or much larger.

Symptoms:

Symptoms occur when the stone irritates the lining of the bladder or obstructs the flow of urine from the bladder. Symptoms can include:

•Abdominal pain, pressure
•Abnormally colored or dark-colored urine
•Blood in the urine
•Difficulty urinating
•Frequent urge to urinate
•Inability to urinate except in certain positions
•Interruption of the urine stream
•Pain, discomfort in the penis
•Urinary tract infection
?Dysuria (painful urination)
?Fever
?Urinary urgency
Incontinence may also be associated with bladder stones.


Causes:

Bladder stones generally begin when your bladder doesn’t empty completely. The urine that’s left in your bladder can form crystals that eventually become bladder stones. In most cases, an underlying condition affects your bladder’s ability to empty completely.


The most common conditions that cause bladder stones include:

*Prostate gland enlargement. An enlarged prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can be a cause of bladder stones in men. As the prostate enlarges, it can compress the urethra and interrupt urine flow, causing urine to remain in your bladder.

*Damaged nerves (neurogenic bladder). Normally, nerves carry messages from your brain to your bladder muscles, directing your bladder muscles to tighten or release. If these nerves are damaged — from a stroke, spinal cord injury or other health problem — your bladder may not empty completely.

*Weakened bladder wall. Bladder diverticula are weakened areas in the bladder wall that bulge outward in pouches, and allow urine to collect.
Other conditions that can cause bladder stones include:

*Inflammation.
Bladder stones can develop if your bladder becomes inflamed. Urinary tract infections and radiation therapy to your pelvic area can both cause bladder inflammation.

*Medical devices.
Occasionally, catheters — slender tubes inserted through the urethra to help urine drain from your bladder — can cause bladder stones. So can objects that accidentally migrate to your bladder, such as a contraceptive device or stent. Mineral crystals, which later become stones, tend to form on the surface of these devices.

*Kidney stones. Stones that form in your kidneys are not the same as bladder stones. They develop in different ways and often for different reasons. But small kidney stones occasionally travel down the ureters into your bladder and if not expelled, can grow into bladder stones.

Diagnosis:
The health care provider will perform a physical exam.  He will likely feel your lower abdomen to see if your bladder is distended and, in some cases, perform a rectal exam to determine whether your prostate is enlarged. You may also discuss any urinary signs or symptoms that you’ve been having.

Tests used to make a diagnosis of bladder stones may include:

*Analysis of your urine (urinalysis). A sample of your urine may be collected and examined for microscopic amounts of blood, bacteria and crystallized minerals. A urinalysis is also helpful for determining whether you have a urinary tract infection, which can cause or be the result of bladder stones.

*Spiral computerized tomography (CT) scan.
A conventional CT scan combines multiple X-rays with computer technology to create cross-sectional images of your body rather than the overlapping images produced by regular X-rays. A spiral CT speeds up this process, scanning more quickly and with greater definition of internal structures. Spiral CTs can detect even very small stones and are considered one of the most sensitive tests for identifying all types of bladder stones.

*Ultrasound. An ultrasound, which bounces sound waves off organs and structures in your body to create pictures, can help your doctor detect bladder stones.

*X-ray. An X-ray of your kidneys, ureters and bladder helps your doctor determine whether stones are present in your urinary system. This is an inexpensive and easy test to obtain, but some types of stones aren’t visible on conventional X-rays.

*Special imaging of your urinary tract (intravenous pyelogram)
. An intravenous pyelogram is a test that uses a contrast material to highlight organs in your urinary tract. The material is injected into a vein in your arm and flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining each of these organs. X-ray pictures are taken at specific time points during the procedure to check for stones. More recently, helical CT scans are generally done instead of an intravenous pyelogram.

Treatment:
Sometimes cystoscopy is performed to examine the inside of the bladder. During this process a fibre-optic camera, called a cystoscope, is inserted into the bladder via the urethra. Any bladder stones can usually be broken up during this procedure, and then washed out.

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Stones can also be broken up into pieces small enough to allow them to pass out in the urine using a special type of ultrasound called lithotripsy. If the stones are too large to be removed by these methods, surgical removal becomes necessary.

Since bladder stones can often recur, it’s important to reduce the chances of this happening. This means drinking plenty of fluid every day, and ensuring that any underlying medical conditions, such as gout, are treated appropriately.

Alternative medicine:
For centuries, some people have tried to use herbs to treat and prevent stones that form in the kidneys and bladder. Traditional herbs for bladder stones include gravel root (also called kidney root, queen of the meadow and Joe Pye), stone root (also called citronella and colinsonia) and hydrangea (wild or mountain hydrangea).

These herbs are used alone or in various combinations and drunk as tea or taken in tincture form. Some herbal formulas add marshmallow (the plant, not the confection), which is said to coat the fragments so that they can be eliminated painlessly. No studies, however, have confirmed that herbs can break up bladder stones, which are extremely hard and usually require a laser, ultrasound or other procedure for removal.

For prevention, parsley leaf is reported to have a diuretic effect and may be helpful for preventing bladder stones.

You may click tro see :ABC Homeopathic Forum For Urine Bladder Stone

Always check with yourhealth care provider before taking any alternative medicine therapy to be sure it’s safe, and that it won’t adversely interact with other medications you’re taking.


Prognosis:

Most bladder stones are expelled or can be removed without permanent damage to the bladder. They may come back if the cause is not corrected.

If the stones are left untreated, they may cause repeated urinary tract infections or permanent damage to the bladder or kidneys.

Possible Complications:

•Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy
•Bladder cancer in severe, long-term cases
•Chronic bladder dysfunction (incontinence or urinary retention)
•Obstruction of the urethra
•Recurrence of stones
•Reflux nephropathy
•Urinary tract infection

Prevention:

Bladder stones usually result from an underlying condition that’s hard to prevent, but you can decrease your chance of developing bladder stones by following these tips:

*Ask about unusual urinary symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment of an enlarged prostate or another urological condition may reduce your risk of developing bladder stones.

*Drink plenty of fluids. Drinking more fluids, especially water, may help prevent bladder stones because fluids dilute the concentration of minerals in your bladder. How much water you should drink depends on your age, size, health and level of activity. Ask your doctor what’s an appropriate amount of fluid for you.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001275.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bladder1.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bladder-stones/DS00904
http://modernmedicalguide.com/bladder-stones/
http://health.stateuniversity.com/pages/447/Cystoscopy.html

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Health Alert

How To Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

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It’s embarrassing. It’s annoying. It’s exasperating. And it’s controllable. We’re talking about the distressing inconvenience of the side effects associated with prostate problems. This often means midnight treks to the bathroom to pee, pain when you start and end urination and dribbling when you’re done. It can be frustrating when nothing you do seems to help, no matter how careful you try to be.

The key to controlling these symptoms is understanding what causes them, so you can learn how to cope and prevent them in the future.

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The walnut-sized prostate gland is situated at the base of the bladder. The urethra runs from the bladder through the prostate and through the penis. As the prostate gets bigger, it constricts the flow of fluid through the urethra, contributing to several unpleasant and annoying symptoms:

*A need to urinate frequently during the night
*Urinating more often during the day
*Urinary urgency—a strong and sudden urge to pee
*Slow-to-start urine stream
*Lack of force in the urinary stream
*A slight stinging at the beginning and end of urination
*Urine “dribbling” some time after urination ends
*The sensation that the bladder hasn’t been emptied entirely
*The need to urinate again only a few minutes later
For the most part, these symptoms by themselves don’t require medical attention. They can often be controlled by certain urination management techniques that you can practice on your own. If the symptoms are particularly bothersome to you, consult a healthcare professional for help. In particular, you should seek medical care if you experience these symptoms:

*Inability to urinate
*Painful urination
*Blood in the urine
*Discharges from the penis other than urine
*Continuous or severe urinary incontinence
More often than not, using self-help management techniques and natural supplements such as saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, lycopene, red clover and nettle can help manage your prostate health. It’s important to remember that frequent urination, stinging and dribbling are often not a threat to your health or your life, although they can be awkward and embarrassing.

You may click to see :Prostrate Problems Blog

Non-Cancerous Prostate Problems:-

The following are some of the most common non-cancerous prostate problems, their symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This problem occurs when the prostate gets enlarged. The prostate then blocks the urethra making it difficult to urinate. It causes a person to have a frequent urge to urinate and may cause urine to dribble. You need to see a doctor who will then conduct a rectal examination to diagnose the problem.

If your condition is not causing any problems, the doctor may advise annual checkups only. Treatment will be prescribed only if your situation gets worse later on. There are medications that can cause you prostate to shrink or can relax the muscles near the prostate. However, these medicines can cause side effects such as sexual problems, headaches, dizziness, or fatigue.

Surgery is usually advised only when the medications are not effective. Radio waves, Microwaves, and Lasers are used to treat BPH-related problems.

2. Acute Prostatitis

This condition is caused due to a bacterial infection of the prostate. It causes fever, chills, pain in the lower back, pain between legs, or pain while urinating. A host of medications are available to treat Prostatitis, but hey will be prescribed by your doctor. Do not take over the counter drugs.

3. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

This is a chronic condition caused by a bacterial infection. You may need to take antibiotics for a long time for the situation to improve. Even then, this infection may recur again and a recurrence is usually quite difficult to treat.

4. Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

This condition is also known as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). It causes pain in the lower back, at the tip of the penis, or between the legs. You may also have pain during sex or may need to urinate frequently. This situation is also hard to treat and may require more than one form of treatment.

Reources :

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Diagnonistic Test

Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)

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Definition:
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder that uses iodinated contrast material injected into veins.

You may click to see the pictures    :

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.

The dye is injected through an IV (intravenous) line. Since your body clears away the dye by moving all of it into your urine, the organs that make and hold urine show up very brightly on the x-rays. This test is useful for finding kidney stones, tumors, or blockages in the urinary tract.

Why it is done:
An intravenous pyelogram examination helps the physician assess abnormalities in the urinary system, as well as how quickly and efficiently the patient’s system is able to handle waste.

The exam is used to help diagnose symptoms such as blood in the urine or pain in the side or lower back.

The IVP exam can enable the radiologist to detect problems within the urinary tract resulting from:

*kidney stones
*enlarged prostate
*tumors in the kidney, ureters or urinary bladder.

How should you prepare for the test
Your doctor will give you detailed instructions on how to prepare for your IVP study.

You will likely be instructed not to eat or drink after midnight on the night before your exam. You may also be asked to take a mild laxative (in either pill or liquid form) the evening before the procedure.

You should inform your physician of any medications you are taking and if you have any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Also inform your doctor about recent illnesses or other medical conditions.

On the day before your test, you should drink plenty of fluids. This will help prepare your kidneys for the job of clearing out the dye the next day.

Your doctor will instruct you to eat a special diet the night before the test, so that you have less solid stool in your large intestine. (Large amounts of stool in the intestine can make it harder to interpret your x-rays.) Typical instructions might include using a laxative in the afternoon before your test and limiting your dinner the night before to clear liquids such as broth and juice.

You may be asked to remove some or all of your clothes and to wear a gown during the exam. You may also be asked to remove jewelry, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images.

Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to radiation. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.

What does the equipment look like?


The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a radiographic table, an x-ray tube and a television-like monitor that is located in the examining room or in a nearby room. When used for viewing images in real time (called fluoroscopy), the image intensifier (which converts x-rays into a video image) is suspended over a table on which the patient lies. When used for taking still pictures, the image is captured either electronically or on film.

How does the procedure work?
X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special digital image recording plate.

Fluoroscopy uses a continuous x-ray beam to create a sequence of images that are projected onto a fluorescent screen, or television-like monitor. When used with a contrast material, which clearly defines the area being examined by making it appear bright white, this special x-ray technique makes it possible for the physician to view internal organs in motion. Still images are also captured and stored either on film or electronically on a computer.

In the IVP exam, an iodine-containing contrast material is injected through a vein in the arm collects in the kidneys, ureters and bladder, giving these areas a bright white and sharply defined appearance on the x-ray images.

X-ray images are maintained as hard film copy (much like a photographic negative) or, more likely, as a digital image that is stored electronically. These stored images are easily accessible and are sometimes compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management.

How is the procedure performed?


This examination is usually done on an outpatient basis.

The patient is positioned on the table and still x-ray images are taken. The contrast material is then injected, usually in a vein in the patient’s arm, followed by additional still images.

You must hold very still and may be asked to keep from breathing for a few seconds while the x-ray picture is taken to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. The technologist will walk behind a wall or into the next room to activate the x-ray machine.

As the contrast material is processed by the kidneys a series of images is taken to determine the actual size of the kidneys and to capture the urinary tract in action as it begins to empty. The technologist may apply a compression band around the body to better visualize the urinary structures leading from the kidney.

When the examination is complete, you will be asked to wait until the radiologist determines that all the necessary images have been obtained.

An IVP study is usually completed within an hour. However, because some kidneys empty at a slower rate the exam may last up to four hours.

How you feel:
The IVP is usually a relatively comfortable procedure.

You will feel a minor sting as the contrast material is injected into your arm through a small needle. Some patients experience a flush of warmth, a mild itching sensation and a metallic taste in their mouth as it begins to circulate throughout their body. These common side effects usually disappear within a minute or two and are harmless. Rarely, some patients will experience an allergic reaction. Itching that persists or is accompanied by hives, can be easily treated with medication. In very rare cases, a patient may become short of breath or experience swelling in the throat or other parts of the body. These can be indications of a more serious reaction to the contrast material that should be treated promptly. Tell the radiologist immediately if you experience these symptoms.

During the imaging process, you may be asked to turn from side to side and to hold several different positions to enable the radiologist to capture views from several angles. Near the end of the exam, you may be asked to empty your bladder so that an additional x-ray can be taken of your urinary bladder after it empties.

The contrast material used for IVP studies will not discolor your urine or cause any discomfort when you urinate. If you experience such symptoms after your IVP exam, you should let your doctor know immediately.

Who interprets the results and how to get it
A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will discuss the results with you.

What are the benefits vs. risks?
Benefits:-
*Imaging of the urinary tract with IVP is a minimally invasive procedure.
*IVP images provide valuable, detailed information to assist physicians in diagnosing and treating urinary tract conditions from kidney stones to cancer.
*An IVP can often provide enough information about kidney stones and obstructions to direct treatment with medication and avoid more invasive surgical procedures.
*No radiation remains in a patient’s body after an x-ray examination.
X-rays usually have no side effects in the diagnostic range.


Risks
:-

*The dye used in the test can affect your kidneys, and sometimes they do not work as well after exposure to this dye. This effect is almost always temporary, but some people can have permanent damage. There is also a small chance of having an allergic reaction to the x-ray dye used in the test.

*There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk.
*The effective radiation dose from this procedure is about 1.6 mSv, which is about the same as the average person receives from background radiation in six months. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose.
*Contrast materials used in IVP studies can cause adverse allergic reactions in some people, sometimes requiring medical treatment.
*Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.

A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure
Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection councils continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals.

State-of-the-art x-ray systems have tightly controlled x-ray beams with significant filtration and dose control methods to minimize stray or scatter radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient’s body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure.

What are the limitations of IVP studies?
An IVP shows details of the inside of the urinary tract including the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add valuable information about the functioning tissue of the kidneys and surrounding structures nearby the kidneys, ureters and bladder.

IVP studies are not usually indicated for pregnant women.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/intravenous-pyelogram.shtml
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=ivp

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