Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

OTHER  NAMES: Acute cystitis or Bladder infection,

Definition:
A urinary tract infection (UTI), is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.(kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.) Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). …..CLICK & SEE… :Female urinary system .……. Male urinary system 

Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than men are. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to kidneys.

CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.

SIGN  &  SYMPTOMS:   
Urinary tract infections don’t always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:

*A strong, persistent urge to urinate
*A burning sensation when urinating
*Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
*Urine that appears cloudy
*Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
*Strong-smelling urine
*Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone

UTIs may be overlooked or mistaken for other conditions in older adults.

Types of urinary tract infection:

Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.

These symptoms may vary from mild to severe and in healthy persons last an average of six days.

KIDNEYS (acute pyelonephritis):...CLICK & SEE
*Upper back and side (flank) pain
*High fever
*Shaking and chills
*Nausea
*Vomiting

BLADDER (cystitis): ….CLICK & SEE
*Pelvic pressure
*Lower abdomen discomfort (Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present.)
*Frequent, painful urination
*Blood in urine (Rarely the urine may appear bloody  or contain visible pus in the urine.)

URETHRA (urethritis): …….CLICK & SEE
:Burning with urination
:Discharge

Children:
In young children, the only symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may be a fever. Because of the lack of more obvious symptoms, when females under the age of two or uncircumcised males less than a year exhibit a fever, a culture of the urine is recommended by many medical associations. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur.

Elderly:
Urinary tract symptoms are frequently lacking in the elderly. The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that many elderly people have preexisting incontinence or dementia.

It is reasonable to obtain a urine culture in those with signs of systemic infection that may be unable to report urinary symptoms, such as when advanced dementia is present. Systemic signs of infection include a fever or increase in temperature of more than 1.1 °C (2.0 °F) from usual, chills, and an increase white blood cell count.

CAUSES:    
Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.

The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.

E. coli is the cause of 80–85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. Rarely they may be due to viral or fungal infections. Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (mostly related to urinary catheterization) involve a much broader range of pathogens including: E. coli (27%), Klebsiella (11%), Pseudomonas (11%), the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (9%), and Enterococcus (7%) among others. Urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections. Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium can infect the urethra but not the bladder. These infections are usually classified as a urethritis rather than urinary tract infection

Sex:
In young sexually active women, sexual activity is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections, with the risk of infection related to the frequency of sex. The term “honeymoon cystitis” has been applied to this phenomenon of frequent UTIs during early marriage. In post-menopausal women, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing a UTI. Spermicide use, independent of sexual frequency, increases the risk of UTIs. Diaphragm use is also associated. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

Women are more prone to UTIs than men because, in females, the urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. As a woman’s estrogen levels decrease with menopause, her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Additionally, vaginal atrophy that can sometimes occur after menopause is associated with recurrent urinary tract infections.

Chronic prostatitis may cause recurrent urinary tract infections in males. Risk of infections increases as males age. While bacteria is commonly present in the urine of older males this does not appear to affect the risk of urinary tract infections.

Urinary catheters:
Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three to six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in decreasing symptomatic infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter.

Male scuba divers utilizing condom catheters or the female divers utilizing external catching device for their dry suits are also susceptible to urinary tract infections.

Others:
A predisposition for bladder infections may run in families. Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. Complicating factors are rather vague and include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.

Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, and in part because of voiding dysfunction. It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population.

Pathogenesis:
The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body’s immune response.

RISK FACTORS  &  COMPLICATIONS:
*Urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.

*Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.

*Catheter use. People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.

*A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.
When treated promptly and properly, lower urinary tract infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences.

Complications of a UTI are as follows::

*Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience three or more UTIs.
*Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
*Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
*Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
*Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up to urinary tract to the kidneys.

DIAGNOSIS:
In straightforward cases, a diagnosis may be made and treatment given based on symptoms alone without further laboratory confirmation. In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase. Another test, urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per mL of a typical urinary tract organism. Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. However, women with negative cultures may still improve with antibiotic treatment. As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly.

Classification:
A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated. Otherwise if a woman is healthy and premenopausal it is considered uncomplicated. In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection.

Children:
To make the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection in children, a positive urinary culture is required. Contamination poses a frequent challenge depending on the method of collection used, thus a cutoff of 105 CFU/mL is used for a “clean-catch” mid stream sample, 104 CFU/mL is used for catheter-obtained specimens, and 102 CFU/mL is used for suprapubic aspirations (a sample drawn directly from the bladder with a needle). The use of “urine bags” to collect samples is discouraged by the World Health Organization due to the high rate of contamination when cultured, and catheterization is preferred in those not toilet trained. Some, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (watching a person’s urethra and urinary bladder with real time x-rays while they urinate) in all children less than two years old who have had a urinary tract infection. However, because there is a lack of effective treatment if problems are found, others such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence only recommends routine imaging in those less than six months old or who have unusual findings.

Differential diagnosis:
In women with cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) or vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and in young men with UTI symptoms, a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause. These infections are typically classified as a urethritis rather than a urinary tract infection. Vaginitis may also be due to a yeast infection. Interstitial cystitis (chronic pain in the bladder) may be considered for people who experience multiple episodes of UTI symptoms but urine cultures remain negative and not improved with antibiotics. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) may also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins. Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide with rates of 2 to 40%. Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, it may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others.

TREATMENTS;
Medications:
For those with recurrent infections, taking a short course of antibiotics when each infection occurs is associated with the lowest antibiotic use. A prolonged course of daily antibiotics is also effective. Medications frequently used include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Methenamine is another agent used for this purpose as in the bladder where the acidity is low it produces formaldehyde to which resistance does not develop. Some recommend against prolonged use due to concerns of antibiotic resistance.

In cases where infections are related to intercourse, taking antibiotics afterwards may be useful. In post-menopausal women, topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence. As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. Antibiotics following short term urinary catheterization decreases the subsequent risk of a bladder infection. A number of vaccines are in development as of 2011.

Children:
The evidence that preventative antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor. However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, resulting in less than a third of a percent (0.33%) of chronic kidney disease in adults. Whether routine circumcisions prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011.

Alternative medicine:
Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections. A Cochrane review concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small. Long-term tolerance is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%. Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication. As of 2011, intravaginal probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial.

Lifestyle and home remedies:

Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your discomfort until antibiotics treat the infection.
The following tips should be followed:

*Drink plenty of water. Water helps to dilute your urine and flush out bacteria.

*Avoid drinks that may irritate the bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices or caffeine until your infection has cleared. They can irritate the bladder and tend to aggravate frequent or urgent need to urinate.

*Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
PREVENTIONS:
The following steps can be taken to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections:

*Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.

*Drink cranberry juice. Although studies are not conclusive that cranberry juice prevents UTIs, it is likely not harmful.

*Wash  or  Wipe properly   from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.

*Empty the bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.

*Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.

*Change the birth control method. Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_tract_infection
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract-infection/

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Healthy Tips

Some Health Advices

No time to exercise :
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Many peaple say that they donot have any time to exercise but everyone (irrespective of age) should do some form of exercise regularly to mainten good health and less sufferings from ailments.There is a saying “people who donot have time to exercise will have much more time to suffer from illness”

Walking or skiping are very good exercises. There are several innovative ways to skip — using one leg, two legs, alternating legs. That makes in interesting.

Continuous stair climbing for 15 minutes, up and down, not 15 times but 15 minutes. One thing one must do to wear good supportive footwear for these activities. You also need to stretch before and after.

Girl aged 16 years has not yet started getting her periods:
——————————————————————————–

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Usually, if the height, weight and other physical characteristics (figure) are normal, you can wait until the age of 18 years to see if she matures. If you are worried, you can do an endocrinology work up and a scan of the pelvic organs. If there is any specific defect, an endocrinologist will be able to treat it.

Cat bites or scratches:
——————————-

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Cat bites are as dangerous as dog bites because cats can also transmit rabies. If you get bitten by an animal, clean the wound well with soap and water. You need to take a tetanus booster, and anti rabies injections. You need the post exposure schedule, which consists of five injections. The newer vaccines do not hurt, are given in the upper arm (deltoid) and not around the navel or in the buttock. They are available in private clinics, pharmacies and hospitals. You do not have to go to a government hospital.

Back ache:
—————–

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Sometimes if the bed or mattress is not ideal — too soft, too hard, lumpy — this can happen. Try sleeping on a mat on the floor for a few days. If this does not help then you need to consult a doctor to evaluate your spine.

To Prevent UTI:
—————………

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Women tend to develop urinary tract infection (UTI) more frequently than men. The problem is anatomical. The urethra is shorter and has only a single valve. It is situated close to the anal opening where there are a lot of potentially infective bacteria. A few preventive measures will help: drink 3-4 litres of water a day, empty your bladder before and after intercourse and lean backwards while passing urine to reduce the angulation between urethra and bladder.
Click to see the pic

Period pain:
————

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You need to consult a gynaecologist and get an ultrasound scan of the pelvis done. If everything is normal, you just need a painkiller like mefenemic acid on the days that you have pain. If there is anything wrong, the gynaecologist will be able to advice you.

If there are no abnormalities, pain during periods will reduce with regular exercise.

Resources: The Telegraph,(Kolkata, India)

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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Epispadias

Definition:
An epispadias is a rare type of malformation of the penis in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect (the dorsum) of the penis. It can also develop in females when the urethra develops too far anteriorly. It occurs in around 1 in 120,000 male and 1 in 500,000 female births.

An epispadia occurs when the urethra opening is abnormally placed. In a male infant with epispadias, the urethra will be generally open on the top or side of the penis.

Click to see the picture…>…...(01).…..(2).…..(1)

Boys will suffer from a short, wide penis and widened pubic bone. In a female infant with epispadias, the urethra will generally be located between the clitoris and the labia or in the abdominal area. Girls will suffer from a widened pubic bone and an abnormal clitoris and labia. In both males and females, urine will flow into the kidney and urinary tract infections are common. It is also common for the child to have urinary incontinence, kidney damage and often infertility issues as an adult.

A doctor will perform a series of tests to diagnose epispadias, which may include blood tests, x-rays and ultrasounds. Treatment involves surgery to help with urine control and appearance.

It is also called bladder exstrophy

Symptoms:

In males:
*Abnormal opening from the joint between the pubic bones to the area above the tip of the penis
*Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy)
*Short, widened penis with an abnormal curvature
*Urinary tract infections
*Widened pubic bone

In females:……..Picture
*Abnormal clitoris and labia
*Abnormal opening where the from the bladder neck to the area above the normal urethral opening
*Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy)
*Widened pubic bone
*Urinary incontinence
*Urinary tract infections

Causes:
The causes of epispadias are unknown at this time. It may be related to improper development of the pubic bone.

In boys with epispadias, the urethra generally opens on the top or side of the penis rather than the tip. However, it is possible for the urethra to be open along the entire length of the penis.

In girls, the opening is usually between the clitoris and the labia, but may be in the belly area.

Epispadias can be associated with bladder exstrophy, an uncommon birth defect in which the bladder is inside out, and sticks through the abdominal wall. However, epispadias can also occur with other defects.

Epispadias is an uncommon and partial form of a spectrum of failures of abdominal and pelvic fusion in the first months of embryogenesis known as the exstrophy – epispadias complex. While epispadias is inherent in all cases of exstrophy it can also, much less frequently, appear in isolation as the least severe form of the complex spectrum. It occurs as a result of defective migration of the genital tubercle primordii to the cloacal membrane, and so malformation of the genital tubercle, at about the 5th week of gestation.

Presentation:
Most cases involve a small and bifid penis, which requires surgical closure soon after birth, often including a reconstruction of the urethra. Where it is part of a larger Exstrophy, not only the urethra but also the bladder (bladder exstrophy) or the entire perineum (cloacal exstrophy) are open and exposed on birth, requiring closure.

Relationship to other conditions:
Despite the similarity of name, an epispadias is not a type of hypospadias, and involves a problem with a different set of embryologic processes.

In women:
Women can also have this type of congenital malformation. Epispadias of the female may occur when the urethra develops too far anteriorly, exiting in the clitoris or even more forward. For females, this may not cause difficulty in urination but may cause problems with sexual satisfaction. Frequently, the clitoris is bifurcated at the site of urethral exit, and therefore clitoral sensation is less intense during sexual intercourse due to frequent stimulation during urination. However, with proper stimulation, using either manual or positional techniques, clitoral orgasm is definitely possible

Diagnosis:
•Blood test to check electrolyte levels
•Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), a special x-ray of the kidneys, bladder, and ureters
•MRI and CT scans, depending on the condition
•Pelvic x-ray
•Ultrasound of the urogenital system

Treatment:
The main treatment for isolated epispadias is a comprehensive surgical repair of the genito-urinary area usually during the first 7 years of life, including reconstruction of the urethra, closure of the penile shaft and mobilisation of the corpora. The most popular and successful technique is known as the modified Cantwell-Ransley approach. In recent decades however increasing success has been achieved with the complete penile disassembly technique despite its association with greater and more serious risk of damage

Prognosis:
Even with successful surgery, patients may have long-term problems with:
*incontinence, where serious usually treated with some form of continent urinary diversion such as the Mitrofanoff
*depression and psycho-social complications
*sexual dysfunction

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001285.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epispadias
http://health.stateuniversity.com/pages/794/Hypospadias-Epispadias.html
http://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Epispadias
http://www.eclips.consult.com/eclips/article/Pediatrics/S0084-3954(07)70134-3

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If You’re in Pain, Think UTI

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Pain while passing urine, a desire to urinate every few minutes, an inability to pass urine despite the urge, high-coloured, cloudy urine, abdominal pain, high fever, shivering and vomiting — a few or all of these are symptoms of an infection somewhere along the urinary tract. In the elderly, the only symptom may be a change in mental status. In men, the pain may be felt in the rectal area. In children, after a period of dryness, bedwetting may recur. In babies, the temperature can fall instead of rise, and there may be jaundice. Almost 25 per cent of visits to a physician is due to this very common infection.
CLICK & SEE
Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects all age groups and both sexes. It is much more common in women, because of the shorter urethra, its proximity to the anus, pregnancy (when the uterus obstructs the free flow of urine) and minor trauma during sexual intercourse. Thirty five per cent of women have one episode of UTI before the age of 30. Men tend to develop UTI if their prostrate gland is enlarged as this obstructs the flow of urine. In both sexes kidney stones, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, diabetes or lack of immunity (HIV, cancer medication) can increase susceptibility to infection. Pregnant women can develop asymptomatic UTI with bacteria detected in their urine on routine examination. This condition, called “asymptomatic bactinuria” of pregnancy, needs to be treated.
...CLICK & SEE
Physicians suspect that UTI exists based on the symptoms. A routine urine examination shows abnormalities like pus cells or blood in the urine. A culture can be done to determine the organism responsible so that the appropriate antibiotic can be administered.

Untreated patients of UTI can sometimes recover spontaneously without treatment in a few months. But the infection can also enter the blood stream, causing potentially fatal septicaemia. The kidneys may become scarred, too. This leads to high blood pressure and kidney failure. During pregnancy, recurrent or chronic UTI or asymptomatic UTI compromises the placental blood supply. This affects the baby’s nutrition, leading to low birth weight and sometimes causing the mother to go into premature labour.

There are several regimens for treating UTI. Depending on the organism and antibiotic, in adult women a three-day course is usually sufficient for mild infection. In most cases and in the case of men, however, a 7-10 or 14-day course is required. Oral medication is usually sufficient. If the infection has affected the kidney, hospitalisation and intravenous medication may be required. It is important to follow the doctor’s instructions and complete the course of antibiotics even if you are symptomatically better. In women, if the symptoms do not respond and there is also white discharge, there may be an underlying pelvic infection. In men, non-responsiveness to treatment may be due to unrecognised prostatitis.

One of the ways to prevent UTI is to drink plenty of water. The urine becomes dilute and the bladder gets flushed regularly. An adult needs around 2.5 litres of water a day. In hot, humid climates and in people who exercise vigorously the requirement may go up to 4-6 litres a day. Also, drink a glass of water before going to bed. Empty the bladder before and after intercourse. Drink a glass of water after intercourse.

A few studies have shown that cranberry juice (available in India, Hindi name karaunda) and blueberry juice (not available) helps reduce the frequency and duration of UTI. This is because the juice contains vitamin C which acidifies the urine. It also contains natural chemicals that make the bladder wall slippery and prevent bacteria from sticking to it and initiating an infection. Other citrus juices and tablets of vitamin C are effective but not as efficient. A tablespoon of home-made curd taken on an empty stomach first thing in the morning naturally repopulates the intestines with “good lactobacillus”. This decreases the likelihood of the growth of disease-causing bacteria in the rectum, from where they can enter the urethra.

The pelvic muscles become lax after childbirth. This increases the possibility of the bladder and uterus descending downwards while straining. “Accidents” with leakage of urine and urgency can also occur.

All these increase the chances of infection. Keegles exercises should be done regularly soon after childbirth. Also while passing urine, consciously stop and start. This tones the pelvic muscles.

Women tend to lean forward while urinating. This position is inefficient as it increases the angle between the bladder and the urethra, creating an obstruction to the flow of urine. Women should consciously lean backwards. Also, when the area is being washed after urination or passing motion, wash from front to back. This decreases the likelihood of contamination of the urethra with rectal bacteria

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Study Supports Cranberry Dose Levels for Urinary Health

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The effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) is dependent on the dose. Higher doses are significantly more effective at maintaining urinary health.

A new study supports the theory that at least 36 milligrams of proanthocyanidins (PAC) are needed to reduce the adhesion of E. coli bacteria to urinary tract walls. A lower dose proved to be less effective.

However, according to NutraIngredients:

“On the other hand, a higher dose of 72 mg was even more efficient at protecting against bacterial adhesion in the urinary tract, according to findings published in the open-access journal BMC Infectious Diseases.”

Source: NutraIngredients June 1, 2010

Posted By Dr. Mercola | April 20 2011

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