Tag Archives: Urination

Frequent urination

Alternastive Name:Urgency (the need to pass water); Urinary frequency or urgency

Definition:
Frequent urination means needing to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate, along with discomfort in your bladder.This  is  due to bladder spasms or contractions.

A frequent need to urinate at night is called nocturia. Most people can sleep for 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Middle aged and older men often wake to urinate once in the early morning hours.

Symptoms:
•Frequent urination, in the daytime and at night
•Involuntary loss of urine
•Sudden and urgent need to urinate (urinary urgency)

Causes:
A person’s ability to hold urine depends on normal function of the lower urinary tract, kidneys, and nervous system. The person must also have the physical and mental ability to recognize and respond to the urge to urinate.

 

click & see
The bladder’s ability to fill and store urine requires a working sphincter muscle (which controls the flow of urine out of the body) and a stable bladder wall muscle (detrusor).

The process of urination involves two phases:

•Filling and storage
•Emptying
During the filling and storage phase, the bladder stretches so it can hold the increasing amount of urine. The bladder of an average person can hold 350 ml to 550 ml of urine. Generally, a person feels like they need to urinate when there is approximately 200 ml of urine in the bladder.

The nervous system tells you that you need to urinate. It also allows the bladder to continue to fill.

The emptying phase requires the detrusor muscle to contract, forcing urine out of the bladder. The sphincter muscle must relax at the same time, so that urine can flow out of the body.

You may clicl & Watch this video about: Bladder function – neurological control :

The bladder of an infant automatically contracts when a certain volume of urine is collected in the bladder. As the child grows older and learns to control urination, part of the brain (cerebral cortex) helps prevent bladder muscle contraction. This allows urination to be delayed until the person is ready to use the bathroom.

Undesired bladder muscle contractions may occur from nervous system (neurological) problems and bladder irritation.

URGE INCONTINENCE

Urge incontinence is leakage of urine due to bladder muscles that contract inappropriately. Often these contractions occur regardless of the amount of urine that is in the bladder.

Together, frequent and urgent urination are classic signs of a urinary tract infection.

Diabetes, pregnancy, and prostate problems are other common causes of these symptoms.

Other causes include:

•Anxiety
•Enlarged prostate
•Interstitial cystitis
•Medicines such as diuretics
•Overactive bladder syndrome
•Prostatitis (infection of the prostate gland)
•Stroke and other brain or nervous system diseases
•Tumor or mass in the pelvis
•Urinary incontinence
•Vaginitis
•Infection
•Neurological diseases (such as multiple sclerosis)
•Neurological injuries (such as spinal cord injury or stroke)

Less common causes:
•Bladder cancer
•Bladder dysfunction
•Radiation therapy to the pelvis, used to treat certain cancers

Drinking too much before bedtime, especially caffeine or alcohol, can cause frequent urination at nighttime. Frequent urination may also simply just be a habit.
Risk Factors:
You should also think about being tested for diabetes, particularly if you’re feeling very thirsty, tired or have diabetes in the family.

Complications:
Physical complications are rare. However, psychological and social problems may arise, particularly if you are unable to get to the bathroom when you feel the urge.
Diagnosis:
Your health care provider will take a medical history and perform a physical examination. Medical history questions may include:

•When did the increased urinary frequency start?
•How many times each day are you urinating?
•Is there more frequent urination during the day or at night?
•Do you have an increased amount of urine?
•Has there been a change in the color of your urine? Does it appear lighter, darker, or more cloudy than usual? Have you noticed any blood?
•Do you have pain when urinating, or a burning sensation?
•Do you have other symptoms? Increased thirst? Pain in your abdomen? Pain in your back? Fever?
•Do you have difficulty starting the flow of urine?
•Are you drinking more fluids than usual?
•Have you had a recent bladder infection?
•Are you pregnant?
•What medications are you taking?
•Have you had any previous urinary problems?
•Have you recently changed your diet?
•Do you drink beverages containing alcohol or caffeine?

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Tests that may be done include:

•Urinalysis
•Urine culture and sensitivity tests
•Cystometry (a measurement of the pressure within the bladder)
•Cystoscopy
•Neurological tests (for some urgency problems)
•Ultrasonography (such as an abdominal ultrasound or a pelvic ultrasound)
Treatment is determined by the cause of the urgency and frequency. Antibiotics and medicine may be prescribed to lessen the discomfort, if needed.

Treatment:
The choice of treatment will depend on how severe the symptoms are, and how much they interfere with your lifestyle. There are three main treatment approaches for urge incontinence: medication, retraining, and surgery.

MEDICATION

If evidence of infection is found in a urine culture, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics.

Medications used to treat urge incontinence relax the involuntary bladder contractions and help improve bladder function. There are several types of medications that may be used alone or in combination:

•Anticholinergic medicines help relax the muscles of the bladder. They include oxybutynin (Oxytrol, Ditropan), tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), solifenacin (Vesicare)
•These are the most commonly used medications for urge incontinence and are available in a once-a-day formula that makes dosing easy and effective.
•The most common side effects of these medicines are dry mouth and constipation. The medications cannot be used by patients with narrow angle glaucoma.
Flavoxate (Urispas) is an antispasmodic drug. However, studies have shown that it is not always effective at controlling symptoms of urge incontinence.

Tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, doxepin) have also been used to treat urge incontinence because of their ability to “paralyze” the bladder smooth muscle. Possible side effects include:

•Blurred vision
•Dizziness
•Dry mouth
•Fatigue
•Insomnia
•Nausea
DIET

Drink plenty of water:

•Drinking enough water will help keep odors away.
•Drinking more water may even help reduce leakage.
Some experts recommend controlling fluid intake in addition to other therapies for managing urge incontinence. The goal of this program is to distribute fluids throughout the course of the day, so the bladder does not need to handle a large volume of urine at one time.

Do not drink large quantities of fluids with meals. Limit your intake to less than 8 ounces at one time. Sip small amounts of fluids between meals. Stop drinking fluids approximately 2 hours before bedtime.

It also may be helpful to eliminate foods that may irritate the bladder, such as:

•Caffeine
•Carbonated drinks
•Highly acidic foods such as citrus fruits and juices
•Spicy foods

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BLADDER RETRAINING

Managing urge incontinence usually begins with a program of bladder retraining. Occasionally, electrical stimulation and biofeedback therapy may be used with bladder retraining.

A program of bladder retraining involves becoming aware of patterns of incontinence episodes. Then you relearn skills necessary for bladder storage and proper emptying.

Bladder retraining consists of developing a schedule of times when you should try to urinate. You try to consciously delay urination between these times.

One method is to force yourself to wait 1 to 1 1/2 hours between trips to the bathroom, despite any leakage or urge to urinate in between these times. As you become skilled at waiting, gradually increase the time intervals by 1/2 hour until you are urinating every 3 – 4 hours.

KEGEL EXERCISES……..click & see

Pelvic muscle training exercises called Kegel exercises are primarily used to treat people with stress incontinence. However, these exercises may also be beneficial in relieving the symptoms of urge incontinence.

The principle behind Kegel exercises is to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to improve the function of the urethral sphincter. The success of Kegel exercises depends on proper technique and sticking to a regular exercise program.

Another approach is to use vaginal cones to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. A vaginal cone is a weighted device that is inserted into the vagina. The woman contracts the pelvic floor muscles in an effort to hold the device the place. The contraction should be held for up to 15 minutes and should be performed twice daily. Within 4 – 6 weeks, about 70% of women trying this method had some improvement in symptoms.
You may click to see :1.Kegel Exercises For Men.….2.Kegel Exercises For Women

BIOFEEDBACK AND ELECTRICAL STIMULATION

Biofeedback and electrical stimulation can help identify the correct muscle group to work, to make sure you are performing Kegel exercises correctly.

Some therapists place a sensor in the vagina (for women) or the anus (for men) to assess contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. A monitor will display a graph showing which muscles are contracting and which are at rest. The therapist can help you identify the correct muscles for performing Kegel exercises.

Electrical stimulation involves using low-voltage electric current to stimulate the correct group of muscles. The current may be delivered using an anal or vaginal probe. The electrical stimulation therapy may be performed in the clinic or at home. Treatment sessions usually last 20 minutes and may be performed every 1 – 4 days.

SURGERY

Surgery can increase the storage ability of the bladder and decrease the pressure within the bladder. It is reserved for patients who are severely affected by their incontinence and have an unstable bladder (severe inappropriate contraction) and a poor ability to store urine.

Augmentation cystoplasty is the most often performed surgical procedure for severe urge incontinence. In this surgery, a segment of the bowel is added to the bladder to increase bladder size and allow the bladder to store more urine.

Possible complications are those of any major abdominal surgery, including:

•Blood clots
•Bowel obstruction
•Infection
•Pneumonia
There is a risk of developing abnormal tubelike passages (urinary fistulae) that result in abnormal urine drainage, urinary tract infection, and difficulty urinating. Augmentation cystoplasty is also linked to a slightly increased risk of developing tumors.

Sacral nerve stimulation is a newer surgical option that consists of an implanted unit that sends small electrical pulses to the sacral nerve. The electrical pulses can be adjusted to each patient’s symptoms.

ACTIVITY

People with urge incontinence may find it helpful to avoid activities that irritate the urethra and bladder, such as taking bubble baths or using harsh soaps in the genital area.

MONITORING

Urinary incontinence is a long-term (chronic) problem. Although you may be considered cured by treatment, you should continue to see your health care provider to evaluate the progress of your symptoms and monitor for possible treatment complications.
Home Care:
Follow the therapy recommended by your doctor to treat the underlying cause of your urinary frequency or urgency. It may help to keep a diary of times and amounts of urine voided to bring with you to the doctor.

In some cases, you may experience some urinary incontinence for a period of time. You may need to take steps to protect your clothing and bedding.

 

Prevention:
For nighttime urination, avoid excessive fluid before going to bed, particularly coffee, other caffeinated beverages, and alcohol.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001270.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003140.htm
http://hubpages.com/hub/Benefits-of-Kegal-Exercises
http://www.urogynics.org/pages/pops/seif/uui.html
http://www.healthcentral.com/incontinence/treatment-000050_12-145.html

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Urinary incontinence

Definition:
Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. This means that you can’t always control when you urinate. Urinary incontinence can range from leaking a small amount of urine (such as when coughing or laughing) to having very strong urges to urinate that are difficult to control.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life. Urinary incontinence almost always results from an underlying treatable medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There is also a related condition for defecation known as fecal incontinence.

Incontinence affects up to 20 per cent of the older female population. One factor is declining oestrogen levels after the menopause.

Urinary incontinence is less common in men but still occurs, especially if the man has any sort of prostate disease or is frail and weak.

It’s more frequent in people with reduced mobility and other medical problems, as they’re less able to get to the toilet when necessary.

It’s a common problem among people living in residential or nursing homes.

If you leak a small amount of urine when you cough, laugh or move (or without any obvious trigger), it’s worth talking to your doctor. Incontinence isn’t an inevitable part of growing older and you don’t have to accept it.

Faecal incontinence is even more abnormal and usually requires investigation.

Physiology of continence:
Continence and micturition involve a balance between urethral closure and detrusor muscle activity. Urethral pressure normally exceeds bladder pressure, resulting in urine remaining in the bladder. The proximal urethra and bladder are both within the pelvis. Intraabdominal pressure increases (from coughing and sneezing) are transmitted to both urethra and bladder equally, leaving the pressure differential unchanged, resulting in continence. Normal voiding is the result of changes in both of these pressure factors: urethral pressure falls and bladder pressure rises.

Causes:
*Polyuria (excessive urine production) of which, in turn, the most frequent causes are: uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, primary polydipsia (excessive fluid drinking), central diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.  Polyuria generally causes urinary urgency and frequency, but doesn’t necessarily lead to incontinence.

*Caffeine or cola beverages also stimulate the bladder.

*Enlarged prostate is the most common cause of incontinence in men after the age of 40; sometimes prostate cancer may also be associated with urinary incontinence. Moreover drugs or radiation used to treat prostate cancer can also cause incontinence.

*Brain disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, strokes and spinal cord injury can all interfere with nerve function of the bladder.

Types:
*TypesStress incontinence, also known as effort incontinence, is due essentially to insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles.

*Urge incontinence is involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate.

*Overflow incontinence: Sometimes people find that they cannot stop their bladders from constantly dribbling, or continuing to dribble for some time after they have passed urine. It is as if their bladders were like a constantly overflowing pan, hence the general name overflow incontinence.

*Mixed incontinence is not uncommon in the elderly female population and can sometimes be complicated by urinary retention, which makes it a treatment challenge requiring staged multimodal treatment.

*Structural incontinence: Rarely, structural problems can cause incontinence, usually diagnosed in childhood, for example an ectopic ureter. Fistulas caused by obstetric and gynecologic trauma or injury can also lead to incontinence. These types of vaginal fistulas include most commonly, vesicovaginal fistula, but more rarely ureterovaginal fistula. These may be difficult to diagnose. The use of standard techniques along with a vaginogram or radiologically viewing the vaginal vault with instillation of contrast media.

*Functional incontinence occurs when a person recognizes the need to urinate, but cannot physically make it to the bathroom in time due to limited mobility. The urine loss may be large. Causes of functional incontinence include confusion, dementia, poor eyesight, poor mobility, poor dexterity, unwillingness to toilet because of depression, anxiety or anger, drunkenness, or being in a situation in which it is impossible to reach a toilet.  People with functional incontinence may have problems thinking, moving, or communicating that prevent them from reaching a toilet. A person with Alzheimer’s Disease, for example, may not think well enough to plan a timely trip to a restroom. A person in a wheelchair may be blocked from getting to a toilet in time. Conditions such as these are often associated with age and account for some of the incontinence of elderly women and men in nursing homes.  Disease or biology is not necessarily the cause of functional incontinence. For example, someone on a road trip may be between rest stops and on the highway; also, there may be problems with the restrooms in the vicinity of a person.

*Bedwetting is episodic UI while asleep. It is normal in young children.
Transient incontinence is a temporary version of incontinence. It can be triggered by medications, adrenal insufficiency, mental impairment, restricted mobility, and stool impaction (severe constipation), which can push against the urinary tract and obstruct outflow.

*Giggle incontinence is an involuntary response to laughter. It usually affects children.

Diagnosis:
Patients with incontinence should be referred to a medical practitioner specializing in this field. Urologists specialize in the urinary tract, and some urologists further specialize in the female urinary tract. A urogynecologist is a gynecologist who has special training in urological problems in women. Gynecologists and obstetricians specialize in the female reproductive tract and childbirth and some also treat urinary incontinence in women. Family practitioners and internists see patients for all kinds of complaints and can refer patients on to the relevant specialists.

A careful history taking is essential especially in the pattern of voiding and urine leakage as it suggests the type of incontinence faced. Other important points include straining and discomfort, use of drugs, recent surgery, and illness.

The physical examination will focus on looking for signs of medical conditions causing incontinence, such as tumors that block the urinary tract, stool impaction, and poor reflexes or sensations, which may be evidence of a nerve-related cause.

A test often performed is the measurement of bladder capacity and residual urine for evidence of poorly functioning bladder muscles.

Other tests include:
*Stress test – the patient relaxes, then coughs vigorously as the doctor watches for loss of urine.

*Urinalysis – urine is tested for evidence of infection, urinary stones, or other contributing causes.

*Blood tests – blood is taken, sent to a laboratory, and examined for substances related to causes of incontinence.

*Ultrasound – sound waves are used to visualize the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

*Cystoscopy – a thin tube with a tiny camera is inserted in the urethra and used to see the inside of the urethra and bladder.

*Urodynamics – various techniques measure pressure in the bladder and the flow of urine.

Patients are often asked to keep a diary for a day or more, up to a week, to record the pattern of voiding, noting times and the amounts of urine produced

Treatment:
The treatment options range from conservative treatment, behavior management, medications and surgery. In all cases, the least invasive treatment is started first. The success of treatment depends on the correct diagnoses in the first place.

Most treatment options are most appropriate for a specific underlying cause of the incontinence (though these can overlap if there is a mixed component to the incontinence.) However, some approaches (such as use of absorbent products) address the problem symptomatically, and can be applicable to more than one type. It is also sometimes possible to use a treatment for the pathophysiology of one type of incontinence to provide relief for an unrelated type of incontinence.

The Doctor may also suggest self-help techniques you can try before resorting to medication.

For example :-
Kegel exercises:
•To locate the right muscles, try stopping or slowing your urine flow without using your stomach, leg or buttock muscles. When you’re able to slow or stop the stream of urine, you’ve located the right muscles.
•Squeeze your muscles. Hold for a count of 10. Relax for a count of 10.
•Repeat this 10 to 20 times, 3 times a day.
•You may need to start slower, perhaps squeezing and relaxing your muscles for 4 seconds each and doing this 10 times, 2 times a day. Work your way up from there.

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Bladder training:...CLICK & SEE
Some people who have urge incontinence can learn to lengthen the time between urges to go to the bathroom. You start by urinating at set intervals, such as every 30 minutes to 2 hours (whether you feel the need to go or not). Then gradually lengthen the time between when you urinate (for example, by 30 minutes) until you’re urinating every 3 to 4 hours.

You can practice relaxation techniques when you feel the urge to urinate before it is time to go to the bathroom. Breathe slowly and deeply. Think about your breathing until the urge goes away. You can also do Kegel exercises if they help control your urge.

After the urge passes, wait 5 minutes and then go to the bathroom even if you don’t feel you need to go. If you don’t go, you might not be able to control your next urge. When it’s easy to wait 5 minutes after an urge, begin waiting 10 minutes. Bladder training may take 3 to 12 weeks.

•Retraining the bladder with regular trips to the toilet can help, especially when the bladder has been overstretched by ‘holding on’ or failing to empty it completely.

•Bowel retraining can help some forms of faecal incontinence. It’s also important to make motions as formed and regular as possible, using dietary changes and medication as necessary.

•Exercises can help women to strengthen pelvic floor muscles that have been damaged or stretched during childbirth.

•Some women find it hard to become aware of, and so exercise, their pelvic floor muscles. There are a number of devices that doctors, incontinence nurses or physiotherapists can recommend which can help. These are put in the vagina where they either mechanically or electrically trigger the muscles to contract automatically. They are fairly simple to use, very discreet and have been shown to improve continence.

•It can be helpful to treat any problems that increase pressure on the bladder, such as constipation and fibroids. Losing excess weight may also help.

•Drugs are available to treat urinary incontinence, depending on the cause. Most improve the muscle tone of the bladder. These may have to be taken for at least several months.

Urinary incontinence isn’t a serious disease or life-threatening, but it can seriously disrupt quality of life. With the appropriate treatment it may be cured or improved dramatically. There’s no need for anyone to suffer in silence.

Faecal incontinence may require surgery.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/incontinence.shtml
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/gen-health/189.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_incontinence
http://www.lifespan.org/adam/indepthreports/10/000050.html

http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Family/wh/lifespan/Middleage/urinary.html

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How To Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

It’s embarrassing. It’s annoying. It’s exasperating. And it’s controllable. We’re talking about the distressing inconvenience of the side effects associated with prostate problems. This often means midnight treks to the bathroom to pee, pain when you start and end urination and dribbling when you’re done. It can be frustrating when nothing you do seems to help, no matter how careful you try to be.

The key to controlling these symptoms is understanding what causes them, so you can learn how to cope and prevent them in the future.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The walnut-sized prostate gland is situated at the base of the bladder. The urethra runs from the bladder through the prostate and through the penis. As the prostate gets bigger, it constricts the flow of fluid through the urethra, contributing to several unpleasant and annoying symptoms:

*A need to urinate frequently during the night
*Urinating more often during the day
*Urinary urgency—a strong and sudden urge to pee
*Slow-to-start urine stream
*Lack of force in the urinary stream
*A slight stinging at the beginning and end of urination
*Urine “dribbling” some time after urination ends
*The sensation that the bladder hasn’t been emptied entirely
*The need to urinate again only a few minutes later
For the most part, these symptoms by themselves don’t require medical attention. They can often be controlled by certain urination management techniques that you can practice on your own. If the symptoms are particularly bothersome to you, consult a healthcare professional for help. In particular, you should seek medical care if you experience these symptoms:

*Inability to urinate
*Painful urination
*Blood in the urine
*Discharges from the penis other than urine
*Continuous or severe urinary incontinence
More often than not, using self-help management techniques and natural supplements such as saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, lycopene, red clover and nettle can help manage your prostate health. It’s important to remember that frequent urination, stinging and dribbling are often not a threat to your health or your life, although they can be awkward and embarrassing.

You may click to see :Prostrate Problems Blog

Non-Cancerous Prostate Problems:-

The following are some of the most common non-cancerous prostate problems, their symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This problem occurs when the prostate gets enlarged. The prostate then blocks the urethra making it difficult to urinate. It causes a person to have a frequent urge to urinate and may cause urine to dribble. You need to see a doctor who will then conduct a rectal examination to diagnose the problem.

If your condition is not causing any problems, the doctor may advise annual checkups only. Treatment will be prescribed only if your situation gets worse later on. There are medications that can cause you prostate to shrink or can relax the muscles near the prostate. However, these medicines can cause side effects such as sexual problems, headaches, dizziness, or fatigue.

Surgery is usually advised only when the medications are not effective. Radio waves, Microwaves, and Lasers are used to treat BPH-related problems.

2. Acute Prostatitis

This condition is caused due to a bacterial infection of the prostate. It causes fever, chills, pain in the lower back, pain between legs, or pain while urinating. A host of medications are available to treat Prostatitis, but hey will be prescribed by your doctor. Do not take over the counter drugs.

3. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

This is a chronic condition caused by a bacterial infection. You may need to take antibiotics for a long time for the situation to improve. Even then, this infection may recur again and a recurrence is usually quite difficult to treat.

4. Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

This condition is also known as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). It causes pain in the lower back, at the tip of the penis, or between the legs. You may also have pain during sex or may need to urinate frequently. This situation is also hard to treat and may require more than one form of treatment.

Reources :

Better Health Research
Posts Tagged ‘Prostate

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Cystourethrogram

Definition:
A cystourethrogram is an X-ray test that takes pictures of your bladder and urethra while your bladder is full and while you are urinating. A thin flexible tube (urinary catheter) is inserted through your urethra into your bladder. A liquid material that shows up well on an X-ray picture (contrast material) is injected into your bladder through the catheter, then X-rays are taken with the contrast material in your bladder. More X-rays may be taken while urine flows out of your bladder, in which case the test is called a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG).

CLICK & SEE

By filling your bladder with a liquid dye that shows up on x-rays, your doctor can watch the motion of your bladder as it fills and empties and can see if your urine splashes backwards toward your kidneys as the bladder muscle squeezes. This kind of test can help your doctor to better understand problems with repeated urinary-tract infections or problems involving damage to the kidneys. It can also be useful for evaluating urine leakage problems.

If X-rays are taken while contrast material is being injected into the urethra, the test is called a retrograde cystourethrogram because the contrast material flows into the bladder opposite the usual direction of urine flow.

Why It Is Done
A cystourethrogram is done to:

*Find the cause of repeated urinary tract infections.
*Look for injuries to the bladder or urethra.
*Find the cause of urinary incontinence.
*Check for structural problems of the bladder and urethra.
*Look for enlargement (hypertrophy) of the prostate or narrowing (stricture) of the urethra in men.
*Find out if urinary reflux is present. See a picture of abnormal backflow of urine.
*Look more carefully at abnormalities first found by intravenous pyelography.

How To Prepare
Tell your doctor before the test if:.

*You are or might be pregnant.
*You have symptoms of a urinary tract infection.
*You are allergic to the iodine dye used in the contrast material or any other substance that contains iodine. Also tell your doctor if you have asthma, are allergic to any medicines, or have ever had a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), such as after being stung by a bee or from eating shellfish.

*Within the past 4 days, you have had an X-ray test using barium contrast material, such as a barium enema, or have taken a medicine (such as Pepto-Bismol) that contains bismuth. Barium and bismuth can interfere with test results.

*You have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place.

You may be asked to sign a consent form authorizing this procedure. Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results may mean. To help you understand the importance of this test, fill out the medical test information form (What is a PDF document?) .

If you are breast-feeding, give your baby formula for 1 to 2 days after the test.

How It Is Done

A cystourethrogram is done by a urologist or a radiologist. The doctor may be assisted by an X-ray technologist. You usually will not have to be admitted to the hospital.

You will need to take off all or most of your clothes, and you will be given a cloth or paper covering to use during the test. You will be asked to urinate just before the test begins.
You will be asked to wear a hospital gown and  lie on your back on an X-ray table. Your genital area will be cleaned and draped with sterile towels. Men may be given a lead shield that covers their genitals to protect them from radiation. But women’s ovaries cannot be shielded without blocking the view of the bladder.

A part of your genital area is cleaned with soap on a cotton swab. Then a soft, bendable rubber tube called a urinary catheter is inserted into your bladder, usually by a nurse. The tube is first coated with a slippery jelly and then pushed gently through the opening of the urethra (at the end of the penis for men and near the opening of the vagina for women).

CLICK & SEE

A sterile flexible cystoscope in an operating theatre

A catheter will be placed through your urethra and into your bladder. Contrast material will then slowly be injected through the catheter until your bladder is full.

You will feel some pressure while the tube slides into the urethra. Once it is in place, a tiny balloon on the end of the tube is filled with air to hold it in position. The other end (about 6 inches of tubing) hangs outside of your vagina or penis. The doctor uses this tube to fill your bladder with fluid containing a dye that shows up on x-rays. You will feel pressure in your bladder as it begins to expand.

To create a clear picture, your bladder needs to be filled with as much fluid as it can hold. You will probably feel a very strong urge to urinate. A few pictures are taken with the bladder completely full, and then the balloon is emptied and the tube is pulled out. You are given a urinal container or a bedpan and asked to urinate while you are still on the table under the x-ray camera. Several pictures are taken while your bladder is emptying. Many patients find this part of the test embarrassing, but it is routine and the doctor thinks nothing of it.

X-rays will be taken when you are standing up and sitting and lying down. The catheter is removed and more X-rays will be taken while you are urinating. You may be asked to stop urinating, change positions, and begin urinating again. If you are unable to urinate in one position, you may be asked to try it from another position.

After the test is over, drink lots of fluids to help wash the contrast material out of your bladder and to reduce any burning on urination.

This test usually takes 30 to 45 minutes.

How It Feels
You will feel no discomfort from the X-rays. The X-ray table may feel hard and the room may be cool. You may find that the positions you need to hold are uncomfortable or painful.

You will feel a strong urge to urinate at times during the test. You may also find it somewhat uncomfortable when the catheter is inserted and left in place. You will have a feeling of fullness in your bladder and an urge to urinate when the contrast material is injected. You may be sore afterward. If so, soaking in a warm tub bath may help.

You may feel embarrassed at having to urinate in front of other people. This procedure is quite routine for the X-ray staff. If you find yourself feeling embarrassed, take deep, slow breaths and try to relax.

During and after the test you may feel a burning sensation when you urinate. You may need to urinate frequently for several days after the test. You may also notice some burning during and after urination. Drink lots of fluids to help decrease the burning and to help prevent a urinary tract infection.

Risks Factors:
A cystourethrogram does not usually cause problems. Occasionally this test may lead to a urinary tract infection. If the contrast material is injected with too much pressure, there is some chance of damage to the bladder or urethra.

There is a small chance of having an allergic reaction to the x-ray dye used in the test. Some patients have some temporary irritation of their urethra after the tube has been in place, and this might result in some burning during urination for a few hours afterward. Let your doctor know if burning or pain with urinating lasts longer than a day; this could mean you have developed an infection.

As with all x-rays, there is a small exposure to radiation. In large amounts, exposure to radiation can cause cancers or (in pregnant women) birth defects. The amount of radiation from x-ray tests is very small-too small to be likely to cause any harm. X-rays such as this kind in the pelvic area should be avoided in pregnant women, because the developing fetus is more sensitive to the risks from radiation.

There is always a slight chance of damage to cells or tissue from radiation, including the low levels of radiation used for this test. However, the chance of damage from the X-rays is usually very low compared with the benefits of the test.

After the procedure
It is normal for your urine to have a pinkish tinge for 1 to 2 days after the test. Contact your doctor immediately if you have:

*Blood in your urine after 2 days.
*Lower belly pain.
*Signs of a urinary tract infection. These signs include:
*Pain or burning upon urination.
*An urge to urinate frequently, but usually passing only small amounts of urine.
*Dribbling or leaking of urine.
*Urine that is reddish or pinkish, foul-smelling, or cloudy.
*Pain in the back just below the rib cage on one side of the body (flank pain).
*Fever or chills.
*Nausea or vomiting.

Results
A cystourethrogram is an X-ray test that takes pictures of your bladder and urethra while you are urinating. Some results may be available immediately after the cystourethrogram. Final results are usually available within 1 to 2 days.

Cystourethrogram  Normal:

*The bladder appears normal.

*Urine flows normally from the bladder.

*The bladder empties all the way.

*The contrast material flows evenly out of the bladder through a smooth-walled urethra.

Cystourethrogram  Abnormal:

*Bladder stones,
*tumors,
*narrowing or pouches in the wall (diverticula) of the urethra or bladder are seen in the bladder.

*If the test was done because of possible injury to the bladder, a tear is found in the bladder wall or urethra.

*Urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters (vesicoureteral reflux).

*Contrast material leaks from the bladder.

*The bladder does not empty all the way.

*The prostate gland is enlarged.

What Affects the Test
Reasons you may not be able to have the test or why the results may not be helpful include:
*Having barium (from a previous barium enema test), gas, or stool in the bowel.
*Being unable to urinate on command because of embarrassment at having to urinate in front of other people.
*Pain caused by having the catheter into the urethra. This may also cause problems with your urinary stream. You may have a muscle spasm or not be able to fully relax the muscles that control your bladder.
*A cystourethrogram is not usually done during pregnancy because the X-rays could harm an unborn baby.
Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/cystourethrogram.shtml
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cystourethrogram-16691

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Urine & Urotherapy

 

Urine…. CLICK & SEE

Urine is a sterile, liquid by-product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream. These by-products are eventually expelled from the body in a process known as micturition, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis. Amniotic fluid is closely related to urine, and can be analyzed by amniocentesis. A major component of urine is urea. Urea is commonly recognized as an effective antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent. Urine contains 95% water 2. 5% mixture of urea and 2. 5% is mineral salts, hormones and enzymes.

The kidney produces urine.  The other main function of the kidney is to regulate fluid balance in the body.  It performs this function by using a selective osmosis system.  Basically, the way it works is that electrolytes (dissolved salts like sodium, potassium, calcium, carbonate, chloride) are pumped back into or out of urine and blood so that in the end,
just the right amounts of electrolyte and water exit the kidney blood vein.  The rest ends up in urine.  Interestingly, normal urine is sterile and has no bacteria.

Urine contains 95% water and 5% solids.  More than 1000 different mineral salts and compounds are estimated to be in urine.  So far, our
scientific community knows of about 200 elements.  Some substances are:  vitamins, amino acids, antibodies, enzymes, hormones, antigens, interleukins,
proteins, immunoglobulins, gastric secretory depressants, tolergens, immunogens, uric acid, urea, proteoses, directin, H-11 (a growth inhibitory
factor in human cancer), and urokinase.  Believe it or not, scientists have know for years that urine is antibacterial, anti-protozoal, anti-fungal, anti-
viral, and anti-tuberculostatic!
Composition
Exhaustive detailed description of the composition of human urine can be found in NASA Contractor Report No. NASA CR-1802, D. F. Putnam, July 1971. That report provided detailed chemical analyses for inorganic and organic constituents, methods of analysis, chemical and physical properties and its behavior during concentrative processes such as evaporation, distillation and other phisiochemical operations. Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with the remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration urea 9.3 g/l, chloride 1.87 g/l, sodium 1.17 g/l, potassium 0.750 g/l, creatinine 0.670 g/l and other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds.

Urine is sterile until it reaches the urethra where the epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic Gram negative rods and cocci.Subsequent to elimination from the body, urine can acquire strong odors due to bacterial action. Most noticeably, the asphyxiating ammonia is produced by breakdown of urea. Some diseases alter the quantity and consistency of the urine, such as sugar as a consequence of diabetes.


Unusual color

Urine is a transparent solution that can range from colorless to amber but is usually a pale yellow. Colorless urine indicates over-hydration, which is usually considered much healthier than dehydration(to some extent however over hydration can remove essential salts from the body). In the context of a drug test, it could indicate a potential attempt to avoid detection of illicit drugs in the bloodstream through over-hydration.[2]

*Dark yellow urine is often indicative of dehydration.
*Yellowing/light orange may be caused by removal of excess B vitamins from the bloodstream.
*Certain medications such as rifampin and pyridium can cause orange urine.
*Bloody urine is termed hematuria, potentially a sign of a bladder infection or carcinoma.
*Dark orange to brown urine can be a symptom of jaundice, rhabdomyolysis, or Gilbert’s syndrome.
*Black or dark-colored urine is referred to as melanuria and may be caused by a melanoma.
*Fluorescent yellow / greenish urine may be caused by dietary supplemental vitamins, especially the B vitamins.
*Consumption of beets can cause urine to have a pinkish tint, and asparagus consumption can turn urine greenish.
*Reddish or brown urine may be caused by porphyria. Although again, the consumption of beets can cause the urine to have a harmless, temporary pink or reddish tint.

Odor
The smell of urine can be affected by the consumption of food. Eating asparagus is known to cause a strong odor in human urine. This is due to the body’s breakdown of asparagusic acid.  Other foods (and beverages) that contribute to odor include curry, alcohol, coffee, turkey, and onion.

Turbidity
Turbid urine may be a symptom of a bacterial infection, but can also be due to crystallization of salts such as calcium phosphate.

pH
The pH of urine is close to neutral   but can normally vary between 4.4 and 8. In persons with hyperuricosuria, acidic urine can contribute to the formation of stones of uric acid in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder.   Urine pH can be monitored by a physician  or at home.

A diet high in citrus, vegetables, or dairy can increase urine pH (more basic). Some drugs also can increase urine pH, including acetazolamide, potassium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate.

A diet high in meat or cranberries can decrease urine pH (more acidic). Drugs that can decrease urine pH include ammonium chloride, chlorothiazide diuretics, and methenamine mandelate.

Volume
The amount of urine produced depends on numerous factors including state of hydration, activities, environmental factors, size, and health. In adult humans the average production is about 1 – 2 L per day. Producing too much or too little urine needs medical attention: Polyuria is a condition of excessive production of urine (> 2.5 L/day), in contrast to oliguria where < 400 mL are produced per day, or anuria with a production of < 100 mL per day.

Density or specific gravity
Normal urine density or specific gravity values vary between 1.003–1.035 (g·cm?3) , and any deviations may be associated with urinary disorders.

Resources  :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine

http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/newton/askasci/1993/biology/bio022.htm

Urine Therapy. A cure for all diseases

A cure of many diseses that you do by yourself with own urine they call it “THE WATER OF LIFE”. I know several people in India who lived long with very minimum sickness, they used to drink their urine once every day. Off hand, I vividly remember the name of Morarji Desai, who was once Indian Priminister(from1977 to 1979) and a great political leader, survived till his 99th. birthday, maintained very good health all along,used to drink a glass of his own uring everyday morning throughout his life.The urotherapist say drinking urine increases our auto immuno system and protects us from many diseases.Urotherapy is also known as urine therapy, urea therapy and auto-urotherapy.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

This sight may give us some idea

I would also ask people to go to this site to learn little more about this subject. and ask to read this aswell

Urine Therapy

Other Uses of Urine:-

Urine is Good for Green Building

Magic of Cow Urine in India–  CLICK & SEE

Urine therapy is one out of 10 Of The Most Bizarre Medical Practices And Theories….

Putting the Yellow in your Urine…..

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